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Thus Edward first appears in history as the even that in and towards Wales. History cannot cruel, ruthless murderer of scores of the most produce a blacker, more perfidious, or more bloodtruly noble of the nobility of his own England, thirsty record. Let me quote a single item from and of thousands of humbler Englishmen, and his this record : “In the siege of the town of Berlater life is sadly in harmony with this beginning. wick, he himself, mounted on his horse Bayard, It is true, as Sir Matthew Hale declares, that was the first who leaped over the dike. The carmore was done in the first thirteen years of his nage that followed is one among the many inefreign than in the succeeding four centuries “to faceable blots on the memory of this great (?) but settle and establish the distributive justice of the unrelenting man; infancy, womanhood, old age, kingdom," and that he actually upheld and obeyed all were butchered that came within reach of the the “Magna Charta," whose defenders and cham- victors' swords." Then, still later, his positively

” ' pions he had shamelessly slaughtered—but his re- disgusting treatment of the great Wallace I canspect for that immortal charter was dictated simply not dwell on this story; it is sickening; suffice it and solely by policy; he was too shrewd to fail to to say, the world has never produced a more infaread the lessons of his father's disasters, which he mous murderer than him who murdered Wallace. knew were the natural fruit of misrule; he was no

It was in one of his incursions into Scotland more honest, no more just, no more magnanimous. that Edward stole “ the Stone of Destiny," and than his father, but he was far more sagacious and had it removed “ from Scone to Westminster." crafty. That he was not actuated by worthy But all Edward's infamy was secured at small motives is unequivocally betrayed by his unjusti- prosit; scarcely had he gotten rid of Wallace, fiable conduct towards Wales—that he was not when Bruce arose and completely recovered his only a false-hearted and wickedly selfish monarch, realm from the English power. Edward never but at heart a cruel, inhuman monster, is incon- wavered in his injustice and wickedness—on his testibly shown by his treatment of Llewellyn and death-bed, he directed what he could no longer of the heroic David. But his later course in and lead; but his army, under Pembroke, was signally towards Scotland exceeds in shameless wickedness | routed; the dying king remounted his horse to


lead his army in person, but in vain; an enemy even his indomitable will and great military genius could not check, laid him low; at Burgh on the Sands, he was compelled to tarry for a night, and the next morning his soul went, unrelenting, unrepentant, the final journey, leaving his corpse to be borne with great pomp to Westminster; on the way, it was temporarily placed in Waltham Abbey, as Dr. Lossing says: here it rested for fifteen weeks, during which it was attended night and day by religious men from the neighboring monasteries. That Edward was innately cruel and bloodthirsty, I think is very clearly shown by the single statement of Froissart that in his very last moments he required his son to swear "that he would boil his body in a cauldron, bury the flesh, and keep the bones to be carried at the head of an army against the Scots every time they should rebel."

But at Waltham there is a noble monument, the Waltham Cross, which tells us of a phase of Edward's character which we may contemplate with pleasure and with wonder too, that so cruel, so wicked a king could have been so loving a husband.

Eleanor, Edward's wife, was a daughter of Ferdinand III., of Castile, and was unquestionably a noble wife. She accompanied her husband to the Holy Land in the crusade of 1271, and when he was wounded at Acre by Azazim, a Saracen, she, with lips “anointed with the virthe of lovely affection," drew the poison from the wound. Royal marriages are usually simply state affairs, without even a pretence of love, but we cannot doubt that Edward and Eleanor truly loved. "She was married to him," says an English writer, "at Bures in

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Spain, crowned with him the day of his corona- places, the sad procession paused, and at each tion, lived his wife, in lovely participation of all Edward erected a beautiful Gothic monument, his troubles and long voyages, thirty-six years, designated a Cross, to commemorate the virtues and died either at Grantham, or at Hardeby, of the beloved deceased ; of the entire fifteen but near Grantham, in Lincolnshire, as Edward was three now stand, those of Geddington, Northon his way to Scotland, when he first began to ampton and Waltham. insinuate himself into the affuirs of that kingdom. We are told that his affection for his father was But Edward's passion for ruling and oppressing likewise deep and fervent; when he received inthe Scots succumbed now to a holier feeling. His telligence of his father's death, soon after the journey was stopped, he gave all his thoughts to death of an infant son, his grief was so evident his faithful and devoted partner's remains, which that some surprise was expressed in his hearing were embalmed, and the internal parts laid in that he should be so much more moved at the Lincoln Cathedral, the body itself being con- death of his aged father than at that of his own veyed to Westminster. A long and melancholy son; his reply was: “ The loss of my son is a loss journey the mourning king made with it to the which I may hope to repair; but the death of a Chapel of King Edward the Confessor; and the father is a loss irreparable." nation, to whom Eleanor, had been a loving Strange, indeed, does it seem that one suscepmother,' sincerely sympathized in his grief.” At tible to the sentiments of love, could have been

, Lincoln, Stamford, Dunstable, St. Albans, Ged- so unscrupulously ambitious and so heartlessi; dirgton, Northampton, Waltham, and eight other inhuman in his efforts to satisfy that ambition !

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In the March MONTHLY, page 217, there are an eastern front, with one of the elaborately carved engraving and a six-line mention of this Tope. No gateways; there are four gateways, similar though doubt Mr. Morden is right in regarding the struc- not equal to the northeastern ; these are placed ture as a mound-tomb, but it is more than a mere near the four corners, facing two to the east and barrow as defined by him (“simpiy a large mound two to the west; the engraving shows the northraised over the corpse of a deceased chieftain, hero, western in the background. We offer herewith saint, or other man of special eminence"), it is a an admirable illustration of the handsomest of sacred edifice. Geňeral Cunningham, the great these gateways, the northeastern, with portions of

. English scholar, in “The Bilsah Topes," tells us : the same enlarged to afford a better idea of the “A Tope is properly a religious edifice dedicated superbly sculptured figures which literally cover emphatically to Buddha; that is, either to the the entire surfaces. Celestial Adi Buddha, the great First Cause of all The inain structure is a solid dome of brick and things, or to one of his emanations, the Mánúshi, stucco, one hundred and twenty-one feet in diameter or ‘Mortal' Buddhas, of whom the most celebrated and sixty-two in height; it is surrounded by a and the only historical one is Sákya Muni, who stone railing eight feet eight inches in height, died B.C. 543." He further says that the topes placed at a distance of nine feet and a half from are of three classes: “ First, the Dedicatory, which ihe base of the mound; the four gateways are each was consecrated to the supreme Buddha; secondly thirty-three feet in height and eleven feet nine the strictly Funereal, which contained the ashes inches in width, to the outer edge of the side of the dead; and third, the Memorial, which was pillars. built in celebrated spots.” The topes of all these The date of the original construction of this tope classes were sacred edifices, but in different degrees. is variously given by critics of equal credit, and The distinguishing mark of the first class was a we do not pretend to any certainty in preferring representation of the two eyes symbolizing the the estimate of General Cunningham, who places omniscience of the supreme Buddha.

the origin of the tope proper at about 500 B.C.; The small engraving on page 217 shows the indeed, it may be that the apparently conflicting

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dates can be discovered to be not actually antag. I the aboriginal races of all Northern India. Now, onistic. Mr. Fergusson shows that no stone accepting Mr. Fergusson's strong proofs that no structure is to be found in India of an earlier time stone structure is to be found in India of a date than the reign of Asoka, about 280 B.C., when earlier than 280 B.C., and even the conjectures of Buddhism became the State religion. Buddhism those who place the construction of the stone had, however, as is well known, existed for three railing at 250 B.C., admitting too Mr. Fergusson's centuries; the prophet Sákya Muni, afterwards statements that bricks and stucco were not used styled Buddha, died in 543 B.C., at which time he in mound or barrow building earlier than 250 B.C., had brought within the influence of his system all this does not disprove General Cunningham's

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era—the dates assigned by various scholars to the present stone gateways. Indeed, the very form of the railing and of the gateways suggests the thought that they were a reproduction in stone of wooden originals. But, there is another reason why we are disposed to believe that the stone gateways are fac-similes of earlier wooden ones, and that lies in the fact that the serpent does not appear among the sculptured objects of worship; but one serpent is scen on the eastern or main gateway, and that is the Naga or five-headed serpent, portrayai not as an object of worship, but as worshipping the Sacred Tree. The only objects of worship apparent on these gateways are the Tree and the Dagoba—the Sacred Tree and the Sacred Dagoba being the

earliest represented objects of wotA PORTION OF THE LOWER LINTEL-FRONT.

ship in the Buddhist system, while estimate that the original mound was raised as it is well-known that at a later period the serpent early as 500 B.C., or within fifty years after Sakya became a most important object of such devotion; Muni had so widely diffused the Buddhist tenets in the tope of Amravati, the serpent appears to and ideas. The tradition of the country is clear command more attention than the Tree or Dagoba. that the tope of Sanchi is viewed with special Mr. Fergusson remarks on the absence of the reverence on account of its great antiquity. Asoka serpent as an object of worship and its appearance having made Buddhism the state religion, might as worshipping the Tree, among the sculptures very well proceed to convert the earthy tumulus into a more substantial brick and stucco tope. And as to the railing, doubtless, the old wooden enclosure was in process of decay, and was replaced as late as 250 B. C., while the gateways, possibly originally of

BAERERE harder and more durable wood, may have been made to answer,

888 BE because of the labor and cost of reproducing the carvings in stone, BEBBE BEHİD BEHEER BEEBRAREA until the year 19, 37, or 50 of the Christian


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