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Andes as Cunis, in Central America as Choutals, sciences of Egypt, India and Persia, as well as Peru, Chons; Chili, Chuancos; Darien, Cunas. Europe and Africa, proceeded entirely and with. All of the continent from the Ohio and Mexico, out exception, from America. He states that he to Patagonia, is full of their names, posterity and has found a key to the phonetic alphabet of the dialects.

Maya language, and that he is master of all the II. The Atlantes formed by the union of two inscriptions in spite of numerous variations in each nations, the Atlas and the Antes, who conquered character. a part of South Europe. It gave its name to the Letters of Rafinesque are in existence, showing Atlantic Ocean, and had its capitol at Otulum and that he had made advanced progress in decypher. Tula, near Yucatan. In America the following ing inscriptions on Central American monuments. nations have sprung from them : The Tallahassees Much of the valuable information contained in De of Florida, Talas of Anahuac, Atulas of Guiana, Bourbourg's eight volumes was outlined forty years Antalis of Chili, Antis of Peru, etc. Ruins of previously in the writings of Rafinesque. Toward their ancient cities and huge monuments are spread the latter portion of his life, his manuscripts from Lake Erie to Lake Titicaca for five thousand amounted to no less than six thousand pages, and miles.

three thousand maps, plans, monuments, portraits, III. The Lelex or Leleges of Carea and Greece alphabets, symbols, implements, costumes, etc., deemed akin to the Pelagians. In America, Lule classified as follows: and Vilela, two tribes of Tucuman and Chaco, Ili I. Materials for the history, ethnography, etc., and Gua-Ili of the Antilles ; Eles, ancestors of of the Americans, their annals, chronolugy, etc., the Mexicans, Ol or Hul, ancestors of the Chols forty books. and Olmecas. The Cholas, Colas and Calis filled II. Vocabularies of the ancient and modern lanAmerica from Chiapa to Peru, and were also found guages of both Americas, symbols, glyphs, etc., in the Antilles.

four books. IV. The Mayas, of Yucatan, found in Lybia, III. Comparative geography and ethnography India and China. He remarks of these nations, of ancient and modern America, with maps, etc,, that although the dates of their origin may be five books. difficult to fix, we can yet hope to detect their IV. Ancient monuments of North and South successive separation in colonial settlements in America, compared with the primitive monuments America. They are supposed to have reached of the Eastern Hemisphere, three books and two America by way of the continent of Atlantis, after. hundred plans. ward sunk beneath the ocean by a cataclysm.

V. Tellus or the Primitive History of the earth Rafinesque lived half a century in advance of the and mankind in Protholia Oceanica and Neotholia, time that men's minds were prepared to weigh with the ancient and modern general ethnography, justly the value of his discoveries. Such is the thirty books. result of progress that the propositions we accept VI. Synglosson, or compared examination of all to-day as incontrovertible truth, would, forty years languages and nations, six books. ago, have been almost universally rejected. The

. VII. Iconographical illustrations of his historical publications of Rafinesque relating to American works and travels, containing over one thousand history, were unread in their day, and author and maps, plans, views, portraits, alphabets, symbols, works forgotten afterwards, except by a very few. implements, etc.

Lately the attention of investigators has been Effort has been made to ascertain whether any attracted to them in consequence of the writings of these precious works are still in existence, but of the Abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, who following without success, and it is feared that they are lost the same path of research, and with ample means beyond recovery. Some of the materials it will be at command has been enabled to elaborate subjects impossible for future writers to restore. only briefly discussed by Rafinesque. He asserts The fields in which Rafinesque garnered have that he is enabled to go back in Mexican annals undergone such changes, that his sources of inforabout ten thousand five hundred years before the mation are no longer available. Time has deChristian era, and can prove in an irrefutable stroyed structures; Indian tribes have become exmanner that the languages, civilization, arts and tinct, and their traditions and languages passed away forever. About the year 1830 he contemplated by a concise and expressive diction, minuteness of sending his manuscripts to France for publication, detail and exhaustive treatment of the subject conbut political disturbances arising, he changed his sidered. He handled his topic throughout its purpose. They may have been sent later, and if length and breadth so as to cover every point such was the case, it would be interesting to know that might in any degree be open to controversy. whether the Abbé de Bourbourg had access to The theory of evolution that Herbert Spencer is them.

supposed to have originated, and to which Darwin, Towards the close of Professor Rafinesque's life, its able exponent, has made so many converts he reviewed despondingly the unappreciated and among the first scientists of the present time, is uprewarded labors of his industrious career. At clearly indicated by Rafinesque in a letter to Dr. one time he writes: “I have often been dis- Torrey, of New York, December ist, 1832, in couraged, but have never despaired long. I have these words: “The truth is that species, and perlived to serve mankind, but have often met with haps Genera also, are forming in organized beings ungrateful returns. I have tried to enlarge the by gradual deviations of shapes, forms and organs, limits of knowledge, but have often met with taking place in the lapse of time. There is a tenjealous rivals instead of friends. I have tried to dency to deviations and mutations in plants and instruct and enlighten by my writings, but my pen animals by gradual steps, at remote irregular has often been snatched, or compelled to be idle periods. This is a part of the great universal law for a while. With a greater fortune I might have of perpetual mutability in everything." imitated Humboldt or Linneus."

The versatility of his acquirements enabled him His magazine articles, pamphlets and published to,occupy the foremost ground, not only in natural volumes comprise over one hundred different sub- history, but in antiquities, civil history, philology, jects. Among the most important of his compo-political economy, philosophy, and he even comsitions may be mentioned Prodrome des Nouveaux pleted a poem of nearly six thousand lines. The Genres de Plantes observées en 1817 et 1818 dans l' “ Genius and Spirit of the Hebrew Bible,” was, I Interieur des Etats-Unis d'Amerique. Paris, 1819. believe, the last volume he published, and ended

"Ichthyologia or Natural History of the fishes the literary career of one who, had his efforts for inhabiting the Ohio River."

the advancement of science met with even moder"Medical Flora of the United States,” Phila- ate encouragement, would have left a valuable delphia, 1828.

legacy to posterity, by placing in permanent form "Monographie des Coquilles Bivalves et Fluvia- the experiences and discoveries that an industrious tiles de la Riviere Ohio," Brussels, 1819.

life had accomplished in scientific pursuits. “Ancient Monuments of North and South The latter portion of his life was embittered by America," Philadelphia, 1838.

impoverished circumstances that compelled the “ Atlantic Journal," Philadelphia, 1832-33. withdrawal of his mind from his chosen pursuits,

"The American Nations," 2 volumes, Philadels in the effort to procure the means of support, phia, 1836.

and he was censured regarding the methods em"Genius and Spirit of the Hebrew Bible," ployed in accomplishing those ends. It is to be Philadelphia, 1838.

regretted that his writings have been, from the In botanical science he was greatly in advance manner of their publication, so scattered as to be or other writers in this country, and it is said that little known to men of science. It is seldom that he was the only one at that time who had any copies of any of his works are to be obtained, all knowledge of the natural classification of plants. of them having been issued in small editions, and His mind seems to have grasped all subjects con- but few copies of these it is presumed have been nected with natural science, and the originality of preserved. his ideas eliminated truths that the scientific men He died in Philadelphia, September 18th, 1840, of those days could not comprehend. He wrote and his last words, " time renders justice to all at with great facility, and the papers from his peu last,” may fittingly close this imperfect record of published in American periodicals are characerized an extraordinary man.

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I visited Washington City during the winter of betrayed counsel, but he complicated affairs by 1835-6, and while there I paid my respects to the frank expression of his own feelings. He was General Jackson, then President of the United in all things sincere; and it was painful for him States. I was introduced by the Hon. Thomas to suppress the utterance of his convictions.” L. Hamer, a Representative from Ohio. Two gentlemen were already seated when we


a paper of the November entered the room, and after the formalities of Monthly, the writer states that Andrew Jackson reception, conversation was resumed on the sub- was born on the North Carolina side of the State ject which, at that time, was agitating two line which separates that State from South Carolina. nations, viz. : the payment of the five millions To this Mr. At Lee, in a Note, page 946, of the indemnity by France.

December Number, takes exception, claiming that Mr. Barton, our Special Agent in this negotia- the hero was a native of the Palmetto State. The tion, had, the day before, returned from France, 1 question is one of some interest, and we have reporting only dilatory pleas on the part of the been at some trouble in investigating it since the French Government, and it was known that the receipt of Mr. At Lee's communication, but must President, indignant at the procrastination, was confess the conclusion has forced itself upon us preparing a Special Message to Congress on the that no one knows where Andrew Jackson was subject. The National Intelligencer had, however, born, beyond the fact that the spot was within published an editorial deprecating a belligerent the Waxhaw, or Waxsaw Settlement. We think, rupture, and invoking a friendly consideration of however, the North Carolina theory has just a the conduct of our ancient ally. One of the little the best support. The hero's own opinion, company mentioned this editorial, and com- even though he derived it from his mother, really mended its “pacific tone." Instantly the Presi- proves nothing—it is not necessary that a “modent's face Alushed, his eye sparkled, and sitting tive for concealment or misrepresentation be imerect, he repeated the word sarcastically—“paci- puted or suspected” on the part of the General, fic! pacific! Why don't they pay the money?" as a ground for doubting the correctness of his and then, striking on the arm of his chair as he convictions. It would be an improbable supposiuttered every word, he said, “ They shall pay tion to believe that his mother had even pondered that money, sir, before I leave this chair.” This the question, whether her brother-in-law's house outburst startled us all, and everybody hastened were on the North or South side of the line, to depart, satisfied that any further remark would especially as in her day “State lines were tradibe superfluous. As it is well-known, the money tionary and indefinite." But in our day the lines was paid before he left his chair; not because are more clearly defined, and it is easier to judge France feared coercion, but because the pertina. where Mr. McKemey's house,Mrs. Jackson's city of Jackson roused her own sense of justice, temporary abode-stood. and compelled her to do, at once, that which she These brief remarks afford us an excellent knew it was her duty, and, no doubt, her inten- opportunity to express our heartfelt thanks to tion, to do.

Mr. At Lee for his repeated favors. His unique Years afterwards, I was telling this anecdote to collection of data in relation to the time and . a Senator, and expressing my surprise at such un-' place of birth of distinguished Americans, and diplomatic candor, when the Senator smiled, and other facts of interest in their lives, is a most said, “ Just like him! The old General, not une valuable mine, from which we hope, and have no frequently, embarrassed the executive delibera. doubt, that he will often contribute treasures to tions of the Senate by his free speech. He never | our pages.


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VIII. (CONCLUDED.) ROBERT MORRIS, THE FINANCIER OF THE REVOLUTION. BOTTA, the eminent Italian historian, in his official station. It must be borne in mind that “War of Independence,” truthfully declared : Mr. Morris was led to this absolute relinquish"The Americans certainly owed, and still owe, ment of his own business and self-concentration as much acknowledgement to the financial opera- upon his public duties solely by his nice sense of tions of Robert Morris, as to the negotiations of right and lofty patriotism, without any suggestion Benjamin Franklin, or even to the arms of Wash- from the Congress or from any other party or ington." The American Ambassador, Benjamin parties whomsoever. Franklin, in a letter from Versailles to Mr. Morris, As I have before stated, Robert Morris withbears strong testimony to the ability, zeal and drew from the office of Superintendent of Finance, success of the latter's administration of the Na- on the ist of November, 1784. At the close of tional Finances, and assures him: “Your conduct, the year, he also resigned the position of Agent of activity, and address, as financier, and provider Marine, and thus finally terminated his official for the exigencies of the State, is much admired relations to the Congress, and was once more free and praised here; its good consequences being so to resume private business. evident, particularly with regard to the rising His public services, subsequent to his resigning credit of our country,” etc. Thus were the great the Financial and Naval Affairs of the Nation, may Financier's marvelous ability, zeal and success be summed up in a paragraph : appreciated in foreign lands, but we at this day In 1785, Mr. Morris was elected a member of must marvel more at, and should revere more, the State Legislature of Pennsylvania; he was a the sublime patriotism and noble disregard of self prominent member of the Convention which and of his personal interests which could permit framed the Constitution of the United States, and Mr. Morris to undertake a position, the cares, upon its ratification, was elected by the Pennsylanxieties and labors, completely environing which vania Legislature one of the representatives of he knew must be immense, the prospects of suc- that State in the United States Senate, where he cess at best doubtful, and which must unavoidably served a full term, retiring finally from public life interfere materially with his extensive, profitable in 1795. President Washington, in composing and growing private business—how much more his first Cabinet, was exceedingly desirous of we marvel at, and how much more should we securing Mr. Morris's services as Secretary of the revere, that patriotism and self-devotion when we Treasury, but Mr. Morris most emphatically delearn that the successful, prosperous merchant not clined; the President is said to have appointed only hazarded, but voluntarily sacrificed, his vast business at a time when it was most lucrative and

1 In this connection, it may be well to note that in Septempromised even greater returns that it had yet ber, 1781, the Congress resolved that until a suitable person yielded-that, upon accepting the office of Super- could be appointed “ Agent of Marine," the duties, responsiintendent of Finance, Mr. Morris immediately bilities and authority of that office should devolve upon the and absolutely consigned his entire business to Superintendent of Finance; Mr. Morris, though much against

his judgment, because he deemed the resolution incompatible other hands, that he might devote his time, tal

with the best interests of the Government, acquiesced; no ents and resources to the public service, and that, “ Agent of Marine" was appointed, and Mr. Morris continued throughout the period of his continuance in that to r:anage the naval affairs of the Government until the close important office, he never permitted any private of the year 1784. In addition to all the dutie: assigned him Personal concern or consideration to interfere by the Congress, he had also acted for some time as fiscal with, divert his mind from, warp his judgment or

agent of his own State. Thus we see that Mr. Morris, had influence a single act in connection with, the would have had no time to devote to its direction or manage

he attempted to retain any part or interest in private business, onerous duties and multifarious interests of his



Alexander Hamilton solely at Mr. Morris's sug- his “discretion and previous good judgment " hari gestion.

entirely forsaken him; he had become a monoHaving relinquished his official duties and re- maniac in the race for wealth, and fell into wild sponsibilities as Superintendent of Finance, and schemes which a tithe of his native “discretion Agent of Marine, Mr. Morris embarked in the and good judgment” would have shown him, East India and China Trade with Gouverneur could yield only disappointment and distress. Morris, of New York, his late Assistant Superin- I do not, nor will my readers, care to follow tendent of Finance.? Had he been content to Mr. Morris in the terrible whirlpool of speculapursue this legitimate commercial enterprise, the tion, debt, anxiety and distress in which he bedark chapter in his life which remains to be

came hopelessly involved, and from which he noticed, would doubtless never have been indited. escaped at last a broken-hearted, feeble old man, But the prudent, judicious, successful merchant of with naught of his former possessions and bue lew three years before, seems to have been entirely of his former friends, among that few, fortunately, transformed, his whole character changed, except was his faithful wife. that his integrity of purpose nothing could weaken Among the visible tokens of the abnormal state or abate.

of Mr. Morris's mind was his extravagant attempt Looking now calmly and critically over the to build a marble palace which should entirely history of Robert Morris's of almost eclipse all domestic edifices hitherto erected upon unparalleled mercantile success before he relin- | the American Continent. The site of " Morris's quished private business for public service, and Folly,” as it was popularly designated after his then over the history of his career of almost inability to complete it became evident, was the unparalleled misfortune and disaster after he re- south side of Chestnut street, extending east and tired from the public service and resumed private west from Seventh to Eighth, and southward to business, one can scarcely avoid the conclusion line about where Sansom street now lies, coin. that the cares, anxieties and perplexities, together prising what had been known as “ Norris's Pa-ture with the vast labors, of his public life, had com- Field;" to this he proposed to add the “Conti. pletely destroyed his mental equipoise—had seri. nental Yard," which would have made his grounds ously impaired his mind, and deprived it of all take in the entire square bounded by Seventh, those characteristics which had given him his for- Chestnut, Eighth and Walnut streets. The house mer success and established his credit; the man, fronted towards Chestnut street, and stood aboot the most striking traits of whose mind had been fifty feet back of the line, midway of the groundextreme prudence, far-seeing judgment, and a front. A French architect of some repute, esti. shrewd penetration into the character and prin- mated that the cost would be sixty thousand dol. ciples of every man with whom he had dealings, lars, an estimate which, one would think, should appears now as a rash, wild, unthinking specu- have itself made Mr. Morris aware that the archilator, with no faculty of discrimination as to the tect was either dangerously incompetent or a nature of the speculation, or the character of the scheming knave; but he was strangely biind and man with whom he deals. Mr. Brotherhead says: did not see how absurdly disproportionate the There can be but little doubt that the position sum was to the vast design. The cellars, said 10 of Morris in the Revolution threw him into such have been a perfect labyrinth of underground a vortex of public confidence, that he, mortal as passages, extending three stories down, exhausted he was, forgot that success could continue in his the sum designed to complete the structure; and business only with discretion and his previous yet the infatuated projector would not pause; the good judgment," etc. But the fact is patent that sad work went on, the mad financier became more

and more mad in his perilous undertakings, and

at last the inevitable consequence, irretrievable ? In July, 1781, Mr. Morris appointed Mr. Gouverneur ruin, arrested all bis enterprises, the wise and the Morris, of New York, Assistant Superintendent of Finance, unwise alike. The superb palace had reached the and throughout the more than three years that he held the Superintendency, this gentleman was his only assistant, ex. stage of advancement shown in the engraving, cept, of course, the needful clerical and subordinate help when the sheriff sold the land to William Sansom, that was indispensable.

and the materials in the building to Thomas Bil.

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