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capital employed in coal mining, iron making, and lead and other minerals mined, was, then as follows, viz. :Employed in the iron trade in the United States,

$20,432,131 In lead and other minerals,

1,820,061 In coal operations,

6,224,464

$28,476,656

We shall demonstrate, in the progress of this volume how rapid and enormous has been the increase in these matters, but especially as relates to coal operations in the United States.

Production of coal and anthracite in the United States.—By returns to Congress, made under the census act of 1940, the following summary of the coal trade of that year was obtained.*

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We well know that these returns are, in general much understated, and it is also understood that no returns whatever were received from whole districts, so that, for statistical accuracy, few persons place any reliance upon the results. The difficulty arose, partly from inattention in the agents, but still more from a natural unwillingness among individuals concerned, to make known their private affairs, their capital, and the amount of their business undertakings.

Production of anthracite in 1845, 2,023,052 tons, entirely derived from Pennsylvania. In 1846, 2,343,992 tons. In 1847, 2,982,309 tons.

Of ihe amount of bituminous coal annually consumed it is impossible to hazard even a guess, but it is doubtless considerably less than that of anthracite.

Were we to offer a very rough approximation to the result for the year 1847, we might say, aggregate of anthracite and bituminous coal nearly 5,000,000 tons. Value

at the place of production, $7,500,000. Value at the place of consumption, $20,000,000.

In each case, being probably below the actual result.

Among all the states in the American Union we can only make selection of one, which admits in strict fairness of being compared, in its details, with the coal countries of Europe. This comparison is interesting, and gives a striking proof of the remarkable mineral importance and the flattering prospects of a country so advantageously circumstanced.

PENNSYLVANIA.—Unlike the countries of continental Europe, mineral statistics are here, owing to the free character of its political institutions, attainable with considerable difficulty. There are no records of the number of mines in operation, of the number of workmen employed, the population supported in the coal districts, the amount of production, its cost, and numerous details of interest with which the periodical returns of France, Prussia, Belgium, &c., minutely abound. The attempt to acquire this in

* Hazard's U. S. Statistical Register of 1840, p. 359; also Hunt's Merchant's Mag. 1842, p. 287; also Baltimore Report, Nov. 16, 1843,

formation during the process of taking the United States census of 1840, was only partially successful. The objections and difficulties attending the former inquiry, will scarcely be obviated even by a more perfectly digested plan, and a more effective organization on a future occasion.

Pennsylvania coutains 43,960 square miles = 28,134,400 acres. The areas in this state which are occupied by anthracite, semi-bituminous and bituminous coals, equal to 9,862,600 acres.

Hence, it appears, that Pennsylvania has more than one-third of her whole superficies covered by productive coal formations; a proportion more than three times greater (relatively) than Great Britain, the most productive of the European countries, and almost double the proportionate coal area of the British American coal producing provinces. Our previous table has shown that there are three other states, in the Union, namely, Kentucky, Virginia and Ohio, that preserve the same ratio of one-third, as Pennsylvania. Indiana has one-fifih, and Illinois has no less than three-fourths of her entire area occupied by the carboniferous strata. These six sovereign states comprise 279,755 square miles, and average each 46,626 square miles; .approaching nearly to the size of England, which has 49,643. Production in 1840.—The census return shows of anthracite,

859,686

2997 Of bituminous coal, returned in bushels,

415,023 1798

Tons.

Miners.

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In Pennsylvania,

- 1,274,709 4795 The foregoing abstracts illustrate the coal statistics of the most important countries in the world. We now proceed to present the details for the purposes of comparison, in a concentrated form. The results, for the first time brought under review, are of a very interesting nature.

PRODUCTION OF COMBUSTIBLES.

Table of the Comparative Production of the Sir Principal Coal Countries in the World, in the year 1845.-To enable us to exhibit the relative annual production and value of the coal, anthracite and lignite or brown coal, in the six great coal-producing countries of our globe, in the year 1845, which is the latest year in which we can now present a series of contemporaneous statistics, we have prepared the following illustrative statement. It is scarcely necessary to observe, that in the two succeeding years, up to the time of publishing this work, a regular increase has been simultaneously going on, in all the countries enumerated, and apparently at about a corresponding ratio. The present table shows the relative proportions, in each 1000 parts, yielded by each country, in 1845.

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The accompanying diagram represents these proportionate results in a simple and intelligible form.

Diagrams of the relative amounts of production of Mineral Combustibles in the Six Principal Coal-producing Countries of the World, in the year 1845.

1.

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The returns of the production of coal during the years 1846 and 1847 have not all reached us: those received will be found under their appropriate heads.

Comparative ratio of Increased Production in Twenty Years. It is a matter of very great statistical interest, in illustration of the condition of a highly important branch of industrial economy, to ascertain the actual progress which has simultaneously been made, in the demand for, and consequent consumption of, the mineral combustibles, during some years past. With a view to effect such a result, and thereby to indicate this progress in a comprehensive form, we have computed the contemporaneous advance, of five principal coal producing countries, during the space of twenty years prior to 1st January, 1846—that is to say from 1825 to 1845 inclusive. For a portion of these countries we have official returns for 1846, and even as late as 1847; but we are constrained to omit them in this table, because their insertion would prevent a just and accurate comparison with the rest; more especially as the latest years show a greatly accelerated ratio of increase. The following table exhibits the advance, per centum, during the twenty years aforesaid, in the mining countries named.

Increase per cent.

in twenty years.
I. Pennsylvania, production of anthracite only, that of
bituminous coal being unknown,

5654
II. Great Britain, the production and general consump-
tion are not registered.

Exports to foreign countries and British
settlements abroad,

713
General shipments at the mines, for ex-

portation and for home consumption, 97 Brought into the port of London,

83 III. Prussia, indigenous production,

124
IV. France,

do.
do.

181
V. Belgium,

do.
do.

111 Hence it appears that as regards the highest rate of increase, Pennsylvania far outstrips all her contemporaries of the old world within the common

riod of twenty years. It is to be regretted that no means exist for ascertaining the advance, made in her production, by Great Britain, during the same interval. The increase, whatever it may be, is well known to be considerable, and it certainly must bear some analogous proportion to the enlargement of the manufacturing departments. The home consumption of coals in South Wales alone is not less than 5,000,000 tons per annum. In our next table we shall pursue this subject of accelerated production yet more in detail.

Onward movement of the Coal Trade. — The purport of the following comprehensive statement is to show the advance, per cent., in the production, the importation, the exportation, and the consumption, of mineral fuel in the principal countries of Europe and America. We have computed it, where practicable, during three periods; that is to say, during the ten, the fifteen, and the twenty-five years prior to 1346:—the first period being from 1835 to 1845, and the second from 1830 to 1845, and the third from 1820 to 1845 inclusive. The production of Great Britain cannot be exactly known and compared; we therefore merely exhibit the increase in relation to shipments, exports, consumption in London, &c.

Proportionate increase, per centum, of the Production, Importation, Erpor

tation, and Consumption of Mineral Combustibles, in contemporaneous periods.

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It is scarcely necessary to remark, that these proportions bear no relation to the amount of production, &c., in any of the countries named; but, as already announced, they simply represent the comparative periodical progress made, per centum, in each of those countries. We have, in the foregoing tables, made our computations on the four epochs of ten, fifteen, twenty and twenty-five years; because, by such subdivision, we are enabled to illustrate more faithfully the contemporaneous increase than if the comparison had been limited to a single term.

We have now placed before the reader, in the most concentrated form of which the matter is susceptible, the means of judging, with perfect accuracy, of the wonderful increase in the mining and commercial disposition of mineral fuel that has taken place in our own times. We here observe, for instance, that in the fifteen years prior to 1846, Belgium increased 95 tons on every 100, in 1830; that Prussia added 112 to every 100; that France added 125 to every 100; and Austria's rate of increase was not less than 410 on each 100. The ratio of Great Britain cannot be pointed out, except that she increased her foreign exportation five-fold in the same space of time. But the most remarkable advance on record is in the case of Pennsylvania, where, on every 100 tons of coal produced in 1830, the absolute increase is represented by 1057 tons in 1845.

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF MINERAL FUEL,

The following pages contain a resumé of what we have elsewhere exhibited in detail; viz of the entire range of our present knowledge, regarding the production, importation, exportation, and consumption of fossil fuel,

* This is the increased exportation to France only. That to Holland is greater.

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