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copying none of the old or more modern masters. has been rather near somebody's lips. The miss His style is peculiarly his own, and his statuettes may have missed the kiss, however, in her haste are to be found in every city, town and village in to rise to her feet-he looks startled, she saucy. our land. The common people understand, ad “Better luck, next time !" mire, and, when they can command a sufficient “The Parting Promise,” accompanied with the
pledge of engagement, which the other is slipping upon the finger of the one, is no doubt faithfully kept by both the party of the second part and the party of the first, or we should not behold them “Coming to the Parson."
The two life-like pictures on this page do not necessarily belong to the foregoing series, and yet they might. The young couple settle in the country, are happy for awhile, until “business'' calls the young husband to the city, and his letters are the young wife's only solace in her loneliness; she goes to the 56 Country Post-office''—the old. cobbler postmaster is provokingly slow in deciphering her name, which she needs not to see to assure her from whom and to whom the letter
has come. The husband's “ business” calls to COUNTRY POSTOFFICE
the city are far too frequent—his ways not steady
1-his fondness for the social glass has developed sum, purchase one or more of his little groups. into habits of intemperance; all goes wrong-his Though not classic, and boasting no special farm to ruin and to his creditors-himself to the excellence as works of art, the “ Rogers Groups'' are popular beyond all precedent, and they deserve their popularity, for they are genuine works of art; their very simplicity is beauty; their commonplace, homely aspect wins one's heart, while a grand and classic statue better satisfies the critic's eye and mind. The homely little groups are not lacking in artistic merit. Of course they cannot be ranked with Powers's sublime creations or the other masterpieces of the plastic art, but some of them are faultless in design and execution, while there is not one of them that can be condemned 25 unworthy of a good man an i excellent artist.
I have taken up so much of my space, that I cannot give a full notice of the groups shown in the accompanying engravings; but fortunately they require no extended comments. The first three of these tell the old story of love and courtship.
"The Tap at the Window" portrays an annoying episode in courtship which some of my readers gutter, and to the jail—his wife and child to have experienced and others doubtless will—the suffering and misery; his sweet little babe is sick, delightful interchange of appropriate “talk” has there is no money to pay the doctor, and as a been provokingly interrupted—perhaps the question “Charity Patient” the old village apothecary is awaiting answer ; indeed, I should not wonder must prescribe for the little sufferer. if the hand now apparently seeking to hide itself Reader, did you ever hear of a parallel case ?
THE COSMOPOLITAN REPUBLIC.
BY THE HON. Cari SCHURZ.
Look back with me about four centuries. The violent, irresistible hurricanes sweep over the dark period of the middle ages is drawing near its world, bearing the most different elements of the close. The accidental explosion of that mysteri. human family together, which by mingling reinous black powder, discovered by an obscure Ger- vigorate each other, and the general confusion man monk, is the first flash of lightning preluding then becomes the starting point of the new period that gigantic thunder-storin which is to shatter the
of progress. Nations which have long subsisted edifice of feudal society. The invention of gun. upon their own resources, gradually lose their powder strips the feudal lord of his prestige as vigor, and die the death of decrepitude. But mana warrior; another discovery is to strip him of his kind becomes young again by race crossing race prestige as a man. Guttenberg, another obscure and mind penetrating mind. German, invents the printing press, and as gun.
The oldest traditions of history speak of great powder blows the castles of the small feudal tyrants revulsions and general migrations, and, if we could into the air, so the formidable artillery of printed but lift the veil which covers the remotest history letters batters down the citadels of ignorance and of Asiatic tribes, we should discover the first superstition. Soul and body take up arms and scenes and acts of the drama of which the downfall prepare themselves for the great battle of the Re- of the Roman Empire was the denouement. When formation. Now the volcano of the German mind that empire had exhausted its natural vitality, the bursts the crust of indolence which had covered it. dark forests of the North poured forth a barbarous Luther's triumphant thunder rattles against the but vigorous multitude who trampled into ruins See of Rome. The world is ablaze, all the ele- the effete civilization of the Roman World, but ments of society are rising up in commotion—wo infused new blood into the veins of old Europe, ages are battling against each other. The grand but grasping the great ideas of Christianity with a fearful struggle of the Reformation plunges all bloody but firm hand—and a new period of proEurope into endless confusion. The very wheel of gress sprang out of the seeming devastation. The progress seems to grind and crush one generation German element took the helm of history. after another. The ideas which concerned the In the course of time, the development of highest and most sacred relations of humanity, things arrived at a new turning point. The spirit seem to call into their service the basest and most
of individualism took possession of the heart of violent passions of the human heart, and in all civilized humanity, and the reformatory movement Europe the war of great principles degenerates into of the sixteenth century was its expression. Conwar of general devastation.
tinental Europe, however, appeared unable to But, meanwhile, a new country has opened its incorporate the new and progressive ideas, growing boundless fields to those great ideas, for the reali- out of that spirit, into organic political institutions
. zation of which the old world seems not wide While the heart of Europe was ravaged by a enough. It is as though the earth herself had series of religious wars, the Anglo-Saxons of Eng. • taken part in the general revolution, and had land partially effected what other nations seemed thrown from her sea-covered womb a new ground incapable to accomplish; but they also clung too for the development of the spirit of the new era. fast to the traditions of past centuries, they failed Not only the invention of gunpowder and of the to separate the Church from the State, and did printing press, but also the discovery of America, not realize the cosmopolitan tendency of the new inaugurate the new era.
principle. The student of history cannot fail to notice that, Then the time of a new migration was at hand, when new periods of civilization break upon and that migration rolled its waves towards humanity, the peoples of the earth cannot main- America. The old process repeated itself under tain their national relations. New ideas must be new forms, milder and more congenial to the carried out by new nations. From time to time, humane ideas it represented. It is now not a
barbarous multitude pouncing upon old and decay. They must enter the great family of nations as an ing empires-not a violent concussion of tribes ac- independent member; and in the colony of free companied by all the horrors of general destruction, humanity, whose mother-country is the world, they but we see the vigorous elements of all nations, established the COSMOPOLITAN REPUBLIC of equal the Anglo-Saxon, the German, the Celt, the rights, where manhood is the title to citizenship! Frenchman, the Scandinavian, the Scot, the Hol- We hear of the greatness of the Roman Republic. lander, the Spaniard, the Italian-all congregating The greatness of the Roman Republic consisted in and commingling on virgin soil, where the woods its despotic rule over the world-the greatness of man's hatchet is the only battle axe; led by the the American Republic consists in the secured irresistible attraction of free and broad principles right of man to govern himself. The dignity of commencing a new era in the history of the world, the Roman Citizen consisted in his exclusive priviwithout first destroying the results of the progress leges—the dignity of the American Citizen conof past periods-founding a new cosmopolitan sists in his holding the natural rights of his neighnation without marching over the dead bodies bor just as sacred as his own. The Roman of slain millions. Thus was founded the great Republic recognized and protected the rights of colony of free humanity, which has not old Eng. the citizen, at the same time disregarding and land, but the World, for its mother-country. leaving unprotected the rights of man; Roman
The Anglo-Saxon may justly be proud of the citizenship was based upon monopoly, not upon growth and development of this Western nation, the claims of human nature. What the citizen of and if he ascribe the most of the credit to the un- Rome claimed for himself, he did not respect in daunted spirit of his race, we may not accuse him others; his own greatness was his sole object-his of over-weening self glorification. The Anglo- liberty, as he regarded it, gave him the privilege
Saxon possesses, in an eminent degree, the talent to oppress his fellow-beings. His democracy, inof acting while others only think-of promptly stead of elevating mankind to its own level, executing his own ideas, and of applying the ideas trampled the rights of man into the dust. The of other people to his own purposes. There is, security of the Roman Republic, therefore, conperhaps, no other race that, at so early a day, sisted in the power of the sword—the security of could have formed the stern democracy of the the American Republic rests in the equality of huPlymouth settlement—no other race that could man right;! The Roman Republic perished by the have so victoriously defied the trials and hardships sword—the American Republic will stand as long of the original settler's life. No other race, per as the equality of human rights remains inviolate. haps, possesses, in so high a degree, the daring I wish the words of the Declaration of Indepen. spirit of independent enterprise, and at the same dence, that “all men are created free and equal, time the stubborn steadfastness necessary to the and are endowed with certain inalienable rights,” final achievement of great designs. The Anglo- were inscribed upon every gate-post within the limits Saxon spirit has been the locomotive of progress; of this Republic. From this principle the Revolubut the locomotive would have been of little use tionary Fathers derived their claim to indepento the world, had it refused to draw its train over dence-upon this they founded the institutions of the iron highway carrying its valuable freight to this country, and the whole structure was to be wards its destination—that train comprised the the living incarnation of this idea. This principle vigorous elements of all nations, that freight was contains the programme of our political existence. the vital ideas of our age, that destination the uni- It is at once the most progressive and the most versal freeriom and the ideal development of man. conservative one—the most progressive, for it takes Such, the true greatness of the Anglo-Saxon race, even the lowliest members of the human family ought to be the source of Anglo-Saxon pride. out of their degradation, and inspires them with
Thus, I have said, was founded the colony of the elevating consciousness of equal human dignity, free humanity on virgin soil. The young, vigor. the ennobling privileges and responsibilities of 0u5 elements which constitute the people of the citizenship; the most conservative, for it makes a niew world, cannot long submit to rule not of
cause of individual rights. From the their own making--they must throw off the fetters equality of rights springs the identity of our highwhich bind them to an old decrepit order of things. I est interests; we cannot subvert our neighbor's
rights without striking a dangerous blow at our that self-government cannot be learned but by own. And when the rights of one cannot be in practicing it. This is true Americanism. fringed without finding a ready defence in all There is a wonderful vitality in true democracy others, who defend their own rights in defending founded upon the equal rights of man.
There is his, then, and only then, are the rights of all safe. an inexhaustible power of resistance and seli:
This general identity of interests is the only protection in that system of government which thing that can guarantee the stability of demo- makes the protection of individual rights a matter cratic institutions. Equality of rights, embodied of common interest. If preserved in ils punis, in general self-government, is the great moral there is no warfare of opinions which can endanger element of true democracy; it is the only reliable it-no conspiracy of despotic aspirations that can safety-valve in the machinery of modern society. destroy it-no foreign hierarchy or domestic unHere is the solid foundation of our system of congenial organization that can in the slightest government; here our mission; here our great. degree impair or imperil it! All this is true only ness; here our safety-here, and nowhere else! in so far as true democracy is maintained in its This is true Americanism: We cannot deny one
We cannot deny one purity! But lower the standard of its purity by class the full measure of their natural rights, the slightest encroachments upon individual rights without imposing restraints upon our own liberty. or the rights of a class, and there are then dangers If we would be free, there is but one way: it is to which only blindness cannot see, and only party guarantee an equally full measure of liberty to all prejudice will not see. our neighbors !
The most frequent departures from the principle True, there are difficulties connected with an of equal rights for all, arise from the propensity organization of society founded upon the basis of of men to lose sight of fundamental principles when equal rights. Nobody denies it. A large num- passing abuses call for correction. It is wonderful ber of those who come from foreign lands are not how nations who have won their liberty by the as capable of taking part in the administration severest struggles, so easily become impatient of of government as the men who were fortunate the small inconveniences and passing difficulties enough to drink the milk of liberty in their cradles. which are almost inseparably connected with tie And certain religious denominations do nourish practical working of general self-government! principles which ara not in accordance with the How easily they forget that rights may be abused doctrines of true democracy. There is a con- and remain none the less inalienable rights! glomeration on this continent of heterogeneous Europe has witnessed many an attempt for the elements—a warfare of clashing inferests and un- establishment of democratic institutions—some of ruly aspirations; and with all this, our democratic them at first successful; but the abuses and in. system gives rights to the ignorant and power to conveniences incident to liberty have become at the inexperienced. The billows of passion will once apparent; then the ruling classes, in order lash the sides of the ship, and the storms of party to get rid of the abuses, have restricted libertywarfare will bend its masts, but the genius of true thus they have, indeed, gotten rid of the abuses, democracy will rebuke the winds and the raging but they have gotten rid of liberty at the saine of the sea. True democracy bears within itself time. For instance, have we not heard of liberal the antidote for all the difficulties that can grow governments protecting and regulating the liberty out of it!
of the press ? and to prevent that liberty from It is an old pretence of despotism throughout being abused, have they not adopted measures the world, that the people who are not experi- which, apparently harmless at first, have ultimately enced in sell.government are not fitted for the resulted in absolute censorship? exercise of self-government, and must first be Of all the dangers and difficulties, however, educated under the rule of superior intelligence ; that beset and imperil democratic institutions, at the same time those who make this pretence there is none more appalling and dangerous than deny the inexperienced all opportunity to acquire the hideous monster whose name is “ Proscription experience. To this treacherous sophistry the for opinions' sake.” Whether the opinions which Fathers of this Republic opposed the noble doc induce proscription be political or religious or trine that liberty is the best school for liberty-otherwise, the danger to the Republic of such
proscription is equally serious; but men in general are perils against which we must be sleeplessly are more inclined to intolerance and proscription alert. Once let force, privilege, and expediency in religious matters than in any others. Whoever triumph over and supplant right, equality, and reads the history of our country, however, calmly principle, as the leading motives of our policy, and carefully, cannot but discover that religious and we shall have no power to stem the current, liberty is slowly but surely rooting out bigotry when new abuses arise to be corrected, new inand even prejudice. It has dissolved the war of conveniences to be remedied, new dangers to be sects, once characterized by proscription and per. averted or obviated, new ends to be subserved. secution, into a mere contest of abstract opinions. Each encroachment upon the rights of our oppoThe peaceable working of the great principles nents now, will become a precedent for encroachwhich called this Republic into being gradually, ments upon our rights at some time in the future. silently, almost imperceptibly absorbs or dissolves Once knowingly disregard or trample upon the all that is not in harmony with the spirit of our fundamental principle of equal rights, and we institutions. Against superstition, fanaticism and cannot appeal to it for the protection of our rights even hierarchical schemes true democracy wields when our opponents hold the helm of the sirip of an almighty weapon, the weapon of Toleration. state. The American who consents to or abets a Toleration does not strike down the fanatic or violation of the fundamental principle of the schemer, or coerce him—it quietly and gently, Republic to attain a certain present end, may find but effectually disarms him. Jefferson never uttered himself in the plight of the sorcerer, who, having a wiser word than when he said he “would inuch made a giant snake lost the charm which would rather be exposed to the inconveniences arising protect him from its power, and was strangled in the from too much liberty, than to those arising from horrid coils of the monster of his own creation. 100 small a degree of it.” It is a matter of his- Liberty and equal rights, common to all as torical experience ihat nothing that is wrong in the air of heaven-liberty and equal rights to all principle can be right in practice. A violation men, now and forever, one and inseparable !" of equal rights can never serve to maintain in- This is the watchword ‘of our COSMOPOLITAN stitutions which are founded upon equal rights. REPUBLIC. This watchword embraces its princi. Second only in its dire consequences to the pro- ples, and its principles are its policy. This watchpensity of men to lose sight of fundamental word emblazoned upon its banner, has rallied principles in seeking to correct abuses, is the around that banner a noble army of devoted de. propensity of men and parties to ignore principles fenders-natives of the soil, white and black, and act on mere expediency-to sacrifice principles Englishmen, Irishmen, Germans, Scandinavians, in the struggle for temporary success. Indeed, in Scotchmen, Frenchmen, Spaniards, and natives some aspects, this latter propensity is fraught with of every land and clime, all with one heart and more peril to the Republic than the former, inas- one purpose, happy in the privilege of upholding much as those capable of such a propensity are
such a banner. Under this banner all the landemagogues and scoundrels.
guages of civilized mankind are spoken, every We hate kingcraft, and would sacrifice our for creed is protected, every right is held sacred. tunes and our lives to prevent its establishment With this banner we stand before the world; with on the soil of this Republic. But the rule of a this banner still dauntlessly upheld, defended, party which sacrifices principle to expediency is maintained without spot or blemish, without rent no less dangerous, no less disastrous, no less sub- or patch, one century passed, another begins, and, versive of true American democracy than the most while time rolls on until it is lost in eternity, the absolute monarchism.
pride and glory of its myriads of native-born Force instead of right, privilege instead of and naturalized citizens, still shall stand The equality, expediency instead of principle—these COSMOPOLITAN REPUBLIC !