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of this creature excels in brightness most of any other animal.

of Tarah.This is in harmony with the old Scottish She has no eyelids, and is therefore, an emblem of vigilance. legend cited by Mr. Morden. Subsequently, the Irish in She never begins an attack nor ever surrenders, she is there. order to "confirm" their colony, at Argyleshire, superstitifore an emblem of magnaninity and true courage, when in

ously sent the stone thither, and it was not returned but kept jured or in danger of being injured, she never wounds until

there until about 842, when “ Keneth the 2d, the son of Alfin, she has given to her enemies warning of their danger. No having enlarg'd his borders by the conquest of the Picts, other of her kind shows such generosity. When undisturbed

transferr'd this stone to Scone," and here it remained until and in peace, she does not appear to be furnished with a

Edward I. removed it to Westminster. It was not " enclosed weapon of any kind. They are latent in the roof of her in a wooden chair” at Scone, or by “ King Kenneth;" but mouth, and even when extended for her defence appear to

long before, indeed in the first record of its use at Tara, as those who are not acquainted with her to be weak and

the inauguration stone of the Kings of Ireland, it is noticed contemptible, yet her wounds however small, are decisive

as "being inclos'd in a wooden Chair.” The Druids claimed and fatal. She is solitary, and associates with her kind only

that it emitted a sound when the "rightful Candidate" ocwhen it it is necessary for their preservation. Her poison is

cupied the chair, but was "mute under a man of none or a at once the necessary means of digesting her food and certain

bad title;" of course, like priestly miracles generally, this destruction to her enemies. The power fascination attributed

“sound” was readily managed by the Druid officiating at to her by a generous construction resembles America. Those

the inauguration to suit the interests of the Druidic priestwho look steadily on her are delighted and involuntarily hoou. We believe, too, that Sir Walter Scott's version of advance towards her, and having once approached never the old Druidic oracle, as quoted by Mr. Morden, is a leave her. She is frequently found with thirteen rattles and

somewhat free rendering ; the original is as follows: they increase yearly. She is beautiful in youth and her

“ Cioniodh Souit Saor an fine, beauty increases with her age, her tongue is blue and forked

Man ha breag an Faisdine, as lightning."

Mar a bhfuighid an Lia-fail, The analogies of the first American ensign are ingenerously

Dlighid faitheas do ghabhail.” set forth in the foregoing extract, yet at our prejudices against Boethius gives it in Latin thus : the snake are deeply rooted, and as old as original sin itself, “Ni fallat fatum, Scoti, quocumque locatum few of our countrymen would regret that the device was

Invenient lapidem hanc, regnare tenentur ibidem.” changed.

J. I. Y.

John Toland gives an English translation that is perhaps

as far from literal as Scott's, but is interesting: Tom Paine's “Common Sense."- January 9, 1776,

Except old Saws do feign, appeared the anonymous pamphlet bearing the attractive

And wizards wits be blind, title of “ Common Sense.” It is not easy for us now to under

The Scots in place must reign stand the immense popularity which this production enjoyed

Where they this Stone shall find.” at the time, but the fact is unquestionable. Written by an We have a note of still another version, though we do not adventurer, Thomas Paine, who had been in the country recollect who made it; it is even less liberal than Scott's: only little more than a year, in a style often coarse and inele. “Consider Scott, wher'e'er you find this Stone, gant, it was at first ascribed to John Adams or Samuel Adams.

If fates sail not, there fixt must be your throne.” It was printed in numerous editions, was widely circulated Thus the old Irish superstition was adapted by the Scotand read, and everywhere it strengthened the growing desire tish Bard to favor the Scottish line, and versified. for a separation from the mother country. So great was its effect that at a later period Congress and the Assembly of Thomas Lynch, Jr.-Can any one inform me of any Pennsylvania even went so far as to make the writer consid- letter or letters of Thomas Lynch, Jr., one of the Signerserable grants in money, while New York gave him the con

except the one in “ Brotherhead's Centennial Book of the fiscated estate of one of the loyalists refugees, and the Signers ?”.

COLLECTOR, contemporary letters and papers contain abundant evidence besides of the impression which its publication produced. The Expeditions of George Rogers Clark.—Reply of

B. A.

Wm. Wirt Henry to Samuel Evans.- In the December

(1875) number of the Monthly I attempted to correct a The “Stone of Destiny.”—In the March Monthly, statement made in the 10th volume of Bancroft's History, to page 222, there is an interesting notice of this interesting the effect that the conquest of the Northwest in 1778 and stone of Ireland's, rather than England's

, antiquity. George 1779, by George Rogers Clark was effected with “ backBuchanan was mistaken, as quoted, in his claim that this woodsmen of Southwestern Pennsylvania, and from what we stone originally belonged to Argyleshire, Scotland. The now call East Tennessee and Kentucky,” my effort being to names of the stone in the early British tongue were Liag-show from the narrative of Clark and the records of the State, fail, “the Fatal Stone," and Cloch na Cinneamhna,

the that the Governor of Virginia was entitled to some of the Stone of Fortune," " both of them from a persuasion the credit of that enterprise, and that it was accomplished with antient Irish had, that, in what country soever this stone Virginians, it being doubtful whether any Pennsylvanians remain'd, there one of their blood was to reign.” “On the

were engaged in it. Fatal Stone," says Toland, "the supreme Kings of Ireland us'd to be inaugurated in times of Heathenism on the hill Evans, Esq., in which it is alleged that, “ in attempting to

I find in the number for March (1876) an article by Samuel

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give the truth in regard to this expedition, I have not stated satisfactory evidence of the fact. The proposed expedition the whole truth, and that if I mean to claim that West of 1781 was greatly embarrassed by the diversion of a large Augusta county, embraced all of Southwestern Pennsylvania, body of Virginians who even needed to protect the State and that those who resided there and participated in General from British invasion, and Clark was forced to enlist what Clark's expeditions to the Northwest were Virginians ex- men he could in the vicinity of Pittslurg, where the stores clusively, my claims is not well founded and history will not for his expedition against Detroit had been gathered. The bear me out." Mr. Evans also alleges that “with all her letter of Lieutenant James Marshall to President Read, pub. pride, Virginia has not always been neighborly or honorable lished by Mr. Evans, shows how sadly he was disappointed. with the subjects of this State,” (Pennsylvania).

Had the Pennsylvanians rallied to his standard, then he Pardon me for asking a little space in reply to these rather would not have been forced to relinquish his long cherished serious charges. And before I venture to defend my State, scheme of reducing Detroit. permit me to put myself right.

I am grieved that Mr. Evans should think that the pride I belong to that class who believe that in making statements of Virginia has not always been of that kind which should a suppressio veri is equivolent to a suggestio falsi as to all have constrained her to act honorably and neighborly with matters material to the subject matter stated, and therefore if the subjects of Pennsylvania; but I must insist that the conI have omitted anything material to the question I discussed, troversy between the two states as to their boundary, which to wit, whether George Rogers Clark conquered the North- alone is adduced by Mr. Evans in support of his allegation, west in 1778 and 1779 with Southwestern Pennsylvanians, does not establish his proposition. or with Virginians, I pray it may be set down to my ignorance. Mr. Evans will hardly do Virginia the injustice to hold As Mr. Evans has furnished a good deal of interesting in- her responsible for the deeds of the tory, Dr. John Connelly, formation bearing on the expedition undertaken by Clark in acting under the orders of the Royal-Governor Dunmore, in 1781, and upon the troubles which occurred in the disputed 1774 and afterwards. Nor should the State be censured territory on the border of Pennsylvania, Virginia, before and because some of her citizens may have behaved badly toward during the year 1781, and undertakes to show wherein I have | Pennsylvania in the disputes arising along an unsettled failed to tell the whole truth, I venture the presumption that border. No Virginian I am sure censures the State of the whole truth is now before the readers of the MONTHLY in Pennsylvania for the irregularities of her citizens in these the judgment of Mr. Evans. If this be so, we must conclude disputes. There was a border of territory claimed for years that there is no evidence that Southwestern Pennsylvanians by both colonies, and much was done doubtless by individ. composed any part of Clarks' command in 1778 and 1779 uals on both sides, which neither colony approved. as Mr. Evans makes no such claim, his claim is simply that When Virginia had a right to speak, as a state, however, there is evidence that Southwestern Pennsylvanians com

her action was noble and unselfish. In forming her Governposed part of Clark's command in 1781. It may be a matter ment, in 1776, she made a cession and release of the territory of some surprise that Mr. Evans did not state in this contained within their respective charters to the neighboring connection, what is undoubtedly true, that the expedition of states, in order to promote the common cause of America, Clark in 1781 was intended for the reduction of Detroit, that and to prevent as far as in her powers, future dispute and General Clark was beset by unexpected difficulties, and animosity, thus yielding all claims she had under her own thrown upon the defensive, by the hostile Indians, that this prior charters to the disputed territory, there was but one enterprise was abandoned, and Detroit remained in the thing more to be done to fix the boundary with Pennsylvania, possession of the British till it was surrendered under the and that was to determine the lines called for by her charter. provisions of the treaty of peace. Had Pennsylvanians there- The Virginia Convention during the same session proposed fore wholly constituted the force of Clark in 1781, they could a temporary line to be observed till the permanent line could claim no credit for wresting the Northwest from Great Britain

be run. In August 1779, the commissioners representing for two reasons ; one, that the expedition of 1781 accom- the two states met in Baltimore, and after considerable displished nothing towards dislodging the British, and another cussion agreed on the boundary which was afterwards ratified that their dislodgement had occurred, so far as effected by by both states. The proceedings of the commissioners are force, in 1778 and 1779, when very few if any Pennsylvanians given in “ Henning's Statutes at Large," vol., 10. pp. 521were with Clark's little army. On account of the failure of 33. The difficulty they had to meet arose from an inaccu. the expedition of 1781 may be found in the life of General racy in the Pennsylvania charter. By its provisions, her Clark as given in Lewis Collins' Historical Sketches of northern boundary was along the 420 degree of latitude,

(to wit the beginning of the 43d degree), her eastern boundI desire your readers to understand that I do not mean ary was the river Delaware, to a point twelv: miles north of "to claim that West Augusta embraced all of Southwestern New Castle, and below that point the arc of a circle with Pennsylvania, and that those who resided there and partici- New Castle as its centre, and having a radius of twelve miles, pated in General Clark's expeditions to the Northwest were

marked from the point where it strikes the Delaware river, Virginians exclusively." All I do claim is, that the com- westward till it intersects the beginning of the 40th degree mand of Clark with which he conquered the British Posts of latitude, (to wit the ending of the 39th degree). The western in 1978 and 1779 and gave to Virginia the Northwestern boundary was to be five degrees westward from the eastern, territory, which Virginia afterwards ceded to the United which would have made it an irregular line. The trouble States , was composed of Virginians, and while it is possible

was that a circle drawn with New Castle as a centre, and a that some Pennsylvanians were in that command, I have no radius of twelve miles, could by no possibility intersect the



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verse :

beginning of the 40th degree of latitude, and indeed, fell Ist. The Son marries his mother—they thus become hus-
short many miles of touching it. The Pennsylvanians band and wife; their offspring is a daughter. The man and
claimed, however, a territory three degrees wide from North woman die and are buried—a son and mother, and a husband
to South. This would have included a large part of Vir- and wise—in one grave; the daughter-a daughter of the
ginia, and the greater part of Maryland. The line with two and a sister of her father-dies and is buried beneath
Virginia was settled by her commissioners, proposing Mason the same grave-stone. This accounts for the three seeming
and Dixon's line for the southern boundary of Pennsylvania, “lo eight to mount.”
to be extended to a point five degrees west from its intersection 2d. The second Epitaph is easier of solution, requiring
with the Delaware river, and a meridian drawn from this merely a grouping of the letters therein so absurdly arranged
westerly point to constitute the western boundary. As the into words; these words arrange themselves into a ten-line
point on the Delaware, from which the five degrees were
computed, is the most westerly on that river, within the lati.

“ Beneath this stone lies Katharine Gray, tude of Pennsylvania, Virginia made compensation for any

Chang'd from a busy life to liseless clay; supposed loss of Pennsylvania on the South, by giving up

By earth and clay she got her pelf, a strip of territory on the western border, never claimed by

And now she's turn'd to earth herself. that state.

Ye weeping friends, let me advise, In view of these facts, it may be confidently claimed for

Abate your grief and dry your eyes Virginia, that in this matter she was both honorable and

For what avails a flood of tears? neighborly towards Pennsylvania.

Who knows, but, in a run of years,

In some tall pitcher or broad pan

She in her shop may be again.” Explanation of “Two Old-Time Epitaphs.”—In reply to the QUERY in the March number of the MONTHLY, The sentiment of the solution is even more curious than page 228, I submit the following, avhich appear to solve the the strange manner of putting it on thc stone. two epitaphs quoted :

J. H. M.


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The May “Monthly”-A Special Centennial Ex. | the army of the United States, from the world-renowned and position Number.—As the Exhibition is to open on the picturesque costume of the Revolutionary times to the se. ioth of May, we propose, in the May number of the Ameri verely simple and utilitarian equipment of the present day. CAN MONTHLY, to give a complete, exhaustive, and illus. The most striking feature of our present state of perfection trated exhibit of the grounds, buildings, and of the entire in the mechanical arts will be shown in the manufacture on Exposition in all its aspects and appointments.

the spot of the regulation rifle and cartridge by workmen de.

tailed for the purpose from the national arsenals. Old ProbaThe United States Government Building.–We give bilities will reveal the secrets of his trade, and with the help herewith a capital engraving, and quote from the · Hand. of lighthouses and fog-signals show us the pleasant paths of Book of the Centennial Grounds and Fairmount Park,” peace. The Treasury will show us how money is made, and published by the publishers of the Monthly, an admirable the Engineer's and Quartermaster's Departments how to sketch, of this edifice and its purposes :

spend it. Their long lines of fortification, models, torpe.' On the west side of Belmont Avenue, and directly oppo- does, and army wagons will be shown, in connection with site to the Women's Pavilion, is located the building erected our admirable hospital and ambulance service. A field hosby the United States Government. It is 480 feet long by 346 pital of twenty-four beds, erected as a separate building, is feet wide, an covers more than two acres, It was intended close at hand, designed to exhibit the American pavilion to construct this edifice of iron; but owing to the extreme system of hospital architecture. The Navy Department will economy demanded by the Congressional appropriation, wood show us what improvements have been made in the means and glass have been substituted. The utmost that the appro- by which Perry, Porter, Decatur and Jones established the priation of $65,000 would permit has been accomplished. glory of our flag. The Interior Department, among its Mr. J. H. Windrim, the architect of the Philadelphia Masonic various exhibits, will present us most of the useful and Temple, drew the desiens. The War Department will ex- visionary models of the Patent Office. The Indian Bureau hibit a complete historical display of the progress made in will tell us all about the red man's manners and custhe manufacture of arms, ammunition, and accoutrements toms, mode of warfare, costume, etc., illustrated by the prefrom the earliest days of the Republic until the present time. sence of some distinguished sons of the forest. The SmithCombined with this will be represented figures clad in uni sonian Institution will embrace this occasion to carry out the form illustrating the most prominent periods in the history of design of its founder—" the diffusion of knowledge among

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men." Its vast collection of treasures of the sea and land in every depart. meat of knowledge, and in every branch of Sci. ence and Art, will be thrown open to the world, and will amply repay prolonged and minute investigation. The Building Committee of the Government Board is composed of the fol. lowing gentlemen : Col. S. C. Lyford, War De. partment, chairman; Admiral Thorton A. Jenkins, Navy Department; William Sanders, Agri. cultural Department; Lt. Henry Metcalf, Supervisor of Construction.

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING. The Judges' Hall.—The accompanying engraving affords | rooms is arranged for the accommodation of the judges, each a fine view of this handsome structure, specially designed department having its own room, with every convenience for for the use of the “ two hundred judges.” It is located on a the transaction of business and reception of visitors. 00 a line with the Art Gallery, and to the rear of the Main Exhibition Building. The extreme dimensions of the build. The Million and a Half.--As our readers have learned, ing are 152 feet long by 114 feet wide. In the centre is a the United States Senate, aster a long delay, took up the large and well-lighted hall for public meetings, lectures, etc., House Bill appropriating a million and a half dollars and which will be used by scientific and other societies hold towards the Centennial, and passed it by a vote of forty-six ing their meetings in Philadelphia ; another and smaller hall to fifteen. It seems that Mr. Springer made a blunder in will be appropriated to meetings of the Centennial Commis- in springing his amendment upon the House, and that his sion, and, if necessary, the two halls can be thrown together, amendment does not mean what he meant that it really with accommodations for seven hundred persons. A gallery does not rob the stockholders of the principal invested, as he above will furnish accommodations for ladies. A series of intended, bnt simply requires that, after they are reimbursed,


the Government's“gift” shall be returned before any profits are divided. It is worthy of note that those in the House who voted for Mr. Springer's amendment voted against the bill on its final passage — thus showing that their object was to kill, not to persect, the measure. We could wish such contemptible tricks were always punished by proving blundering failures.

A single exhibitor from Cuba, Jules Lachaume, formerly a resident of this city, has shipped 1000 plants and trees for the Exhibition.




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Washington's Birthday in Richmond, Virginia.- The reporter tells us : “One of the most attractive les We are indebied to our good friend K. A. Brock, Esq., Cor- ures of this grand festival of .ye olden tyme' was the sap responding Secretary of the Virginia Historical Society for a per." And from his description we learn it was attractise copy of the Daily Dispatch, Richmond, February 23d, con- ir its elegance of "get-up," as well as in the number, taining a full report of a unique celebration of Washington's quantity and quality of the viands; "the servants ne Birthday, comprising a representation of the Colonial Court attired in the dress of 1776, and wore their hair powderen" of the Botetourt regime. The reporter is evidently a master As to the excellence of the supper the reporter says: "C'il of his art, for his report is so graphic that only a personal at- onel Minor, first doorkeeper of the Senate, represented an tendance could exceed the interest of its perusal. We cannot Old Virginia gentleman, Colonel Minor, who is a civa but wish we could have witnessed the gorgeous pageant, and noisseur in eating, pronounced the supper excellent. No regret that we have not the space to insert the entire report greater compliment could have been paid it." from the Dispatch. The reporter lells us :

Among the distinguished gentlemen not of "ye older “ The occasion was grand and inspiring. It turned back tyme," mentioned as present on the stage, we notice the the tide of time for more than a hundred years, and presented Governor of the State, Mayor Keiley, and the judges of the to the view of the assembled multitude as pretty a picture as Supreme Court of Appeals. ever dwelt in a poet's dream, or furnished a subject for an artist's pencil. It was the work of a number of patriotic ladies, Mr. William Welsh's extravagant Statement. The who, desiring to appropriately celebrate Washington's birth- New York Tribune, of February 27, contained the following day, and at the same time to earn money to improve the con- and was not extravagant in characterizing Mr. Welsh's state dition of the Virginia room, at Mount Vernon, conceived the ment as “extravagant," it is at least that the “somewhul' idea which they last night carried into execution with so might be omitted : large a measure of success and satisfaction."

An interesting but somewhat extravagant statemen: wss The Theatre was elaborately and elegantly decorated. made by ex-Peace Commissioner Wm. Welsh of Philade pia Manager Powell, who knows how to judge a crowd in the before the House Military Committee yesterday, during the Theatre accurately, says there were about 1,200 present. consideration of the bill transferring the Indian Bureau The popular opinion, generally exaggerated, was that there the War Department. Mr. Welsh said that he believed thu! were 1,800, or 2,000 present.

two-thirds of the appropriation for the Indian service is The curtain rose upon Lord Botetourt seated upon his expended for the election of United States Senators. He throne, which was placed to the left of the stage as seen from spoke strongly in favor of the bill. These "

"extravagani" the auditorium. A little girl and boy, children of Mrs. statements are far too common, and it is to be regretted that Coffee, in full costume of great beauty, stood the one to the a gentleman of Mr. Welsh's character can indulge in them. right and the other to the left of the Governor, and on the Aoor to the left of the throne stood about sorty or fifty of “States Evidence."-In the Legislature of New York, the courtiers.

it was proposed to fix the salaries of Aldermen in New York Then followed in grand succession a living panorama of city at $2,000 each per annum. A Tammany member, Mr the ceremonies actually enacted on the occasion portrayed. Galvin, opposed this, on the ground that it costs a candidate We have not space for a list of the larlies and gentlemen of for Alderman $2,000 or $3,000 to run for othce. Mr. Gal the Colonial Court personated, but must be content to name vin was an Assistant Alderman himsell once, and was at the some of the foremost: Lord Botetourt was personated by head of that body in Mr. Tweed's time. Col. R. B. Berkeley; Col., afterwards Gen., George Washington, by G. W. Bassett, a great-great-nephew of both The Carlist War Ended.-Spain has reason to reforce George and Martha Washington; Patrick Henry, by his at the overthrow and fight of Don Carlos, who has man great-grandson, Robert Taylor; Robert Carter Nicholas hy | tained for so many years a desultory and fruitless war, me Philip N. Nicholas; Richard Bland by John B. Bland; Col. sulting in great suffering and bloodshed. His hoses of Byrd by Byrd Wanwick; Sir John Randolph by Henry T. success since the accession of King Alionso have been very Wickham; Thomas Nelson, Jr., by Thomas Nelson Page; slight. This winter his army numbered only 30.000 men, Dr., afterwards Gen., Hugh Mercer by Judge E. C. Minor; while the royal forces exceeded 120,000. By bold stralenc Lady Martha Wa-hington by Mrs. Col. Lewis W. Washing movements the Alfonsin generals drove the Carlists from ton; Mrs. Robert Carter Nicholas by Miss Brooke ; Mrs. the coast, forced back the forces commanding the passat Nellie Conway Madison, mother of President Madison, by eastward of Vittoria, and finally captured Estella, the real Miss Emma Chamberlayne, a lineal descendant of the lady stronghold of the Carlist cause and the objective point of the she personated; the justly celebrated Evelyn Byrd, daughter campaign. The difficulties of the Spanish Government are. of the second Col. Byrd, by Miss Lucia Harrison; and Mrs. however, by no means ended. It has still in cintend with Hugh Mercer by Miss French.

financial bankruptcy at home and the trouble in Culia.

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