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presses thee, O free and independently with them. I do not see the use of Franchiser! but does not this stupid underselling them; cotton cloth is already porter-pot oppress thee? no son of Adam

twopence a yard or lower, and yet can bid thee come and go; but this bare backs were never more numerous absurd pot of heavy-wet, this can and amongst us. Let inventive men cease does! Thou art the thrall, not of Cedric to spend their existence incessantly conthe Saxon, but of thy own brutal appe- triving how cotton can be made cheaper; fites, and this scoured dish of liquor; and try to invent, a little, how cotton, and thou protest of thy liberty,' thou at its present cheapness, could be some. cntire blockhead!”-P. 292.

what juster divided amongst us! Let

inventive men consider whether the We should hardly thiok of entering

secret of this universe, and of man's life with Mr Carlyle into a controversy spon the corn-laws, or on schemes of there, does after all, as we rashly fancy

it, consist in making money?

There is emigration, or any disputed point of

one God—just, supreme, almighty: but political economy. He brings to bear is Mammon the name of him? upon these certain primitive moral “ But what is to be done with our views and feelings which are but very manufacturing population, with our agriremotely applicable in the resolution cultural, with our ever-increasing popuof these knotty problems. We should lation ?-cry many.--Ay, what? Many almost as soon think of inviting the things can be done with them, a hundred veritable Diogenes himself, should he things, a thousand things-- had we once roll up in his tub to our door, to a got a soul and begun to try. This one discussion upon our commercial sys- thing of doing for them by 'underselling tem. Our Diogenes Teufelsdrockh all people,' and filling our own bursten looks upon these matters in a quite pockets by the road; and turning over peculiar manner; observe, for exam- all care for any 'population,' or human ple, the glance he takes at our present

or divine consideration, except cash only, mercantile difficulties, which, doubt

to the winds, with a ‘Laissez-faire' and less, is not without its own value, nor

the rest of it; this is evidently not the undeserving of all consideration.

thing. 'Farthing cheaper per yard;'

no great nation can stand on the apex “ The continental people, it would of such a pyramid; screwing itself seem, are 'exporting our machinery, higher and higher : balancing itself on beginning to spin cotton, and manufac- its great-toe! Can England not subture for themselves, to cut us out of this sist without being above all people in market and then out of that!'. Sad working ? England never deliberately news, indeed, but irremediable-by no proposed such a thing. If England means the saddest news. The saddest work better than all people, it shall be news is, that we should find our national well. England, like an honest worker, existence, as I sometimes hear it said, will work as well as she can ; and hope depend on selling manufactured cotton the gods may allow her to live on that at a farthing an ell cheaper than any basis. Laissez-faire and much else beother people—a most narrow stand for ing once dead, how many impossibles' a great nation to base itself on; a stand will become possible! They are ‘imwhich, with all the corn-law abrogations possible' as cotton-cloth at twopence conceivable, I do not think will be ca- an ell was-till men set about making pable of enduring:

it. The inventive genius of great Eng“My friends, suppose we quitted that land will not for ever sit patient with stand; suppose we came honestly down mere wheels and pinions, bobbins, straps, from it, and said -- This is our minimum and billy-rollers whirring in the head of of cotton prices; we care not, for the it. The inventive genius of England is present, to make cotton any cheaper. not a beaver's, or a spinner's, or a spiDo you, if it seems so blessed to you, der's genius : it is a man's genius, I hope, make cotton cheaper. Fill your lungs with a God over him!”_P. 246. with cotton fug, your hearts with copperas fumes, with rage and mutiny; be

And hear our Diogenes on the often come ye the general gnomes of Europe,

repeated cry of over.production :slaves of the lamp!' I admire a nation “But what will reflective readers say of which fancies it will die if it do not un- a governing class, such as ours, address dersell all other nations to the end of the ing its workers with an indictment of world. Brothers, we will cease to 'over-production !' Over-production: undersell them; we will be content to runs it not so? 'Ye miseellaneous igequalsell them: to be happy selling equal- noble, manufacturing individuals, ye

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have produced too much. We accuse more (according to some) in Ugoline you of making above two hundred thou- hunger-cellars; and for remedy, you sand shirts for the bare backs of man


say you ? 'Raise our rents!' kind. Your trousers too, which you I have not in my time heard any stranger have made of fustian, of cassimere, of speech, not even on the shores of the Scotch plaid, of jane, nankeen, and Dead Sea. You continue addressing woollen broadcloth, are they not mani. these poor shirt-spinners and over-profold ? Of hats for the human head, of ducers in really a too triumphant shoes for the human foot, of stools to sit on, spoons to eat with— Nay, what “ Will you bandy accusations, will say we of hats and shoes? You produce you accuse us of over-production ? We gold watches, jewelleries, silver forks take the heavens and the earth to witand épergnes, commodes, chiffoniers, ness, that we have produced nothing at stuffed sofas- Heavens, the Commercial all. Not from us proceeds this frightful Bazar and multitudinous Howel and overplus of shirts. In the wide doJames cannot contain you! You have mains of created nature, circulates noproduced, produced ;-he that seeks thing of our producing. Certain foxyour indictment, let him look around. brushes nailed upon our stable-door, Millions of shirts and empty pairs of the fruit of fair audacity at Melton breeches hang there in judgment against Mowbray; these we have produced, and you. We accuse you of over-produ- they are openly nailed up there. He cing; you are criminally guilty of pro- that accuses us of producing, let him ducing shirts, breeches, hats, shoes, and show himself, let him name what and commodities in a frightful over-abun- when. We are innocent of producing, dance. And now there is a glut, and -ye ungrateful, what mountains of your operatives cannot be fed.'

things have we not, on the contrary, had “ Never, surely, against an earnest to consume, and make away with! working mammonism was there brought Mountains of those your heaped manuby game-preserving aristocratic dilet. factures, wheresoever edible or weartantism, a stranger accusation since this able, have they not disappeared before world began. My Lords and Gentlemen us, as if we had the talent of ostriches, ---why it was you that were appointed, of cormorants, and a kind of divine faby the fact and by the theory of your culty to eat ? 'Ye ungrateful and did position on the earth, to make and ad

you not grow under the shadow of our minister laws. That is to say, in a wings ? Are not your filthy mills built world such as ours, to guard against on these fields of ours; on this soil of gluts,' against honest operatives who England, which belongs to—whom think had done their work remaining unfed ! you? And we shall not offer you our I

say, you were appointed to preside own wheat at the price that pleases us, over the distribution and apointment of but that partly pleases you? the wages of work done; and to see cious notion! What would become of well that there went no labourer without

you, if we chose at any time to decide his hire, were it of money coins, were on growing no wheat more?” it of hemp gallows-ropes : that formation was yours, and from immemorial tion, more like a portion of a clever

An amusing-caustic - exaggeratime has been yours, and as yet no other's. These poor shirt-spinners have

satire on man and society, than a sinforgotten much, which by the virtual

cere discussion of political evils and unwritten law of their position they for Mr Carlyle's own sake, to express

remedies ; and not intended, we trust, should have remembered; but by any written recognized law of their position,

his real belief in the true causes of the what have they forgotten? They were

evils of society. If we could suppose set to make shirts. The community,

that this piece of extravagant and with all its voices commanded them,

one-sided invective were meant to be saying, 'make shirts; '-—and there the seriously taken, as embodying Mr shirts are! Too many shirts? Well, that Carlyle's social and political creed, is a novelty, in this intemperate earth, we should scarcely find words strong with its nine hundred millions of bare enough to reprobate its false and misbacks! But the community commanded chievous tendency. you, saying, “See that the shirts are We have already said, that we rewell apportioned, that our human laws gard the chief value of Mr Carlyle's be emblems of God's law; and where is writings to consist in the tone of mind the apportionment ? Two millions shirt. which the individual reader acquires less, or ill-shirted workers sit enchanted from their perusal ;-manly, energein work-house Bastiles, five millions

tic, enduring, with high resolves and


A pre

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self-forgetting effort; and we here again, at the close of our paper, re- “ Who art thou that complainest of vert to this remark: Pust and Pre

thy life of toil ? Complain not. Look Sent, has not, and could not have, the

up, my wearied brother; see thy fellow same wild power which Sartor Resar

workmen there, in God's eternitytus possessed, in our opinion, over the viving there—they alone survivingfeelings of the reader; but it contains sacred band of the Immortals. Even in passages which look the same way, the weak human memory they survive and breathe the same spirit. We will so long as saints, as heroes, as gods; quote one or two of these, and then they alone surviving-peopling, they conclude our notice. Their effect will alone, the immeasured solitudes of time! not be injured, we may observe, by To thee, Heaven, though severe, is not our brief manner of quotation. Speak. unkind. Heaven is kind, as a noble moing of “the man who goes about

ther-as that Spartan mother, saying, pothering and uproaring for his hap- as she gave her son his shield, ' with it, piness," he says:

my son, or upon it!'

** And who art thou that braggest of “ Observe, too, that this is all a mo- thy life of idleness; complacently showdern affair; belongs not to the old he. est thy bright gilt equipages; sumpturoic times, but to these dastard new ous cushions; appliances for the folding times.

Happiness, our being's end and of the hands to more sleep? Looking aim,’ is at bottom, if we will count well, up, looking down, around, behind, or not yet two centuries old in the world. before, discernest thou, if it be not in

The only happiness a brave man ever Mayfair alone, any idle hero, saint, god, troubled himself with asking much about or even devil ? Not à vestige of one. was, happiness enough to get his work • In the heavens, in the earth, in the done. Not, ' I can't eat !' but, ' I can't waters under the earth, is none like unto work!' that was the burden of all wise thee.' Thou art an original figure in complaining among men. It is, after all, this creation, a denizen in Mayfair alone. the one unhappiness of a man—that he One monster there is in the world: the cannot work—that he cannot get his idle man. What is his ' religion?' That destiny as a man fulfilled.”

nature is a phantasm, where cunning,

beggary, or thievery, may sometimes “ The latest Gospel in this world, is, find good victual.” know thy work and do it. Know thyself;' long enough has that poor self' of thine tormented thee; thou wilt never get to know' it, I believe! Think it “ The 'wages' of every noble work not thy business, this of knowing thy- do yet lie in heaven, or else nowhere. self; thou art an unknowable individual; Nay, at bottom dost thou need any reknow what thou canst work at; and

ward? Was it thy aim and life-purpose, work at it like a Hercules ! That will to be filled with good things for thy be thy better plan.”

heroism ; to have a life of pomp and

ease, and be what men call • happy' in “ Blessed is he who has found his this world, or in any other world ? I work; let him ask no other blessedness. answer for thee, deliberately, no ? He has a work, a life-purpose; he has “ The brave man has to give his life found it, and will follow it! How, as a away. Give it, I advise thee-thou free-flowing channel, dug and torn by dost not expect to sell thy life in an ade. noble force through the sour mud-swamp quate manner? What price, for exof one's existence, like an ever-deepen- ample, would content thee? ing river, there it runs and flows;

Thou wilt never sell thy life, or any part draining off the sour festering water of thy life, in a satisfactory manner. gradually from the root of the remetest Give it, like a royal heart-let the price grass-blade; making, instead of pesti- be nothing; thou hast then, in a certain lential swamp, a green fruitful meadow

sense, got all for it!” with its clear-flowing stream. How blessed for the meadow itself, let the Well said! we again repeat, O Dio. stream and its value be great or small. genes Teufelsdrockn! Labour is life!”





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