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common people, and the . liberal' pulpit is becoming fervent by a natural process. Possibility of natural causation is all and attractive in its efforts to show how the Gospel can be that science requires in support of evolution. and should be accommodated to Spencerianism . . . Never 8 6. NOR IN THE PROGRESSIVE RISE OF SPECIES. was thought so active as it is to-day, and never was there so Finally, the admission, which no one can withhold, that large a number of great and cultured and eminently virtuous where there is no miracle, natural force or evolution ob. and dispassionate minds who doubt or disbelieve the existence tains, proves the possibility of the evolution of species up to of a personal Deity." We quote once more from this re- man, and inclusive of man, from the lowest forms of life. markable « Preface," and then shall present some specimen The leap from one species to another would be necessary passages from the book itself, without attempting a refutation only once, and the conditions which effected it would, it of what, in our humble judgment, requires none; from the is supposable, pass away with the event In this supposition “Preface:" “ The object therefore of this volume is complex there is no miracle, no contradiction of natural law, because —first to show to the Orthodox that they stand or slippery we do not certainly know, from observation, a series of places, that their philosophy and logic can afford them no beginnings of species which constitutes a law in opposition legitimate aid and comfort; second, to show to the quasi- to this supposition, and proving this, by its deviation, to be evolutionist that there is no medium between a-theism or miraculous. non-theism and the rejection of their own principles of To ask for a specimen of such transition betrays a misapscience and philosophy; third, to show to the thorough prehension of the subject. The theory of Darwin is not put naturalistic evolutionists that there is at least one man among forth as a fact known to the senses, else it would not be the orthodox who thoroughly understands them-knows them

theory, but as an idea which contains a possible solution or better even than they know themselves—and who grants a theoretical solution of known fact; and if it is logically them all their principles, better expounded, and admits their possible, it is to be preserred to separate creationism because legitimate consequences; and fourth, that therefore the author infinitely simpler. If he cannot show a single indisputable must accept not only these principles, but also these conse

exemplification of his theory, neither can the creationist quences, unless he can furnish a new philosophy which shall

show a single indisputable example of the miraculous creause these acknowledged principles in combination with others

tion of a species. Here both parties are on a level. Both and thus attain other or rather higher results. This the know species, living and fossil, various and numerous. One author believes to be possible, and that he is called to at

party dogmatically affirms without any proof that they were tempt it.” And now, we propose to cite two sections of

miraculously created as distinct species. The other, more Chapter IV., under the caption “ Naturalism and Super modest and scientific, affirms nothing, but endeavors to find naturalism.” In % 1, the author attempts to show “ How a solution of known facts in accordance with the fundamen. Supernaturalism must be Supported and Proved;" in 2, tal law of science, the law of natural causation. If such a that “Known Supernatural Operations Care] Necessarily solution is logically possible, as a theory, which we have Very Limited;” in % 3, that they are “ Not Known in the just proved, then it rises at once into a probability infinitely

Trrnsmutation of Food into Thought;" & 4, “ Nor in Bodily superior to creationism, because it assumes nothing, while Generation;" and then we find the two sections which we

the assumption of creationism is of an infinite magnitude. cite:

Then in % 7, he is gracious enough to admit that “Super% 5. NOR IN THE BEGINNING OF LIFE AT THE FIRST. natural Power may Possibly Limit Evolution.” But we

It proves the possibility of the natural evolution of life have cited sufficient to show the character of Mr. Gill's from unconscious matter; because, as there can be, or need orthodoxy, and to justify us in the opinion that he does not be supposed, only one beginning of all life, there can be no understand himself and his position, whether he understands law of such events, and therefore no miracle. While the “ Evolution" or not. When we first read the title we leap from physical to vital is a variation from all other pro- thought the book might be a dangerous one in this age of cesses of nature, it does not follow that it is miraculous. It loose theology and tendency to rationalism, but upon reading is merely to say that nature has done this only once. But the book we have concluded that it is perfectly innocuous. many of her admitted achievements have never been repeated, so far as we know. She has never repeated the

Importance of Geometric Knowledge to Artists.great geological periods in the physical evolution of the

The Independent says: It is the highest ambition of our earth. We see at once that it would be contrary to the laws

young artists to go abroad to study in Paris, Rome, Florence, of nature to have them repeated. The same may be true of Munich, or Dresden, but most of them would do much better the beginning of life. The contrary or miraculous supposi. by staying at home and studying geometry—or, at least, too tion requires positive proof, and this is impossible to be

many of their productions cause one to think so. A hundred furnished. If we were familiar with many beginnings of

years ago Bachelier said, in his “Memoir on the Royal Free life following the same laws, we should say they were nat- Drawing School of Paris," “ To instruct the young in the ural, but it may be none the less natural because it occurs principles of geometry is to render them the greatest service. only once; and it cannot be miraculous, because it is not Not only does this science develop the intelligence, but it a deviation from many others of the same class, since there makes precision habitual, thanks to the exact knowledge which is no other.

it gives of the dimensions of all sorts of bodies, considered The proof of spontaneous generation would end the con. under different aspects. Without knowledge of geometry the troversy; but such proof is not necessary. It is enough that artist, uncertain of his result, works blindly. Led by ignorance, some past conditions may have orig ed both life and seed | he drags the young confided to his care from error to error."

Señor Castelar.—Although surrounded by a hostile majority in the Spanish Cortes, Señor Castelar continues to expose the misdeeds of the Government, and avow his fidelity to the liberal cause. This bold course of action is needed at present when the Spanish people are liable to forget their rights in rejoicing at the route of Don Carlos.

Valentine, the sculptor, has finished the recumbent statue of Robert E. Lee, to be placed over the grave of the Southern chiestain at Lexington, Virginia. The whole cost of the memorial is $25,000.

Ritualism in England-Its Poetry and Ceremonies. -The Boston Watchman is responsible for the following: “The Baroness Coutts, whose charities are known all over the world, has built many churches, and among others, St. Stephen's, in Westminster, where a congregation of Ritualistic Episcopalians worship. Here is the hymn they sang on New Year's day. We almost hesitate to admit it to our columns, yet it illustrates a phase of religious life; it is a " sign of the times," and therefore we print it:

Joseph was an old man,

An old man was he,
He married sweet Mary,

And a virgin was she.

As they went a walking

In the garden so gay,
Maid Mary spied cherries

Hanging over yon tree.
Mary said to Joseph,

With her sweet lip so mild,
“ Pluck these cherries, Joseph,

For to give to my Child." “Oh, then,” replied Joseph,

With words so unkind,
“I will pluck no cherries

For to give to tly Child.”
Mary said to cherry tree,

“ Bow down to my knee,
That I may pluck cherries

By one, two, and three.”
The uppermost sprig then

Bowed down to her knee,
“ Thus you may see, Joseph,

These cherries are for me."
“Oh! eat your cherries, Mary,

Oh! eat your cherries now;
Oh! eat your cherries Mary,

That grow upon the bough.”

SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA.

seen for some years. As an Editor of an historical periodical we are compelled frequently to consult histories, biographies, geographies, and many other standard works, and we find the revolving book-case a most valuable assistant, as it enables us to keep all our usual reference-volumes when we can reach any one of them without rising from our chair. But we find another important advantage in this revolver-our sanctum is somewhat circumscribed in its dimensions, and the case, holding nearly two hundred volumes, occupies less than four feet square. These two advantages are sufficient to win for it our unqualified approval and for its inventor our kindest regards, but some would doubtless regard the facility with which it may be moved from one part of the room to another, or its beauty and neatness as an article of furniture or the opportunity it affords for showing handsome volumes to advantage, among its strong points of excellence. Professional and literary men generally will appreciate this “Revolving Book-Case,” and to them especially we commend it. But Public Libraries will also find it a convenient useful and economical article, as besides the advantages above

alluded to, they will discover another-it will enable them THE HALLYN BOOK-CASE.

to provide just sufficient shelf-space to hold their books, and The Best “ Revolver." —Among the mynad products they ean add one or two cases from time to time to meet the of American inventive genius, comparatively few are es

demands of additional volumes. In the old methods of pecially designed for general use, and but few of these are furnishing libraries, it was necessary to provide a number of true to such avowed design. Of this few the book case shelves to remain vacant for a time or to be constantly illustrated above is one of the best and most useful we have subjected to inconvenience by having shelves added.

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Quick Work in a Rail Mill.-Inter-Ocean says: “A jasper, etc., which are so abundant on the beach at Aberystfew weeks since, the North Chicago Rolling Mill Company with, most probably come from some trap rocks on the north claimed the championship of the world in the manufacture side of the bay. The metal in the transparent agate or of steel rails when they produced 1,010 rails in twenty chalcedony is mostly iron, which gives the colors, dark green, hours. The Joliet mills laid themselves out lately with the yellow, and reddish brown, seen in the Mocha, and the following result: Between the hours of 5.50 P.M. on Mon- green and brown moss agate. day, and 5.45 Tuesday morning, they turned out 603 rails. Sowerby's “ Popular Mineralogy” says of these beautisul At 6.35 the day turn commenced, and at 5.45 P.M. had agates : "On this subject Phillips observes— Dr. McCulloch made 604 rails, thus accomplishing the wonderful run of has instituted a very ingenious inquiry into the nature of those 1,207 steel rails, weighing 35 lbs. per yard and 30 feet in vegetable appearances of different colors visible in the more length, in 17 hours and 25 minutes, and surpassing the work transparent chalcedonies, which are termed Mocha, and more of the Chicago mills by 193 rails, with 272 hours to spare. particularly in those which are less so, termed Agate. Close The average lime used for making each rail was 52 seconds, observation, added to chemical experience, induces the conwhile the Chicago mills used i minute and 12 seconds. clusion that many of these appearances are owing to the The Bessemer works of the Joliet Company also lead off existence in the stone of aquatic conservæ; that these plants with a run of 1,432 tons, while the biggest run made by any sometimes appear perfectly in their natural form and color; other mill was 1,317 tons, by the Chicago works last month. in others they seem to be coated by oxide of iron, which The boys claim that they have’nt shown their best foot yet; occasionally hides the form of the plant, and discolors it. and if anybody can equal this, they will go them a good deal Mosses and some varieties of lichen have been observed, and better."

occasionally chlorite, which sometimes is so disposed as to

represent a vegetable. A chrysalis, probably of a moth (?), American Meat sold in England.—Quite a large was observed in an onyx-agate in a ring in the possession of quantity of American meat was recently sold in the Liverpool Earl Powis.' Against the experience of Dr. McCulloch we markets at paying prices. It was taken over by the steamer should be sorry to offer an opinion, but we think the subject Illinois, in a large tank surrounded by ice and cooled by air requires further investigation. Mocha stone is a most driven in by a steam-worked blower.

beautiful, valuable agate, consisting of white cornelian, with

patches here and there of a deep brown color and dentritic A Curious Flirtation Story.--A writer, in Hardwicke's appearance. It derives its name from Mocha, in Arabia, Science Gossip says: I have frequently tried to find out how whence it is brought." crickets produce their well-known chirrup; but only on one occasion did I succeed in inducing a cricket to exercise itself Crabs out of Water.”-A writer says: Some years in that direction, they having apparently a great objection to ago I kept a small crab (Carcinus Mænas) in a bell-glass, “ sing" in captivity. On the occasion I refer to, I put two with some rock work for him to come out of the water on. crickets, a male and a female, under a tumbler, whereupon 1 If the glass cover got tilted on one side he managed to get out, the male immediately raised its elytra, and shuffled them to- i and was osten found about the room. Towards summer the gether, producing a noise which would be best represented | tank was moved out of doors, under a verandah; he soon by the word “shilly.” It repeated this several times with its!

got out and could not be found; but four or five days after, head towards the female, who probably considered herself on moving some flowerpots and plants from a damp corner, insulted, for she literally clawed his face with one of her the crab was discovered remarkably vigorous, with a large hind feet, supplementing this action with a sudden and vio.

worm in his claws, which he was very particular in insisting lent kick, and from that time the male took no more notice taking with him, on being returned to the tank, from which of her.

he soon escaped again, and finally disappeared.

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The Growth of Mistletoe.-The following trees sup- Dogs Eating Wasps.-We find the following dog story port mistletoe: The oak, poplar, lime, sycamore, apple, in an English paper: On several occasions this summer, I mountain ash, and fir. The mountain ash is an unusual tree watched with much interest the excitement caused by wasps to support the mistletoe, but an example can be seen from to a black and tan terrier. The moment one appeared on the Great terrace of Windsor Castle. The growth on a fir is the window, he commenced barking furiously, trying with curious; a large number of very small plants grow upon the his paws to knock it down, which, is on the lower panes, stem of the tree, on the side towards the south.

generally succeeded in doing; but the curious part was, that

as soon as the insect was on the ground, the dog began “ Mocha Stones" are so called, because found in abun

turning it over and over with his tongue for about ten dance at Mocha, in Arabia. They are found in Amygdaloidal minutes, all the time making a peculiar hissing noise, drag. Trap, which appears to have been originally vesicular lavas, ging it sometimes half across the room, and eventually eating through which waters charged with siliceous and calcareous it with the greatest relish, but apparently unconscious of the solutions had percolated for ages until they finally filled up danger of the sting if eaten immediately after death; but if the cavities with agates, etc. The dendritic markings are

he could pounce on one in the act of flying, he swallowed it metallic, not fossil vegetation, to which they bear a resem.

at once with impunity, evidently regarding it as a bonneblance. It is needless to say that these igneous rocks are a bouche, from the frantic manner in which he pursued any very old formation. The varieties of agate, onyx, carnelian, | that came in his way.

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The growth of cities in our country is marvel- “ The first white man who settled here was a ous. It makes the fanciful creations of Aladdin's negro," said the Pottawatomies, in great simlamp seem like realities, and almost gives us faith plicity, who called the place Chi-Ka-Kou, the in the thousand-and-one tales of Shahrazád. name of the pole-cat, in their language. That

On the sides of Mount Davidson, in Nevada, first settler was Jean Baptiste Point au Sable, a appeared a wall of black sulphuret, in 1861. There mulatto from the West Indies, who found his way was a suspicion that it concealed the entrance to to that far-off wilderness in 1796. He built a log a great treasury. And so it did, for in the bosom hut, but did not remain long. His dwelling and of that mountain lay the great “Comstock lode" improvements passed into the possession of John of silver and gold. The treasure-door was opened, Kinzie, a native of Quebec, and an enterprising and four years from that wonderful revelation trader with the Indians, and who for awhile was Virginia City stood over it, a town of twenty the only white inhabitant in northern Illinois, thousand inhabitants, whose citizens there had excepting a few soldiers of the United States army. picked out $30,000,000 worth of silver ore from He established a trading-house at Chicago in 1804, beneath its foundation. May we doubt the story where, two years before, a stockade had been of the Valley of Diamonds told by Sinbad the built and named Fort Dearborn in honor of the Sailor?

then Secretary of War. It had a block-house at But this was an abnormal growth of a great each of two angles on the southern side, a sallytown—the result of a single industry. There are port and a covered way on the north side that many instances like it in the wonderful mineral led down to the river, for the double purpose of regions of our country. But the normal growth providing means of escape, and for procuring of some of our cities is quite as marvelous. This water in the event of a siege. It stood on the is illustrated by three in the State of New York, south bank of the Chicago River, about half a mile namely, Brooklyn, Rochester, and Buffalo. A from its mouth. When Major Whistler built it, little more than sixty years ago, Brooklyn was a his soldiers hauled all the timber, for he had no little village clustered near the old ferry-house at oxen; and so economically did he work, that the the foot of Fulton street, which was then not fort cost the government only $50. For awhile named; now its population is well-nigh half a the garrison could get no grain, and Whistler and million. Rochester, at about the saine time, con- his men subsisted on acorns. Now Chicago is the sisted of a single log hut, from the timber of which greatest grain centre in the world. was wrought a table, now in possession of Henry On the site of Jean Baptiste's hut Mr. Kinzie O'Reilly, Esq., of New York City; now Rochester built his mansion. Within an enclosure in front contains more than eighty thousand inhabitants. he planted some Lombardy poplars, seen in the In 1813 Buffalo was a little village in ashes—laid engraving, and in the rear he soon had a fine waste by the torch of British soldiers; now it garden and growing orchard. There he lived contains a population of full one hundred and with his young family for eight years, until events, thirty thousand souls. These have had a normal which will be noticed presently, compelled him growth.

to leave. His house and its associations illustrate But the blossoming in the wilderness of the great the marvelous progress of our country in wealth city of Chicago, on the western shore of Lake and population. Michigan, is quite as marvelous as any on record. I visited Chicago in 1860, and had the pleasure

There, forty-five years ago stood a solitary mansion and profit of a personal interview with the daughon the northwestern border of a little river that ter-in-law of Mr. Kinzie, the wife of Mr. John H, empties into the lake, with a few log houses in its Kinzie. She was then a woman of middle age, neighborhood, and a military post on the opposite and she and her husband were the earliest living. side of the stream, known as Fort Dearborn. That inhabitants of that city, then containing one hun. was the whole of Chicago in 1830, when a small dred and twelve thousand souls, the product of the area of a few acres was surveyed for a village. A growth of thirty years. They were there in 1831; picture of that house and its surroundings is seen

the year after the State Commissioners marked at the head of this paper.

out the village plot. From her lips I received

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