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that these sculptured pictures are not mere fancy productions, but are, in every minute detail, representations of the Tree and Dagoba worship of the Buddhists, and of certain ideas subordinate to that of worship.

Each of the two pillars is fully decorated on the front and on either side, while the back, being partly


HELEEHEHEHEHEHEEEE Failing and not so con

spicuous in itself as A PORTION OF THE MIDDLE LINTEL—BACK.

the front and sides,

contains but a single of Sanchi; he says: “It does seem strange that bas-relief of a single figure, about half-life-size, a god who everywhere else is worshipped should representing a warder or guardian of the entrance here be represented as worshipping, and not a in full costume. The sculptures on the front human or celestial god, but a tree. It is evident comprise a series of domestic and ritualistic we are still far removed from the supremacy which scenes; the Hindoo and Dasyu races are easily the serpent afterwards assumed at Amravati." distinguishable ; some of the scenes have simply

The tope of Sanchi is situated about three hun. to do with the corporeal life, while others plainly dred feet above Sanchi, at the top of a sandstone aim at representing a higher condition of being, hill, and is a striking object in the view from all and more distinctly indicate the positively relipoints while at considerable distance.

gious life; in some, we find men alone, in others The sculptures demand a few words; though, men and women, in others inferior animal and presuming that many of readers would tire of vegetable life blended with the human, and in the subject far sooner than we, we shall not at still others the inferior animal and the vegetable tempt as full a de. scription as we should

WWW prefer. It must not be forgotten that the latest date assigned to these really marelous sculptures, is about

With this fact in mind, none can question Mr. Morden's remark that these gates are "wonderful, even in that land of wonders, for their elaborate sculptures."


. First, then, the reader must understand



A.D. 50.

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life are the most essential features ;

VA water with water-plants, aquatic fowls and fish have their spaces, and the rude boat of the Dasyu caste appears to be contrasted with the more artistic, finished barge of the Hindoo. On the front of the right-hand pillar, we have a remarkable relief in four parts representing scenes in the life of Sákya Muni—the lower part portrays him as Prince Siddhârtha, doffing his robes of state for those of an ascetic, that he may devote himself to his great mission, and the upper part represents the “annunciation of Buddha," the crowning reward of his fifty-one years of labor and self-denial, while the two intervening parts evidently refer to him and his career, though they are not so readily understood by the uninitiate 1. One panel of the inner

A PORTION OF THE UPPER LINTEL-BACK. side of this pillar gives a grand representation of a regular Chiaitya, or Tope of the centre of the upper lintel, was the Chakra, or first class, the sacred Dagoba, with its two eyes wheel, which some say symbolized the law; though symbol. The corresponding panel of the left others claim that it represented Dharma, the hand pillar gives an equally grand representation second of the Buddhist Triad. of the Sacred Tree.

The Elephant groups, for perfect truth to life, It is worthy of note that of the right-hand or cannot be excelled by the most expert masterDagoba” pillar, the top panel of the lower sculptors of the present century; the form, the part, delineates the worship of the Sacred Tree, texture of the body, the grace of the limbs, the while the corresponding panel of the left-hand or pendulous, but perfectly flexible and delicately “Sacred Tree" pillar depicts the worship of the prehensile characteristics of the trunk-the posiSacred Dagoba—thus apparently seeking to teach tive perfection of the whole is not only marvelous, that the worship of the Tree was not prejudicial but defies any attempt to surpass this work of art or antagonistic to that of the Dagoba, nor that of the first century. Resting on the outer edge of the latter to the former.

of the platforms which uphold these elephants, The outside surface of each pillar is decorated there was on either pillar, a statue of a female, with architectural ornaments consisting of lotus small-life-size, overshadowed by a tree, a branch flowers, etc.; running through those on the left of which she grasped with one hand, while the other hand pillar is a scroll which issues from the mouth arm passed through a wreath suspended to the tree:

a of a crocodile at the base.

her body extended outwards in a diagonal line, Above the grand elephant groups which cap swinging from the feet and the tree canopy. The the lower or main portion of each pillar, the two figure, it is thought symbolized the universal mother panels are found between the lintels; then at the as recognized in the Buddhist system. top of each pillar there was the Trioul, which is The accompanying engravings of portions of supposed, according to Fergusson, to contain the the lintels, enlarged, scarcely demand explanation symbols of the five elements of the material uni. beyond the general remark that, throughout, the verse—earth, water, fire, wind and ether, repre. worship of the Tree and the Dagoba is the presented primarily by the square, circle, triangle, vailing theme of the artist-the animals and other crescent and cone. Between these, resting on the objects figured being all worshippers of these.

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Charles Peale Polk, the Painter.-In reply to the Mr. Isaac Hite. It was sent to Baltimore for sale, but was Editor's Query among the Notes AND Queries on page lost or stolen in 1871, and after the most untiring search the 227 of the MONTHLY for March, relating to Mr. Polk, the owner failed to find it. Fanny Madison's portrait (Mrs. artist, I have to state that his name was Charles Peale Polk, Rose) is in possession of Dr. Rose, of Memphis, Tennessee. born in Maryland, and supposed to be a nephew of Charles W. The others are in Baltimore. If my informant is correct, Peale, of Philadelphia. In 1799, Mr. Polk visited Virginia, Mr. Pulk was born on the Eastern shore of Maryland. and in the summer of that year was at the house of Isaac

W. T. R. SAFFELL. Hite in Frederick County, where he painted the portraits of James Madison, Sr., and Eleanor Madison, his wife, father Oster-Monat.-The illumination of the Saxon Calendar and mother of James Madison, President of the United for this month represents three persons elevated on a sort of States. These portraits are now in the possession of the owner, throne, each with drinking cups in their hands, and surJames Madison Hile, of Baltimore. They are 5 feet 6 inches, rounded with attendants upon their festivities. Strutt, in his try 3 feet 8 inches, called three-quarter size; and in my description of this drawing, says, “ Now, taking leave of the opinion, they are fine productions and highly creditable to laborious husbandman, we see the nobleman regaling with the artist

. At the same time, he painted portraits of Mr. his friends, and passing this pleasant month in banquetings Isaac Hite, and the two daughters of Mr. Madison, sisters and music.” But he assigns no cause for the appropriateness of the President, the elder of whom married Mr. Hite, and of this jollity to the particular season. Is not this picture an the younger Dr. Robert H. Rose, of Winchester, Virginia. emblem of the gladness with which the great festival of These are also in existence. Prior to 1799, Mr. Polk made Easter was held after the self-denials of Lent? April was a fine painting of Thomas Jefferson at Philadelphia or Mon called by the Anglo-Saxons “ by the name of Oster-monat; licello, and when on the visit referred to, presented it to some think, of a goddess called Goster, whereof I see no

VOL. VI.-20

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great reason, for if it took appellation of such a goddess (a "" Health, my Lord King,' the sweet Rowena said; supposed causer of the easterly winds), it seemeth to have • Health,' cried the Chieftain to the Saxon maid; been somewhat by some miswritten, and should rightly be Then gaily rose, and ’mid the concourse wide, Oster and not Goster. The winds indeed, by ancient observa- Kissed her hale lips, and placed her by his side. tion, were found in this month most commonly to blow from At the soft scene such gentie thoughts abound, the east, and east in the Teutonic is Ost, and Ost-end, which That health and kisses ’mongst the guests went round; rightly in English is East-end, hath that name for the From this the social custom took its rise ; eastern situation thereof, as to the ships it appeareth which We still retain and still must keep the prize.'” through the narrow seas do come from the west.

So as our

Selden, who gives the story in his Notes to Drayton, conjecname of the feast of Easter may be as much to say as the

tures of the wassail of the English that it was "an unusual feast of Oster, being yet at this present in Saxony called

ceremony among the Saxons before Hengist, as a note of Ostern, which cometh of Oster-monat, their and our old name

health-wishing (and so perhaps you might make it wish heil) of April." Those who are banqueting on the dais in the

which was expressed among other nations in that form of illumination, have each cups in their hands; the man sitting drinking to the health of their mistresses and friends.” at their feet is filling a horn from a tankard; the young man on the right is drinking from a horn. There is a clear dis

William Rush, the Artist.- 1 perceive, in reading the tinction between the rank of the persons assembled at this

January number of the MONTHLY, a note by the Editor making festivity; and the difference of the vessels which they are

inquiry in regard to the artist William Rush, who seems to using for their potations might imply that the horns were have had considerable merit in his day. I learn from the venfilled with the old Saxon ale or mead, and the cups with the erable ex- Judge L. Q. C. Elmer that he was a brother of the more luxurious wine. In Alfric's Colloquy a lad is asked celebrated physician and patriot of the Revolution, Benjamin what he drank, and he answers, “ Ale if I have it, or water Rush. There is a specimen in this city [Bridgeton, N. J.] if I have not.” He is further asked why he does not drink of his handiwork as a carver on wood, of some historical wine, and he replies, “I am not so rich that I can buy me interest. It is the original figure-head of the old ship John, wine, and wine is not the drink of children or the weak

which was wrecked near the ship-channel of the Delaware, minded, but of the elders and the wise." But if we may about three miles from Cohansey light. She was consigned reason from analogy, the drinking horn had a greater impor- to Henry Drinker, of Philadelphia, from Havre, France, I tance attached to it than the drinking cup. Inheritances of think, and had an assorted cargo, principally linens and Jand were transferred by the transfer of a horn; estates were liquors. A copy of her manifest is now in the possession of held in see by a horn. The horn of Ulphus is a remarkable Joseph H. Elmer, present Collector of Customs. She was curiosity still preserved in the Sacristy of the Cathedral at

cut through by the ice in the winter of 1799, and filled, makYork. Ulphus was a Danish nobleman of the time of Canute ing a dangerous bar eventually, on which has recently been who as Camden informs us, “By reason of the difference erected a permanent light, of great benefit to the navigation which was like to rise between his sons about the sharing of of the bay and river. General Ebenezer Elmer, father of his lands and lordships aster his death, resolved to make Judge Elmer aforesaid, being custom-house officer of the them all alike, and thereupon 'coming to York with that horn newly-created " Port of Bridgetown”—the official name of wherewith he was used to drink, filled it with wine, and

this port—went out to her in an open boat, and secured the kneeling devoutly before the altar of God and St. Peter, figure-head, which was esteemed a very fine work of art at prince of the apostles, drank the wine, and by that ceremony that time, and as it undoubtedly is to this day. He gave it enseoffed this church with all his lands and revenues.” to General Giles, who had just erected an ice-house of stone, During the Civil Wars the horn of Ulphus came into the partly above ground, with a conical roof. General Giles possession of Lord Fairfax, after being sold to a goldsmith; had the effigy affixed to the apex of this house, where it has and it was subsequently restored to the church by the Fairfax been ever since, until within a month or so, when it was refamily in 1675. The Pusey family in Berkshire hold their moved to make way for a new roof. The Rev. S. Beach possessions by a horn given to their ancestors by King Jones now owns the fine old mansion and premises formerly Canute. So Camden informs us; though the inscription belonging to General Giles, but doubtless is not aware of upon the horn which records the fact is held by Camden's the history of the beautiful lady who stood for seventy-five editor, Bishop Gibson, to be of a much more recent date.

years so majestically on this outbuilding, the admiration of Nearly all the Saxon representations of convivial meetings, generations of girls and boys of this vicinity.

R. B. P. and these are sufficiently numerous to furnish pretty clear evidence of the hospitality of that age-exhibit the guests for The Masonic Grip under the Gallows.—" Calcraft

, the most part drinking from horns. Whetlier the wine or who recently retired from the trying position of hangman in mead were drunk from horn or cup, the early custom of England, had an agreeable custom of always shaking hands pledging appears to have been universal. According to the with those upon whom he was about to carry out the seri

. old chroniclers, it was the first wine pledge that delivered tence of the law. But it has been observed that Marwood, over Britain to the power of the Saxons, when the beautiful his successor, never does this, and speculation has been rife Rowena sat down in the banqueting hall by the side of in certain quarters as to the cause of his departure from this Vortigern, and betrayed him by her wine cup, and her Waes precedent. Freemasons will be interested to learn that the Heal (Be of health). Robert of Gloucester has recorded this

reason is " because he is a free and Accepted Mason, and first wassail in his rough rhyme, which has thus been para dreads the condemned man giving him a Masonic grip in phrased:


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I find the above copied into several papers, and am curious The Launch of the Franklin.—The account in the to know the possibilities should the Masonic “grip” meet January number of the AMERICAN MONTILLY of the launch the hand of the executioner.

of the Franklin 74 at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, has reAnd, first, is it allowable for a Freemason to take the de- minded me that I witnessed that launch, and had a good graded office of hangman? Seecond, would the condemned view of it, a sailor having kindly held me up in his arms. man go through his trial and condemnation, and “give no Those in the yard had been invited to see the launch, but a sign ?"

large crowd of the uninvited had assembled in Federal Masonic signals, understood wherever the institution is street, where they attacked the board fence, which then found, and it is found the world over, have certainly stood bounded the yard on that street, with stones and brickbats, men good service when driven to extremity. My grandfather some of which went over the sence and occasioned alarm was one of the early Masons of the State of Maine, having among the female spectators. My belief is that the mob organized a lodge in his own premises. At one time, while broke down the fence and entered the yard. The news. commanding his ship in the Caribean Sea, he was assailed papers of the day probably mentioned it. by pirates. Having no ordnance on board, and flight having

SEXAGENARY. proved unavailing, he was obliged to heave to and wait the result. The buccaneers proved to be Spaniards. My grand

A Monument in Honor of Louis XVI.—The followfather ordered his men below, and placed himself, pistol in ing is translated from “ Louis XVI. et la Revolution,” by hand, upon the quarter-deck. I have heard him say that the Alexander Dumas, which professes to be a history and not a Captain was a handsome man, with gentlemanly manners, and elegantly equipped with sword, belt, and pistols. As he

America forever remembers what she owes to Louis approached the spot occupied by my relative, the latter be. XVI., her noble and generous ally; and the Congress rethought himself to make the Masonic sign appropriate for solved that a statue should be erected to the King of France such an occasion. Immediately the Captain gave command upon the great square of Philadelphia. for his men, who had swarmed the deck, to retire to their This statue was really erected, with the following inown crast, while the two officers retired to the cabin, and scription : shortly after the pirate left and hoisted sail to depart. 1

Post Deum Now, here was a man engaged iņ a most nefarious busi. !

DILIGENDA ET SERVANDA EST LIBERTAS ness, submitting to the laws of the Masonic Order. Would

MAXIMIS EMPTA LABORIBUS a felon be likely to omit his opportunity for escape by a like

HUMANIQUE SANGUINIS FLUMINE IRRIGATA, means, before the necessity came for the final “grip?"

PER IMMINENTIA BELLI PERICULA Would the Order interfere for an acknowledged felon? I

JUVANTE think not. Would the executioner, shocked at receiving the

OPTIMO GALLORUM PRINCIPE REGE Masonic grip at such an extremity, be likely to act in accord.

LUDOVICO XVI ance with the laws of the Order, or would he act in accord.

HANC STATUAM PRINCIPI AUGUSTISSIMO ance with the civil oath by virtue of which he holds his


ET ÆTERNAM PRETJOSAMQUE BENEFICII I will remark, incidentally, that when the men

MEMORIAM ordered below, the steward, impelled by an irresistible curi

GRATA REIPUBLICÆ VENERATIO osity, poked his head up to see how matters stood, when it

ULTIMIS TRADIT NEPOTIBUS. was as cleanly shaved off by the murderous crew as if guillo.

Thus, what is strange, the establishment of the American tined. ELIZABETH OAKES SMITH.

Republic raised the statue of Louis the Six:eenth upon a

pedestal, and the establishment of the republic in France Wanted—An Account of Captain Smith's Explora. caused him to mount a scaffold.” tions, etc.— The Susquehannocks had a town surrounded Did Congress or any other public body in the United by stockades, three miles below Wright's Ferry. They had States ever resolve that such a statue should be erected? If six hundred warriors. They were conquered and dismem resolutions would build monuments and set up statues our bered by the Iroquois a few years before the arrival of country would abound with them.

“ The oldest inhabitant” William Penn. Evans, in his “ Analysis” (second edition, of Philadelphia has no recollection of this statue. A.D. 1755), says that Bell, in the service of Maryland (at the

M E above fort), “ by the defeat of many hundreds, gave them a blow that they (the Five Nations) never recovered from.” The Rattlesnake Ensign. In the London Morning

Where could I find an account of Captain Smith's explo- Chronicle of July 25, 1776, I find the following.
, and map of the Susquehanna River in July, August

, colors of the American fleet have a snake with thirteen rattles, and September, 1908, and Bell's account of this battle, and the fourteenth budding described in the attitude of going to some account of Claiborne, who had a trading-post at the strike, with the motto, " Don't tread on me." It is a rule in mouth of the river in 1631 ? I can find but the briefest no- heraldry, that the worthy properties of the animal in the crest tices of these events. Miss Barber, late of Columbia, says bone shall be considered, and the base ones cannot be in. the battle was fought a few miles below that place, and that tended. The ancients accounted a snake or a serpent an she saw, in her childhood, the Indians' graves, and that there emblem of wisdom and in certain attitudes of endless duration. was said to be a cannon in the river opposite.

The rattlesnake is properly a representative of America, as SAMUEL EVANS. this animal is found in no other part of the world.


" The

The eye

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