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far had a villa here, which he was under the necessity of selling to defray the expence of the public shews and games he exhibited to the people during his Ædileship. Plutarch says, that his liberality and magnificence, on this occasion, obscured the glory of all who had preceded him in the office, and gained the hearts of the people to such a degree, that they were ready to invent new offices and new honours for him. He then laid the foundation of that power and popularity, which enabled him, in the end, to overturn the constitution of his country. Caius Cassius had also a countryhouse here; where Marcus Brutus and he are said to have had frequent meetings, and to have formed the plan which terminated the ambition of Cæsar, and again offered to Rome that freedom which she had not the

Here also was the villa of Auguftus, whose success in life arose at the field of Philippi, from which he fled, was confirmed by the death of the


virtue to accept.

Y 4

most virtuous citizens of Rome, and who, without the talents, reaped the fruits of the labours and vast projects of Julius. Lepidus the Triumvir, Cæcilius Metellus, Quintilius Varus, the poets Catullus and Propertius, and other distinguished Remans, had villas in this town or its environs; and you are thewn the spots on which they stood: but nothing renders Tibur so interesting, as the frequent mention which Horace makes of it in his writings. His great patron and friend Mæcenas had a villa here, the ruins of which are to be seen on the south bank of the Anio; and it was pretty generally supposed, that the poet's own house and farm were very near it, and immediately without the walls of Tibur ; but it has been of late asserted, with great probability, that Horace's farm was situated nine miles above that of Mæcenas's, at the side of a stream called Licenza, formerly Digentia, near the hill Lucretilis, in the country of the ancient Sa


bines. Those who hold this opinion, say, that when Horace talks of Tibur, he alludes to the villa of Mæcenas; but when he mentions Digentia, or Lucretilis, his own house and farm are to be understood; as in the eighteenth Epistle of the first book,

Me quoties reficit gelidus Digentia rivus, Quem Mandela bibit, rugosus frigore pagus ; Quid sentire putas, quid credis, amice, precari*?

the seventeenth Ode of the first book,

Velox amænum sæpe Lucretilem

Mutat Lycæo Faunus tim

and in other passages. But whether the poet's house and farm were near the town of Tibur, or at a distance from it, his writings sufficiently show that he spent much of his time there; and it is probable that he composed great part of his works in that favourite retreat. This he himself in some measure declares, in that fine Ode addressed to Julius Antonius, son of Mark Antony, by Fulvia ; the same whom Auguftus first pardoned, and afterwards put privately to death, on account of an intrigue into which Antonius was seduced by the abandoned Julia, daughter of Augustus.

* When retired to the cool stream of Digentia, which supplies the cold village of Mandela with water; what, my friend, do you imagine, are my sentiments and wilhes? + Pan from Arcadia's heights descends, To visit oft my rural seat

FRANCIS. composed

-Ego, apis Matina

More modoque,
Grata carpentis thyma per laborem
Plurimum, circa nemus uvidique
Tiburis ripas, operosa parvus

Carmina fingo*


you ever come to Tivoli, let it not be with a numerous party; come alone, or with a single friend, and be sure to put

* But as a bee, which thro’ the shady groves,

Feeble of wing, with idle murmurs roves,
Sits on the bloom, and with unceasing toil,
From the sweet thyme extracts his flow'ry spoil,
So I, weak bard! round Tibur's lucid spring,
Of humble ftrain laborious verses fing.



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your Horace in your pocket. You will read him here with more enthusiasm than elsewhere ; you will imagine you see the philosophic poet wandering among the groves, sometimes calmly meditating his moral precepts, and sometimes his

eye fine frenzy rolling with all the fire of poetic enthusiasm.

If Tivoli had nothing else to recommend it but its being so often sung by the most elegant of the poets, and its having been the residence of so many illustrious men, these circumstances alone would render it worthy the attention of travellers; but it will also be interesting to many on account of its cascade, the Sibyl's Temple, and the Villa Estense.

The river Anio, deriving its source from a part of the Apennines, fifty miles above Tivoli, glides through a plain till it comes near that town, when it is confined for a fhort space between two hills, covered with groves. These were supposed to have been the residence of the Sibyl Albunea, to whom


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