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fire, which collected crowds of people together, on the 22d at ih. 46m. P.M.; the launch on either and subjecting them to the exciting causes of the day should therefore take place between threedisease, gave to it an impulse which in a very quarters past one and one-quarter past two in the short time seemed to extend to every part of the afternoon." city.”

It would appear that Naval Consttuctor HumHowever, the citizens seemed to say, "a plague' phreys let the advice contained in the foregoing upon your croaking, we are determined to see the communication “pass for innocent speculation," launch." And see it they did, the cnly fever as the day of launching was not changed to the apparent was one of excitement, from which the 22d, but on the 7th, at twenty minutes after two “malignant" mortality list did not afterwards ap- o'clock, the stately craft slid from her cradle into pear to be increased.

the bosom of the Delaware. On the following day The North Carolina was a seventy-four-gun ship, Commodore Murray issued the following circular: 196.3 feet in length, 53 feet beam, and in depth The Commandant of this Navy Yard feels it 22 feet, the cost of constructing the vessel, in- as a duty incumbent upon him to express his entire cluding labor and material, being $431,852. She satisfaction in the conduct of the officers attached being considered of immense proportions, fears to the Yard, as well as those on the station, and were entertained by many that the depth of water also the officers and men of the Marine Corps,' at the launching-ways would be insufficient to for strict attention to the orders of the day in the launch the vessel safely, and we quote from the launch of the United States ship North Carolina, New York Daily Advertiser of September 5th, so ably organized and conducted by the Naval 1820, a communication written by a ship-builder Constructor, and it affords the highest gratification of Gotham, in which he gives his views upon the to learn that in the assemblage of such a vast consubject :

course of citizens collected upon the occasion “ Having observed from the notices given in not one accident occurred or the least confusion the Philadelphia papers that the 7th of September or dissatisfaction took place, all the spectators was the time decided upon for the launching of being accommodated in viewing the noble ship this important ship, from a knowledge of the prac- gliding into her destined element." tice usual in such cases of fixing upon a time when In consideration of the satisfactory manner in the tide is higher than commonly, I was led to ex- which the shipwrights and other employés of the pect such a tide on the day appointed. From Yard conducted themselves on the occasion, a these considerations I have been induced :o find holiday was given to them all. the comparative height of the high tides of the 7th The Philadelphia Gazette, in speaking of the and 22d of the month. Not knowing the actual | launch, says: “ The concourse of spectators in the rise of the tides at Philadelphia, I had to content Navy Yard and on the surrounding eminences, on myself with discovering their comparative eleva- board the various steamboats and other vessels tion on the days above mentioned; the result for moored in the river, was immense, exceeding, on the 7th was 42, and for the 22d was 56; that is, a moderate calculation, forty thousand souls. The the height of the former to the height of the latter vessel descended into her element in a most majesis as 42 to 56. So that the height of the tide on tic style, amid the roar of cannon, music from the 22d will be one fourth of its whole quantity several fine military bands, and the acclamations greater than that of the 7th. It may, however, of the assembled multitude. It gives us pleasure be a fact that it requires no more than an ordinary to add that, notwithstanding this vast assemblage, tide for conveying this mighty fabric with ease no accident of the slightest nature occurred.”' and safety to its destined element. If so, what

From the time of the laying of her keel until has herein been said and done must pass for inno. the day of launching was one year and seven cent speculation, but if an unusual elevation of the months, which in those days was looked upon as tide waters should be deemed more proper for the marvellous in the way of expeditious shipbuilding. undertaking, the 22d of the month would have

After remaining at this Yard for some months, been in a high degree preferable to the day ap: she was sent to Norfolk in charge of Lieutenant pointed. The time of high water at Philadelphia E. A. F. Vallette for the purpose of being fitted on the 7th instant will be at ih. 50m. P.M., and

out at that port. From 1825 to 1827 she was attached to the Mediterranean squadron as the flag- 1837 to 1839 as the flagship of Commodore H. E. ship of Commodore John Rogers. From extracts · Ballard, after which she returned to New York, taken from the ship's log, we find that “her where she has since been employed, under various maximum draft was 25.8 feet. Best sailing trim commanders, as the receiving ship at that Navy varying from one to two feet by the stern. Is Yard until October ist, 1869, upon which day she stiff-lie to and scuds well. Rolls deep and was sold by the government to private partieslurches quickly in a heavy sea, but without much' making the career of this ship as a man-vi-war strain on the spars. Rides easy at her cables forty-seven years, during which period it has been has logged ten knots on a wind and twelve knots stated that she cost less for repairs than many an. free." She was stationed on the Pacific from other vessel of much less tonnage.

OUR NATIONAL SOBRIQUET.

By M. R. Pilon.'

The early French colonists of Canada called gin with the song of “Yankee Doodle" which their neighboring colonists, south of them, Anglais, was introduced during the French and Indian war which, in French, is usually pronounced Anglé, by a Dr. Shackburg, of the British army. When although some put a broader sound on the last the British army was encamped on the Hudson, vowel.

recruits came pouring in from the surrounding As the French grew to mix with the Indians country in fantastic dress and various equipments. who bordered on their colonies, as well also with Their singular appearance excited mirth among numerous tribes from the interior whose hunting the well trained British regulars, and suggested the excursions often extended to the haunts of the pale song of “Yankee Doodle" to Dr. Shackburg's faces, the Indians being unable to pronounce the mind, which he at once wrote out and recomword Anglais, called it Yankais. By this title the mended to these mottled reinforcements as a celecolonists south of Canada came to be known. brated martial air. The origin of the tune, howBetween the French, Indians and English the word ever, can be traced back to the reign of Charles I. was finally corrupted into its present form of Yan- Whatever may be the facts of the origin of the kees.

word Doodle, ic is true that our forefathers acThe words Yankais and Yankaise are, however, cepted both the name and the song, and that still heard occasionally in some seaports of France about a quarter of a century after Dr. Shackburg --though not very commonly used to distinguish made his kindly contribution to our epic literature, some American goods.

Lord Cornwallis and his troops marched into the However prudent a government may be it can- American lines to this same tune of “Yankee not restrain its subjects at honie, individually, from Doodle." a feeling of arrogance towards those born in its Spain, also, has a nickname for the people of colonies. It is the difference between metropolis Mexico and all Spanish America-Guachinango. and province. This quality or condition is promi

The stubborn persistence with which the Cubans nent with Anglo-Saxons and Castilians.

prosecute their war for independence, coupled with Some say, it was the prompting of this feeling the war of the Yankee colonists for their freedom, among the English metropolitans-coupled with suggests the vague possibility of an alienating inthe apprehension that Anglais might sometimes be Auence growing out of these royal epithets—a sort confourded with Yankais—with the consequent of patriotic undertow—which contributes some undesire to make the name unmistakably distinctive, seen force to the current that finally cuts the sand that they affixed the word Doodle.

from under the feet of national arrogance. Another authority says that Doodle had its ori

If we consider our appropriation and use of the

word Yankee we can find no reason in history why * Author of "Gold, and Free Banks,” « The Grangers," etc. it should have any more directness of application

to New England than to any other section of the United States. It is true that New England has contributed early and largely through its hardy whalemen and its trading vessels, in floating the American flag upon every sea, and in impressing its peculiarly patient, orderly, industrious and commercial habits upon the whole country; still it is not New England alone who is responsible for our Yankee sobriquet any more than it is New England alone who has made the Republic. New England may be the head; it is not the father. The Middle and Southern colonies and States have contributed their quota of brawn which has gone forth with the muscle of New England bearing our star of empire westward.

The Puritan precision of Massachusetts, the Quaker conservatism of Pennsylvania, the Religious tolerance of Maryland—as evinced in 1634 by the Catholic leaders, Sir George Calvert and Lord Baltimore-and the chivalric qualities of the Southern colonies, have all blended to form the character of the Republic whose manifest destiny is apparently unbounded.

Whatever use we may make of the word Yankee among ourselves, it is certain that whenever it comes to us from abroad-whether with satire or praise or otherwise-it falls upon us alike and equally. We cannot, either historically or logically, reduce the word to provincial application; nor did it have any such use or meaning in its inception. Outside of the United States all persons who are born in the land bordering north on the British colonies, and south on Mexico, are called Yankees.

One can hardly fail to observe, when travelling in Europe, that the Englishman takes care to demonstrate to every man he meets, that he was not born on the banks of the St. Lawrence, by not blowing words through his nose, even to such extent that he aspirates a sound when he should not. He makes this his distinguishing mark between himself and the Yankee, and to him every man born in America is a Yankee.

The people of Spanish America do not reason unjustly in questioning the propriety of applying the word American exclusively to the people of the United States. They find force in the suggestion that it would hardly be correct for any one nation of Europe to be known exclusively as Europeans.

A black man, born in Savannah or Omaha, and going from Missouri or Texas, as a teamster, to Chihuahua, Mexico, is known there as a Yankee, because he speaks English-even if he does not sound his r's nor blow "nuffin" and "sah" through his nose. In the interior of Mexico he is called a Guinea Yankee-not yet a Saxon nor an American, but still a Yankee.

Fairly and literally the sobriquet is national, or nothing, in its application.

Whatever it is, it is the only gift that the Republic ever accepted from abroad. Whether it was thrust upon us by accident or arrogance we adopted it and made much of it. Whether it clings to us through habit or through want of a better name, we may yet make the most of it. Who knows but that ere our history shall fold down another hundred years, we may call our coun try, officially and historically, Yankee-land, our Republic and our manners Yankish, and all our men and women Yankees?

What if the sobriquet had an obscure origin, to be used by our British patrons as synonimous with humility, or poverty, or satire? The name of the Romans had as humble an origin as the straw adorning their helmets, and yet our highest laudation in more modern times has found shape in "the noblest Roman of them all!"

What if it were thrust upon our uncovered brows as a brand or stigma? May there not be that within the heroic elements of the Republic which may transform it into a diadem of renown!

What if it were created with a primitive or provincial implication, merely to distinguish the hornyhanded tiller of colonial soil from the loyal subjects of a royally descended prince or ruler? "Princes descend from slaves;" and the royal ancestor was at some time a sturdy rover, slaughtering men and preying upon the spoils of battle, and, like William the Conqueror, acknowledging no law but

"The good old rule, the simple plan,

That he should take who had the power,
And he should keep who can."

What if the glory of the Republic were born in the shadow of its unharrowed hills? The glory of empires was born in the valley of death.

What if the jean vestments of Yankees were spun of toil? The purple robes of Princes were woven of carnage.

SCULPTURE POPULARIZED AND UTILIZED.

By RODMAN J. SHEJRR.

ART CONNOISSEURS, who are observers of men tured family,” as I have said-one of them a and things as well as of art, cannot but notice writer of excellent fiction, and another a wellthat often rough, crude, inartistic pictures, pic- informed and discriminating literary critic, while tures which actually offend their nicer taste, appear all four were well-educated and well-read. to appeal successfully to the popular eye, reach The simple fact is that, as a people, Americans the popular heart, and win widespread admiration, are too practical and utilitarian in their tastes and while gemmæ præclaræ et eximia of art scarce win ways to attain much knowledge of the finer chaa glance of the merest approval, or at best receive racteristics of the fine arts, and a pure gem of art but a flat, careless commendation.

often fails to interest them because they do not I recollect attending, some years since, a really excellent exhibition of Paintings and Statuary, as the escort or guide of a highly intelligent and cultured family, a family born and reared in the American Athens, and deservedly eminent among a large circle of the elite of Boston society; I attempted at first to act the part of guide, because I had been distinctly selected for that rôle; but, finding that my taste and theirs could not accord, I soon subsided into an interested observer of my guiding companions. A noble Rubens, a perfect Reynolds, a grand Bierstadt, and other masterpieces of the most eminent masters, were passed with generally but a careless glance; one of Sully's studies of grace and beauty provoked an insipid “ That's pretty! Don't you think so, Bertha ?”' and a very indifferent “Yes ! quite pretty!" An inimitable Kensett admitted of a ten seconds' pause and a nod of approval, and a Lake George scene by T. A. Richards actually gained a semi-hearty verdict of “Very pretty!" But I was not so much pained at the slighting of my favorites, as I comprehend it, while, precisely for the like reason, was astonished at the enthusiasmı evinced over a a picture far less meritorious or even destitute of daub which should have been excluded from the merit from a critic's standpoint, will afford real Gallery, and the warm eulogy unanimously (by pleasure and excite enthusiasm. It may be that the four critics who made up the family) bestowed an improved era of art taste is about to open in on an impossible fancy badly painted by—(I omit this country; at least, the generous efforts making the name, as the painter has since become an artist to found public galleries in our principal cities I incapable of producing another equal to this), cannot but hope will result in some advancement and above all was I wonder-struck and rendered in the popular education in the fine arts. speechless when I was appealed to to tell my com- If my above remarks are accepted as correct, panions " What does that superb painting repre- my readers will readily understand why sculpture sent?” the superb painting being an apparent tra- has so long been a sort of select art in this counvesty of a wild scene in some unknown (to me at try, with a small number only, and those chiefly least ) world, with a marvelous grouping of human in our larger cities, who could appreciate its spé

cial beauties and admire its grander features. This family was “a highly intelligent and cul- Sculptors have themselves largely to blame for the

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lack of popular interest in their art. They have placed himself in the very front rank, not perhaps devoted their talents too much to the production of American artists, but, what is better, of Ameriof classic figures and groups-mythological deities can educators. and heroes, historic personages of long-past ages, John Rogers was born on the 30th of October, and ideal creations in harmony with the sublime 1829, in Salem, Massachusetts. Leaving school sancies of poets and dreamy artists—such have been their favorite themes, and such cannot be favorite themes with the practical, utilitarian American masses. They have had their appreciative adınirers, their hearty eulogists, and their wise patrons; but their admirers, eulogists and patrons have been few, too few. Of late years, some of our American Sculptors have been learning practical wisdom or imbibing the American sentiment, and have turned their attention to subjects, no less worthy of their best efforts, though better calculated to achieve popularity and profit. While I admire the noble sculptures of the great artists, even when their subjects are of the kinds I have spoken of above, I cannot but feel a special de

COMING TO THE PARSON light when I see an American subject, treated by an American master-artist, the result being an

at sixteen

years

of

age, he was employed for about American masterpiece which appeals not only to

two years in a dry-goods store in Boston ; then my critical taste as an art connoisseur, but to my turned to civil engineering for a time, but soon inmost national feeling, my mind and heart, as an

quit this in consequence of some injury to his American.

eyes. He then, at Manchester, New Hampshire, I may be tempted some day to attempt a review

became an apprentice to the trade of a machinist, at which he worked for eight years in all, at the close being for a time superintendent of a railroad repair shop in the West. During all these years he found his recreation in making clay sketches. He longed to devote himself to sculpture, but for years it seemed impossible. At last, in 1858, he made a trip to Europe to learn what he could of that branch of art. But he bad no taste for classic styles, and saw little encouragement to attempt the development of his own style, and reluctantly determined to continue modeling only as pastime, and to resume business; accordingly he entered a surveyor's office in Chicago, as draughtsman. He could not, however, subdue his longing for artwork, and learning of a peculiar method of casting intricate figures, he modeled his group of “A Slave Auction,” resigned his situation, and went to New York in December, 1859. He learned

the art of casting from an Italian, mastering all its of the Sculptural Art in America, but my present details. Shortly after this, the War broke out, purpose is to speak very briefly of an American some of his little “war groups” brought him artist who is entitled to the gratitude of every into notice, and his statuettes have since gained American for the noble work he is accomplishing him fame and very satisfactory pecuniary returns.

Mr. Rogers has made a "new departure," in popularizing and utilizing Sculpture. He has

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