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created splendour of that capital, and In this sense, and with a reference the extensive patronage of the French to this deduction, we ascribe unity to kings-must have commensurately the foreign system of manners and so. diffused the knowledge of the French cial intercourse. Had every state in language. At such a critical moment, Europe been resigned to her own nahowever, we cannot doubt that the tive temper and habits, there could French literature would give a deter- have been no propriety in talking of mining impulse to the choice. For • foreign” manners, as existing by besides that the literature adapts it- way of antithesis to English. There self beyond all others to the classes must have been as many varieties of of society having little time for reflec- what might be called “ foreign,” as tion, and whose sensibilities are scat- there happen to be considerable kingtered by dissipation, it offers even to doms, or considerable territories inthe meditative the high quality of sulated by strong natural boundaries, self-consistency. Springing from a or capital cities composing separate low key of passion, it still justifies jurisdictions for the world of manners, its own pretensions to good taste, by means of local differences continu(that is, to harmony with itself and ally ripening_into habits. But this its own principles.) Fifty years later, tendency in Europe to break up and or about the middle of the eighteenth subdivide her spirit of manners, was century, we see a second impulse withered and annihilated by the unity given to the same literature, and of a French taste. The ambition of a therefore to the same language. A French refinement had so thoroughly new race of writers were at that time seized upon Germany, and even upon seasoning the shallowest of all philoso. the Vandalism of arctic Sweden, by phies with systematic rancour against the year 1740, that in the literature ihrones and Christianity. Toa military of both countries, a ridiculous hybrid (and therefore in those days ignorant) dialect prevailed, of which you could aristocracy, such as all continental not say whether it were a superstruc. states were cursed with, equally the ture of Teutonic upon a basis of food and the condiment wore attrac. French, or of French upon a basis of tive beyond any other. And thus, Teutonic.* The justification of “foviz. through such accidents of luck reign," or “ continental,” used as an operating upon so shallow a body of adequate antithesis to English, is estimators as the courtiers and the therefore but too complete. little adventurers of the Continent, did Having thus explained our use of the French literature and language the word “ foreign," we put it to any attain the preponderance which once considerate man, how it should have they had. It is true, that the litera. been possible that any select tone of ture has since lost that advantage. society could grow up amongst a Germany, the other great centre of body so comprehensive and so miscel. the Continent, has now a literature of laneous as the soi-disant nobility of her own, far more extensive, and bet. continental states? Could it be exter fitted for her peculiar strength and pected that 130,000 French “nobles" weakness. But the French language, of 1788, needy and equalid in their though also drooping, still holds its habits as many of them were, should ground as the convenient resource of be high-bred gentlemen? In Gerlazy travellers and lazy diplomatists. many, we know that all the wateringThis language, acting through that places are infested with black-leg literature, has been the engine for gamblers, fortune-hunters, chevaliers fusing the people of the Continent d'industrie, through all varieties of into a monotonous conformity to one this category. Most of these bear standard of feeling.

titles of baron, compte, &c.

Are

* In the days of Gottsched, a German leader about 1740, who was a pedant constitutionally insensible to any real merits of French literature, and yet sharing in the Gallomania, the ordinary tenor of composition was such as this : (supposing English words substituted for German :) I demande with entire empressement, your pardon for having tant soit peu méconnu, or at least egaré from your orders, autrefois cominunicated. Faute d'entendre your ultimate but, I now confess, de me trouver perplexed by un mauvais embarras."- And so on.

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they spurious titles ? Nobody knows. racter is less fitted to a gentlemanly Such is the obscurity and extent of an refinement than any other; but the aristocracy multiplying their num- truth is, that no professional character bers in every generation, and resting whatsoever, when pushed into excluupon no basis of property, that it is sive esteem, can continue to sustain equally possible for the true “baron itself on the difficult eminence of pure to lie under suspicion as a pretender, natural high breeding. All profesand for the false one to prosper by sions alike have their besetting vices, imposture. On the other hand, who pedantries, and infirmities. In some could hope to pass himself off for six degree they correct each other when weeks as an English earl ? Yet it is thrown together on terms of equality. evident, that where counterfeit claims But on the Continent, the lawyer and are so easy, the intrusion of persons the clergyman is every where deunqualified, or doubtfully qualified, graded ; the senator has usually no must be so numerous and constant, existence; and the authentic landed that long ago every pure standard of proprietor, liberated from all duiies what is noble or gentlemanly, must but the splendid and non-technical have perished in so keen a struggle duties of patriotism, comes forward at and so vast a mob. Merely by its foreign courts only in the character outrageous excess numerically, every of a military officer. At some courts continental " noblesse is already this is carried so far, that no man can

wered and vitiated in its tone. For be presented out of uniform. Has in vast bodies, fluctuating eternally, the military profession, on the other no unity of tone can be maintained, hand, benefited by such partiality ? except exactly in those cases where So far from it, that, were the conti. some vulgar prejudice carries away nental armies liable to that sort of all alike by its strength of current. surveillance which our own Horse

Such a current we have already Guards exercises over the social monoticed in the style of scenical effort rals of the officers, we do not believe manifested by most foreigners. To that one of those armies could exist be a “ conteur,” to figure in “pro. for five years. The facts placed beverbs," to attitudinize, to produce a yond denial by the capture of foreign « sensation”—all these are purposes of officers' baggage, by the violated paambition in foreign circles. Such a role of honour, and by many other current we have noticed in the general incidents of the late war, combine to determination of the Continent to- prove the low tone of gentlemanly wards French tastes; and that is a honour and probity in the ill-paid worse tendency even than it used to armies of the Continent. be, for the true aristocracy of France Our purpose has been, to insist on is gone for ever as it formerly existed the capital patriotic uses to which so in the haute noblesse ; and the court splendid an aristocracy as ours has been of a democratic king is no more equal applied, and will be applied, so long as it to the task of diffusing good manners, is suffered to exist undisturbed by the than that of the American or Haytian growing democracy (and, worse than president. Personally, the king and that, by the anarchy) of the times. his family might be models of high These uses are principally four, which breeding ; but the insolence of demo- we shall but indicate in a few words. cracy would refuse the example, and First, it is in the nobility of Great untrained vulgarity would fail even in Britain that the Conservative prin. trying to adopt it.

ciple—which cannot but be a momenBesides these false impulses given tous agency wheresoever there is to the continental tone of society, we any thing good to protect from vio. have noticed a third, and that is the lence, or any thing venerable to uppreposterous value given amongst hold in sanctity-is chiefly lodged. foreigners to what is military. This Primogeniture and the church are the tendency is at once a cause of vulga- two corner-stones upon which our rity and an exponent of vulgarity. civil constitution ultimately reposes ; Thence comes the embroidery of col- and neither of these, from the monulars, the betasseling, the befrogging, mental character of our noble houses, the flaunting attempts at “costum- held together through centuries by the ing.” It is not that the military cha- peculiar settlements of their landed

VOL. LIV, NO. CCCXXXIII,

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properties, has any power to survive lish public intercourse, through every the destruction of a distinct patrician class, (even the lowest of the commerorder.

cial,) so much of respectful gravity and Secondly, though not per se, or, in mutual consideration is found. Now, a professional sense, military as a body, therefore, as the means of maintain(Heaven forbid that they should be ing in strength this aristocratic influ. so!) yet, as always furnishing a dis- ence, we request every thoughtful proportionate number from their or. man to meditate upon the following der to the martial service of the coun- proposition. The class even of our try, they diffuse a standard of high gentry breeds a body of high and honour through our army and navy, chivalrous feeling ; and very much so which would languish in a degree not by unconscious sympathy with an orsuspected whenever a democratic in- der above themselves. But why is it fluence should thoroughly pervade that the amenity and perfect polish either. It is less for what they do in of the nobility are rarely found in this way, than for what they prevent, strength amongst the mass of ordithat our gratitude is due to the nobi. nary gentlemen ? It is because, in order lity. However, even the positive ser- to qualify a man for the higher funcrices of the nobility are greater in tions of courtesy, he ought to be sepathis field than a democrat is aware of. rated from the strife of the world. Are not all our satirical novels, &c., The fretful collision with rivalship daily describing it the infirmity of and angry tempers, insensibly modiEnglish society, that so much stress fies the demeanour of every man. But is laid upon aristocratic connexions ? the British nobleman, intrenched in Be it so : but do not run away from wealth, enjoys an immunity from this your own doctrine, O democrat! as irritating discipline. He is able to as the consequences become

act by proxy: and all services of unstartling. One of these consequences, pleasant contest he devolves upon which cannot be refused, is the depth agents. To have a class in both of influence and the extent of influence sexes who toil not, neither do they which waits upon the example of our spin-is the one conditio sine qua non nobles. Were the present number of for a real nobility. our professional nobles decimated, Fourthly, as the leaders in a high they would still retain a most salu- morality of honour, and a jealous tary influence.

We have spoken suf- sense of the obligation attached to pubficiently of the ruin which follows lic engagements, our nobilily has where a nation has no natural and au- tightened the bonds of national sensithentic leaders for her armies. And bility beyond what is always perceivwe venture to add our suspicion—that ed. " This is high matter," as Burke even France, at this moment, owes says in a parallel case; and we baremuch of the courage which marks her ly touch it. We shall content ourgentry, though a mere wreck from her selves with asking-Could the Ameold aristocracy, to the chivalrous rican frauds in the naval war, calling feeling inherited from her ancestral sixty-four-gun ships by the name of remembrances. Good officers are frigates, have been suffered in Engnot made such by simple constitu- land? Could the American doctrine tional courage; honour, and some- of repudiation have prospered with us? thing of a pure gentlemanly temper, Yet are the Americans Englishmen, must be added.

wanting only a nobility. Thirdly, for all populous and high- The times are full of change : it is ly civilized nations, it is an indirect through the Conservative body itself necessity made known in a thousand that certain perils are now approachways, that some adequate control ing patrician order : if that perishes, should preside over their spirit of England passes into a new moral conmanners. This can be effected only dition, wanting all the protections of through a court and a body of nobles. the present. And thence it arises, that, in our Eng

JACK STUART'S BET ON THE DERBY, AND HOW HE PAID HIS LOSSES.

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you ?"

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COTHERSTONE came in amid great “ I'll back this grey against Cotherapplause, and was the winner of the stone for fifty pounds." poorest Derby ever known. Whilst

“ To stand flogging ? I think you acclamation shook the spheres, and the would win.” corners of mouths were pulled down,

* No, to jump. See how she and betting-books mechanically pulled springs. out—while success made some people Hereupon Jack touched the mare in so benevolent that they did not believe a very scientific manner, just under in the existence of poverty any where, the fore-arm, and the animal, indigand certainly not in the distress of the nant at this disrespectful manner of wretched-looking beggar entreating a proceeding, gave a prodigious rush forpenny-whilst all these things were ward, and then reared. going on, champagne corks flying, the " You'll break the shafts,” I said. sun shining, toasts resounding, and a “ I think she is going to run away, perfect hubbub in full activity on all but there seems no wall near us and sides, Jack Stuart drew me aside to- I don't think any coaches travel this wards the carriage, and said, “ 'Pon road. Sit still, for she's off.” my word, it must be a cross. How The mare, in good truth, resented the deuce could one horse beat the her master's conduct in a high degree, whole field ?"

and took the bit in her teeth. " Oh, you backed the field, did “ If she doesn't kick, it's all right,"

said Jack. “ To be sure. I always go with the “ She has no time to kick if she goes strongest side."

at this pace," I answered ; " keep her And you have lost ?”

straight." “ A hundred and fifty."

The speed continued unabated for No wonder Jack Stuart looked blue. some time, and we were both silent. I A fifth part of his yearly income gone

watched the road as far in advance as at one smash-and in such a foolish I could see, in dread of some waggon, way, too.

or coach, or sudden turn, or even a “ If the excitement could last three turnpike gate, for the chances would or four days, it would almost be worth have been greatly against an agreeable the money," he said; “ but no sooner termination. do you hear the bell — see the crush of “ I'll tell you what," cried Jack, horses at the starting-post-bang- turning round to me, * I think I've bang-off they gol-and in a minute or found out a way of paying my losses.” two all is over, and your money gone.

“ Indeed! but can't you manage in I will have a race of snails between the mean time to stop the mare ?" London and York. It would be occu- “ Poh ! let her go. I think rapid pation for a year. But come, let us motion is a great help to the intellect. leave the abominable place." He hur- I feel quite sure I can pay my bets ried me into the stanhope, gave the rein without putting my hand into my to his active grey mare, and making a pocket." detour towards Kingston, we soon left

« How ? Pull the near check. the crowd behind us.

She'll be in the ditch." " I will never bet on a horse again," Why, I think I shall publish a said Jack, ruminating on his loss. novel." « Why should I? I know nothing I could scarcely keep from langhing, about racing, and never could under- though a gardener's cart was two hunstand odds in my life; and just at this dred yards in advance. moment, too, I can't spare the coin." “ You write a novel ! Wouldn't you

At the same time he did not spare like to build a pyramid at the same the whip; for you will always observe, time ?" that a meditative gentleman in a gig * We've given that old fellow a fright is peculiarly impressive on his horse's on the top of the cabbage," said Jack, shoulder. The grey trotted along, or going within an inch of the wheels of burst into an occasional canter. the cart. He'll think we've got Coth

66

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past it.

" but go on

erstone in harness. But what do you is about a young man and a young mean about a pyramid ?”

woman-he all that is noble, and she " Why, who ever heard of your writ- all that is good. Every circulating ing a novel ?"

library consists of nothing whatever “ I did not say write a novel-I said but Love and Glory—and that shall publish a novel.

be the name of my novel.” “ Well, who is to write it ?" I en- “ But if you don't write it, how are quired.

you to publish it ?" " That's the secret,” he answered ; “ Do you think any living man or " and if that isn't one of Pickford's any living woman ever wrote a novans, I'll tell you"

vel ?" The mare kept up her speed ; and, “Certainly." looming before us, apparently filling “ Stuff, my dear fellow ; they never up the whole road, was one of the mo- did any thing of the kind. They pubving castles, drawn by eight horses, lish-that's all. Is that a heap of that, compared to other vehicles, are stones ?” like elephants moving about among a " I think it is." herd of deer.

“ Well, that's better than a gravel“ Is there room to pass ?” asked pit. Cut her right ear. There, we're Jack, pulling the right rein with all

Amazing bottom, hasn't his might

she ?" “ Scarcely.” I said, “ the post is at “ Too much," I said; the side of the road."

with your novel." “ Take the whip,” said Jack, “and Well

, my plan is simply this—but just when we get up, give her a cut make a bet, will you ? I give odds. over the left ear.”

I bet you five to one in fives, that I In dread silence we sat watching the produce, in a week from this time, a tremendous gallop. Nearer and nearer novel called • Love and Glory,' not of we drew to the waggon, and precisely my own composition or any body else's at the right time Jack pulled the mare's -a good readable novel-better than bridle, and I cut her over the ear. any of James's--and a great deal more Within a bairbreadth of the post on original." one side, and the van on the other, we " And yet not written by any one ?" cut our bright way through.

“: Exactly, bet, will you?” “ This is rather pleasant than other- “ Done," I said ; wise," said Jack, breathing freely; plain." “ don't you think so ?”

I will, if we get round this corner; " I can't say it altogether suits my but it is very sharp. Bravo, mare ! taste," I answered.

And now we've a mile of level Mac“ Do you think she begins to tire ?” adam. I go to a circulating library

Oh, she never tires ; don't be the and order home forty novels—any noleast afraid of that!"

vels that are sleeping on the shelf. " It's the very thing I wish; but That is a hundred and twenty volumes there's a hill coming."

-or perhaps, making allowance for 6. She likes hills; and at the other the five-volume tales of former days, side, when we begin to descend, you'll a hundred and fifty volumes altogether. see her pace. "I'm very proud of the From each of these novels I select one mare's speed.”

chapter and a half, that makes sixty " It seems better than her temper; chapters, which, at twenty chapters to but about the novel ?" I enquired. each volume, makes a very good-sized

" I shall publish in a fortnight," novel." answered Jack.

“ But there will be no connexion." “ A whole novel ? Three volumes ?" “ Not much,” replied Jack, “but an “ Six, if you like—or a dozen. I'm

amazing degree of variety." not at all particular.”

“ But the names ?”. “ But on what subject ?"

Must all be altered—the only trou" Why, what a simpleton you must ble I take. There must be a countess be! There is but one subject for a and two daughters ; let them be the novel-historical, philosophical, fa- Countess

Countess of Lorrington and the Lashionable, antiquarian, or whatever it dies Alice and Matilda—a hero, Lord calls itself. The whole story, after all, Berville, originally Mr Lawleigh-and

" and now

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