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SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA.

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Everyday Science.- To Mend India-Rubber Shoes and | when it came from the churn, and the salt butter grows so Boots.—The following can be relied on : Procure a small tin much darker that it is decidedly streaked. The remedy is to box of prepared rubber in a semi-liquid condition, which can work the streaked butter more thoroughly, be purchased for a few cents at almost any store where India- To Crilize Broken Glass Apparatus by Cuttin inte rubber goods are kept for sale. The boot must be washed Forms.- Make a paste of one eighth ounce gum tragacanth clean and dried. Then the surface around the rent is to be with water, and also one-quarter ounce powdered gum ben. roughened a little with the point of a knise, after which the zoin with alcohol. Mix the two, and add powdered beech semi-liquid rubber is spread on with a spoon as thickly as it wood charcoal, fórming 1 thick dough, which mould into could be without flowing away. Then a neat patch is pre- little sticks about four inches in length and three-eighth of an pared and covered with one or two coats of rubber. When inch thick. The glass to be cut is first scratched deeply the prepared rubber is almost dry, the patch is applied, and with a diamond, and then one of the sticks, previouiy ig. held on firmly for a few minutes.

nited, is held agair.st the crack. The glass will divide nearly To Stick Leather, Paper, or Wood to Metal.—To a gill of as the end of the stick, which becomes a pointed gluwing glue dissolved in water add a tablespoonful of glycerin. coal, is drawn over the diamond scratch,

For Slight Burns.-Apply cotton batting soaked with a liniment made of equal parts of linseed oil and lime water. Recent Inventions.--Among recent inventions noticed Be careful not to break the blisters, should any form. in the Scientific American, we find the following, in wh ch

Tests for Indigo.—The finest quality of indigo has the least some of our readers may be interestel: specific gravity, and floats upon water. It may also be tested Improved Bed Bottom, intented by Elias Stillz«ll, R. by its not readily leaving a mark on drawing it across a piece ville, Missouri.-- The object of this invention is to pri bide: of paper, and also by the clear blue which it imparts to water cheap, comfortable, and elastic bed bottom, without the use when dissolved.

of slats or springs as ordinarily employed; and it ons is To Prevent the Skin Discoloring after a Bruise.—Take a two inside detachable rails, over which a stretcher of canvas little dry starch or arrowroot, moisten it with cold water, and is placed. The rails are kept apart by notched bars, ...) place it on the injured part. This done immediately prevents have arms which rest upon a subjacent support, and, wher the action of the air upon the skin. Invaluable for black pressed down from the weight of the occupant, tighien the cyes.

In combination with the rails are employed one co Excellent Stove Blacking.-Black lead well mixed with more bolts on each side, which pass through the bevised white of egg is a good stove blacking. Lay on with a paint rails, and also the detachable rails, to prevent the accidental brush, and when dry polish with a hard brush.

displacement of the latter. To Prevent Flat Irons from Rusting.--Melt one-quarter Improved Remedy for Rheumatism, intented by A3. Sc ounce of camphor and one hall pound fresh hog's lard over verin, New York City. The proposed remedy is a cumppuasi. a slow fire, take off the scum, and mix as much black lead tion of iodide of potassium, solid extract of aconite, wine cu with the composition as will bring it to the color of iron. colchicum, morphine, and compound syrup or sursaparils. Spread this over the articles for which it is intended. Let it Improved key for Lock, invented by Ilarren 11. Gailte lie for twenty-four hours, and then rub it well with a dry Hudson City, New Jersey.--A common device of burglars linen cloth. Or smear the irons over with melted suet, and for entering locked doors is to seize the key from the *w***** dust thereon some pounded unslaked lime from a mu-lin bag with a fine pair of nippers, turn it, and so dr. w lai tie Place the irons in a dry place when not in use, and cover

latch. The present invention prevents this by means of a them with baize.

swinging staple-shape«l guaril hung to the key and surroundFor Finding the Weight of Horses or Steers.- Make a ing the wards, so that, when the key is in the lock, cachof weighing-stall about three feet wide with a level foor. In the keyholes will be filled by a weilge-sh. ped plate, which the latter make a recess for the platform of the scales so tha: prevents the introduction of nippers or the plan ing of a the platform will be flush with the planking. Now lead your drill. horse or steer into the stall, so that the foreseet of the animal Improved Cigarette Jouth Piere, invented by David rest on the platform and note the weight. Start him ahead Marquis, New York City. This invention consists of 3 until his hind feet are on the platform; note the weight cigarette with tapering mouth piece, that is wound wi:h 39 again. Add the two weights thus taken, and the sum will be inner and outer spiral, decreasing in width, to which a wrap the total weight of the animal.

per of tobacco paper is connecter in spiral shape, to te tille! Streakal Butter. The cause of streaked butter is the im- and closed at the end. perfect working of the butter after it is salted. Salt in butter sets the color, or deepens and brightens it; so that is the salı A Boiling Lake. The discovery of a boiling lake in the is worked into the butter and nt so fully worked as to salt island of Dominica has excited much scientific interest, and every part, then the fresh butter retains the color it had I investigations of the phenomena are to be made by genluo

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gists. It appears that a company exploring the steep and forest-covered mountains behind the town of Rosseau came upon the boiling lake, about twenty five hundred feet above the sea level, and two miles in circumference. On the wind clearing away for a moment, the clouds of sulphurous steam with which the lake was covered, a mound of water was seen ten feet higher than the general level of the surface, caused by ebullition. The margin of the lake consists of beds of sulphur, and its overflow found exit by a waterfall of great height.

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Florida .
North Carolina
Alabama .
New Mexico Territory
Arkansas.
United States Army
United States Navy

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19,916 21,787 26,821 28,956 32,161 37,101 44,042

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United States Patents in 1875.- The Scientific American summarizes the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents as follows: Number of Patents issued by the United States Patent Office

to Residents of the aifferent States, Territorus, and Foreign Countries, from January 1, 1875, to December 31, 1875. The proportion of patents to population is shown in last column : States, etc.

No. of Patents. One to every District of Columbia

214

615 Connecticut

706 761 Massachusetts

1,846

787 Rhode Island

229

943 Colorado Territory

36 1,107 New York

3,771 1,163 California

399

1,404

656 1,534 Pennsylvania

2,034 1,728 Illinois

1,098 2,313 Ohio

1,091 2,443 New Hampshire

127

2,506 Vermunt.

2,709 Delaware

44 2,841 Michigan

405 2,923 Maryland

260 3,003 Minnesota

146

3,011 Nevada

16

3,369 Wisconsin

284 3,743 315 3,790

3,964

PATENTS EXPIRED.

New Jersey

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lowa Maine Indiana Oregon Dakota Territory Missouri ! Arizona Kansas Wyoming Territory Nebraska. Texa; Lousiana. West Virginia Kentucky Montana Territory Tennessee Virginia · Washington Territory Idaho Territory South Carolina Georgia

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Leaving the actual number expired . 1,323 Analysis. —An analysis of the table shows interesting facts. The geographical distribution of inventors, to whom patents were granted in 1875, appears by it to be as follows:

To the six New England States there were issued 3,188 patents, being one to every 1,094 people.

To the seven Middle States (including Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia), 7,905, one to every 1,623 people,

To the nine Western States (including Missouri), 3,076, one to every 3,360 people,

To the twelve Southern States, 814, one to every 13,279 people.

To the three Pacific States, 437, one to every 1,699 people.
To nine Territories, 59, one to every 12,203 people.

And to the District of Columbia, 214, one to every 615 of population, being the highest ratio in the Union,

Gains and Losses. All the States and Territories have held their own, or made gains over 1874 in the number of their patents, save the following, which show losses : Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Mississippi, Nebraska, Oregon, Vermont (for a wonder), and Dakota, Utah, Washington and Wyoming Territories.

New Hampshire and Nevada remained stationary, the sormer having 127, the latter 16 patents, the same as in 1874.

The principal increase was made in the following States: New York, 986; Pennsylvania, 390; Massachusetts, 340; Illinois, 164; California, 98, and the District of Columbia, 69.

4,631 4,727 4,754 4,829 5,521 5,759 5,833 6,939 7,057 9,209 9,303 9,974 10,765 12,130 12,710 14,999 17,513 18,795

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Artificial Teeth on Natural Stumps.—Mr. Moon has An individual named O'Donnell, who lives in Modi-, recently stated, in a communication to the English Odonto- Indiana, has brought himself into notice by accomplis logical Society, that the stump of a tooth may be preserved the hitherto unparalled seat (on a wager) of eating thir:y as the basis of an artificial tooth, and rendered painless, by quails in as many consecutive days, and this without any inleaving the root canal empty and drilling a hole into it just convenience or disgust. The case has attracted some attenbelow the edge of the gum. This hole becomes a permanent tion from the medical fraternity, and sundry individuals are vent, and thus saves the stump from disturbing influences, making Mr. O'Donnell's marvelous stomach the subject of which, is deprived of means of escape, would ultimately extensive bets. destroy it by a painful process.

Canal Steaming.–The use of steam on the Chesapeske Fossil Frogs.--Professor Newberry, of the Ohio geolog- and Ohio Canal is destined to increase the transportati? ical survey, has made additional collections in the coal- facilities of that enterprise, and eventually make a larger measures of new fossils. The vertebrate remains of land quantity of Cumberland coal available. The Ludlow Pil? · na animals of carboniserious age have as yet only been found recently made a round trip between Cumberland and Geigein Ohio, within the limits of the United States. These in

town, including lockage, in four days and nineteen hours, clude thirty-three species of Batrachians, but no reptiles or said to have been the fastest time ever made on the cara higher vertebrata. One of the recent novelties is a species | The owner of the Ludlow Patton claims that the simple and of the genus Ceraterpeton, the first time a European genus ingenious arrangement for submerging her propellor has outhas been detected in America. It was as large as a rat, and ducted largely to her success. She has been running the had a pair of stout horns on the back of its head, in the

cntire season just closing, has consumed for suel 414 tons of position and having much the form of those of an ox.

The

coal per trip, and the repairs to her motive power hare itiles skull is sculptured by rows of small pits, separated by fine far cost but go cents. radiating ridges.

Lifting Effect of Frost on Trees.-Dr. Lapham, seis Sixty-Foot Rails.—The Edgar Thompson Steel Works

Botanist and State Geologist of Wisconsin, says that ír • have filled an order for 60 foot rails. Several advantages are claimed for rails of this lengih. They cost no more per impression on some that the tree begins to grow again after

exerts a listing power on sull grown trees, so as to cause the pound than 30 foot rails; and as two crop ends are saved,

once attaining its full growth. When the land freeres cs. the cost of production is considerably lessened—no way of using crop enes economically having yet been devised. The pansion ensues, drawing the tree up with it, leaving of cost of laying is lessened; sewer fish plates, etc., are re

course a cavity whence the root was drawn. When the fis:

frost comes, the moisture, carrying carthy matter, enters the quired; and as the hammering caused by the rolling stock

cavity, and thus the root is prevented from re:urning to its in passing from rail to rail is lessened by one half, the wear and tear of rails and rolling stock must be greatly diminished. original position, Dr. Lapham suggests that one of the

chief offices of the tap roots may be to guard the tice * On bridges, also, the strain will be greatly reduced. The

much as possible against this sroși-listing. practical results of the use of these rails will be awaited with considerable interest.-Chicago Railroad Review.

Explosion of Chromic Acid with Glycerin.—Expo How to Grow Fat.-It is said that a pint of milk, taken

sive prescriptions are sometimes sent to innocent phartuaris every night just before retiring to rest will soon make the Ly careless or ignorant physicians. The latest case of this thinnest ligure plump. Here is a simple and pleasant means

kind is related by Austrian journals. The following mixture by which thin, scragsy women may acquire plump, rounded

was ordered for external use: 7.5 grains chromic acid ami figures.

60 grains glycerin. The chromic acid was mixed with

water in a flask and the glycerin mixed with it by shaking. Quail on Toast.–We dare say that there are a great Sud Jenly the contents of the flask exploded with a lou! many people who, if asked whether they could or would report, flying all about the shop, while the vessel remaine! partake of so toothsome a di-h as a broiled quail on toast

unhurt in the hand of the astonished apothecary, and was once a day for a month, would stare at the questioner in

covered with a black mass. This case desen as the brir astonishment, and express an earnest desire to be afforded notice because the quantity was so small and the detonat va the opportunity. And yet we can positively venture the so extremely violent. assertion that not one person out of a thousand would continue the diet for a fortnight. This is not because of the Another Explosion of Factory Dust.-A singular quantity of meat, because any one's ordinary dinner aggre.catastrophe took place at Champion Mills, Chicago, Ill., on gates an immensely larger amount, nor is it due to a surseit | December 31, 1875. One of the millers was pouring the of one particular kind of food, for roast beef might be eaten fine middlings down a chute, when the fine dust ignited on every day for a year with relish. The difficulty lies in the contact with the flame of a lamp which he held in his hand. flavor of the meat. Delicious as it is as an occasional A bud explosion followed, and his hands and face were delicacy, if it be caten for ten days or thereabouts, it terribly burnt. The building at once took fire, and property becomes excessively nauseating.

is the amount of about $4,000 was destroyed,

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XVI. THE BILLOPP HOUSE.

MANY very plain buildings in our country were The exact time when this house was built is not made famous by their association with important known. It is probably at least one hundred and events that occurred during our old War for Inde- fifty years old. By whom it was built is also an pendence. Some of these simple farm-houses, in unsolved question. And in regard to the Billong which dwelt people without a particle of ambition family there is such an indefinable mixture of his for distinction in the annals of their country, have tory and tradition, that it is difficult to determine passed away forever, yet their records remain, and what is truth. One story informs us that Captain their memory will be preserved for long genera- Christopher Billopp, of the British navy, also tions. Others still stand with almost their original commanded the war-ship Bently, was stationed at aspects, and are held sacred by the American New York soon after the final surrender of New citizens because of the deeds of patriotism, or Netherland to the English. At about that time a the personal sacrifice of patriots, with which they question arose as to which province, New York of are associated. Others, again, are cherished merely New Jersey, Staten Island belonged. A decision because they were witnesses of events of that period had been made that all islands in and adjacent to in our national history in which our republic was New York bay, around which a ship could sail in born. Some of these have unpleasant memories, twenty-four hours, should belong to the province like those which cluster around the Robinson of New York. It was believed that the water in House, on the Hudson, the theatre of the most the Kills was too shallow for a ship to sail through exciting scene in the drama of Arnold's treason. the strait. It had not then been attempted, and

Among the buildings yet remaining, almost un- there was a basis for a dispute concerning the poschanged in external features since that struggle, session of Staten Island. There was a mighty war and that were made notable, is the Billopp House, of words concerning the possibility of such a pas. on Staten Island, opposite Perth Amboy, in New sage, one party declaring that a ship could sail Jersey, so called because it was the property of through the Kills, and the other party as veheColonel Billopp, an adherent of the British crown, mently declaring that a ship could not. Captain at the time the events we are about to consider, Billopp settled the controversy in favor of New occurred there. It is a plain, substantial building York by sailing through the Kills and circumnavof stone, and standing upon the brow of a gentle gating Staten Island in twenty-four hours with his declivity that slopes to the waters of a strait known ship. He was rewarded for this eminent service as the Kills, that flow backward and forward by a manorial grant of several hundred acres of between it and the pleasant town of Perth Amboy, land on the southern side of the Island, and to on the main, with the rise and fall of the tides. this manor was given the name of his good ship Around it spreads out a spacious lawn that extends Bently, which had won the prize. It was known, down to the water, and huge willows and clumps of it is said, as the Manor of Bentley. In 1683 pines, almost conceal it from the view of passengers Staten Island was constituted Richmond County on the strait. Our picture is made from a photo- Another narrative informs us that Captain Bil. graph kindly furnished by William A. Whitehead, lopp was so rewarded because of his gallant services Esq., a careful historian, and Secretary of the New in a naval action under the command of the Duke Jersey Historical Society, who procured it in the of York, the proprieter of the province of New summer of 1875. The building seems to have been | York. This is probably nearer the truth than the scarcely changed in aspect, since I visited and former story; but nothing is said about a manet. made a pencil-sketch of it, twenty-six years ago. We learn from the records, that so early as the Only the piazza in front appears to be modern. administration of Governor Dongan (1683 to 1688) The mansion and the surrounding grounds belong, there were two manors on Staten Island, one on I believe, to the estate of the late William H. the southern part known as “Billopp Manor," and Aspinwall, of New York. Two head-stones have the other on the northern part (which belonged to been removed from their places in the old family Dongan), and was known as “Cassiltoun Manor.” burial-ground, and now stand leaning against a Mr. Whitehead, in his “Contributions to the Early fence near the house.

History of Perth Amboy," tells us, that Thomas

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