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woollen and linen cloths, as well as by some large manufactures of glass, and earthen ware in imitation of china, which are established here. But I am told monopolies are too much protected here, and that prejudices against the profession of a merchant still exist in the minds of the only people who have money. These cannot fail to check industry, and depress the soul of commerce ; and perhaps there is little probability that the inhabitants of Milan will overcome this unfortunate turn of mind while they remain under German dominion, and adopt German ideas. The fants, though more at their case than in many other places, yet are not so much fo as might be expected in so very fertile a country. Why are the inhabitants of the rich plains of Lombardy, where Nature pours forth her gifts in such profusion, less opulent than those of the mountains of Switzerland ? Because Freedom, whose influence is more benign than sunshine and zephyrs, who covers the rugged rock with


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fuil, drains the sickly swamp, and clothes the brown heath in verdure ; who dresses the labourer's face with smiles, and makes him behold his encreasing family with delight and exultation; Freedom has abandoned the fertile fields of Lombardy, and dwells among the mountains of SwitzerJand,



Chamberry. E made lo short a stay at Turin that

I did not think of writing from thence. I shall now give you a sketch of our progress since



We left Milan at midnight, and arrived the next evening at Turin before the shutting of the gates. All the approaches to that city are magnificent. It is situated at the bottom of the Alps, in a fine plain watered by the l'o. Most of the streets are well built, uniform, clean, straight, and terminating on some agreeable object. The Strada di Po, leading to the palace, the finest and largest in the city, is adorned with porticoes equally beautiful and convenient. The four gates are also highly ornamental.

There can be no more agreeable walk than that around the

ramparts. clock



The fortifications are regular and in good repair, and the citadel is reckoned one of the strongest in Europe. The royal palace and the gardens are ad. mired by fome. The apartments display neatness rather than magnificence. The rooms are small, but numerous. The furniture is rich and elegant; even the floors attract attention, and must peculiarly strike strangers who come from Rome and Bologna; they are curiously inlaid with various kinds of wood, and kept always in a state of shining brightness. The pictures, ftatues, and antiquities in the palace, are of great value; of the former there are some by the greatest masters, but those of the Flemish school predominate.

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No royal family in Europe are more rigid cbservers of the laws of etiquette than that of Sardinia ; all their movements are uniform and invariable. The hour of rising, of going to mass, of taking the air ; every thing is regulated like

clock-work. Those illustrious persons must have a vast fund of natural good-humour, to enable them to persevere in such a wearisome routine, and support their spirits under such a continued weight of oppreffive formality.

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We had the satisfaction of seeing them all at mass; but as the Duke of Hamilton grows more impatient to get to England the nearer we approach it, he declined being presented at court, and we left Turin two days after our arrival.

We stopped a few hours, during the heat of the day, at a small village, called St. Ambrose, two or three posts from Turin. I never experienced more intense heat than during this day, while we were tantalized with a view of the snow on the top of the Alps, which seem to overhang this place, though, in reality, they are some leagues distant. While we remained at St. Ambrose there was a grand proceffion. All the men, women, and chil


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