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Revenue bills.

ofthe President in relation to

Concerning the 2. No senator or representative shall, during the time
holding of office. for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office

under the authority of the United States, which shall have
been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been
increased, during such time; and no person holding any
office under the United States shall be a member of either
house, during his continuance in office.

1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the
House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or

concur with amendments as on other bills.
Power and duty 2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Re-

presentatives and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a bills.

law, be presented to the president of the United States; if
he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it,
with his objections, to that house in which it shall have

originated, who shall enter the objections, at large, in their Proceedings on journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconbiles reiciend. by sideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the the

bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the
other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and
if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a
law. But, in all such cases, the vote of both houses shall
be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the
persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on
the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall
not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays
excepted), after it shall have been presented to him, the
same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it,
unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevents its
return; in which case, it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concur-
Joint resolutions
except for ad.

rence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be

, to
receive the same necessary (except on a question of adjournment), shall be
sanction as bills, presented to the president of the United States; and before

the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or
being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds
of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to
the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bili.

The Congress shall have power-

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises;
Power of con.
gress relativo to to pay the debts, and to provide for the common defence

and general welfare of the United States; but all duties,
imposts, and excises, shall be uniform throughout the

United States.

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States. Commerce.

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.

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4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uni- Naturalization. form laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States.

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of Money. foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures.

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the Counterfeiting. securities and current coin of the United States. 7. To establish post offices and post roads.

Post offices. 8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by Scienco. securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court. Tribunals. To defie and punish piracy and felony committed on the high seas and offenses against the law of nations.

10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, War.
and make rules concerning captures on land and water.

11. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of Armies.
money to that use, shall be for a longer term than two years.
12. To provide and maintain a navy.


13. To make rules for government and regulation of the Land and naval

land and naval forces.

14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the Militia.
laws of the union, suppress insurrections, and repel inva-

15. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the

the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be
employed in the service of the United States, reserving to
the states respectfully, the appointment of the officers, and
the authority of training the militia according to the disci-
pline prescribed by Congress.
16. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases what- Legislation over

soever, over such district (not excceding ten miles square)
as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance
of Congress, become the seat of government of the United
States, and to exercise like authority over all places pur-
chased, by the consent of the legislature of the state in
which the same shall be, for the erections of forts, maga-

zines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; 1. and

17. To make all laws which shall be necessary and pro- for tho execution per for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and of their powers. all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

SECTION 9. 1. The migration or importation of such persons as any tion of certain

of the importaof the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall persone, &c. not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may

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Writ of habeas corpus.

Of commerce


be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion,

the public safety may require it. Attainder, &c. 3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be

passed. Direct taxes. 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless

in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from from the states, any state. No preference shall be given by any regulation

of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state

be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. of expenditures. 6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in

consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of

all public money shall be published from time to time. No nobility

7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United created and no States, and no person bolding any office of profit or trust ed by U. S. OF? under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, ficers, oto.

accept any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

SECTION 10. Powers prohibita 1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance or conod to the indi. federation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin vidual states.

money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold or silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of 'attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

2. No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay Powers which

any impost or duties on imports or exports, except what may exercise only be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; tion of congress, and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any

state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress. No state shall without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.


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SECTION 1. 1. The executive power shall be rested in a president of the United States of America. He shall hold his office

Executive pow. ers.


Electors of Presi.



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during the term of four years, and together with the vice
president, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:
2. Each state shall appoint, in such

as the
legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal dent and Vice-
to the whole number of senators and representatives, to
which the state may be entitled in the Congress, but no
senator or representative, or persons holding an office of
trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed
an elector.

3. The electors shall meet in their respective states and Meeting of the vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And Their proceedthey shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of ings. the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the president of the Senate. The president of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number is a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for president; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list, the said house shall

, in like manner, choose the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the president, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors, shall be the vice president. But if there should remain two or more [*Annulled, see

amendments, who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, art. 12.] by ballot, the vice president.*

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the time of choosin electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United States. 5. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen

Qualifications of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Con- for President. stitution, shall be eligible to the office of president; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

6. In case of the removal of the president from office, or When his duties of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the devolve on the

vice president,&o powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the vice president, and the Congress may, by law, pro

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vide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or ina-
bility, both of the president and vice president, declaring
what officer shall then act as president, and such officer
shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a

president shall be elected.
Compensation. 7. The president shall, at stated times, receive for his

services a compensation, which shall neither be increased
or diminished during the period for which he shall have
been elected, and he shall not receive during that period
any other emolument from the United States or any of

8. Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall

take the following oath or affirmation: Oath of the

9. “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully president. execute the office of President of the United States, and

will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend
the Constitution of the United States."

Section 2.
1. The president shall be commander-in-chief of the
Powereof the
president. army and navy of the United States, and of the militia

of the several states when called into the actual ser-
vice of the United States. He may require the opinion in
writing of the principal officer in each of the executive de-
partments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their
respective offices; and he shall bave power to grant re-
prieves and pardons for offences against tne United States,

except in cases of impeachment.
His powers with 2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and con-

sent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of
the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by
and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall ap-
point ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls,
judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the

United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise of appointment provided for, and which shall be established by law. But

the Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such
inferior officers as they think proper, in the president alone,
in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

3. The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies
President may
fill vacancies. that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by

granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their
next session.

Section 3.
1. He shall from time to time, give to the Congress in-
Duties of presi.

formation of the state of the Union, and recommend to
their consideration such measures as he shall judge neces-
sary and expedient. He may, on extraordinary occasions,
convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disa-
greement between them, with respect to the time of ad-

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