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A Special Centennial Exposition Number. As the ' are caught, and the Babcocks and Belknaps are exposed on great Exhibition opens on the roth of May, we have thought the beach, there is a universal hue and cry-every one, exwe should devote our May number largely to Centennial cept those detected and exposed, is now honest and must matter. We believe our Centennial pages, twenty-six in attest that honesty by joining in the outcry. There is a number, will be found to contain many items interesting general disposition, too, to make this outcry partisan-to independently of their connection with the Exhibition. Some denounce not the criminals alone, but all of their respective of the facts and even some of the engravings have before political party associates. In New York and other quarters appeared in our pages; but the necessity or at least the where the detected rascals are of the Democratic persuasion, desirability of repeating these in giving a comprehensive behold the righteous Republicans horror-struck at the marexhibit of the Exhibition is so obvious that we deem an velous perfidy, not of the Tweed genus, but of the Demoapology scarcely demanded. We propose to continue our cratic Party; in the Southern States where the detected notice of points of interest in the City, in the Park, and in rascals are chiefly of the Republican name, behold the the Centennial Grounds, in our June number, giving perhaps a righteous Democrats horror-struck at the marvelous perfidy, dozen or sixteen pages, and trust we shall be able to make this not of the “scalawag” genus, but of the Republican Party, department interesting and profitable to our readers generally. So, too, in the case of the National scoundrels recently ex

posed, we find the same partisan efforts to make, nay to Our July Monthly.--We have a number of valuable : steal, party capital. pipers in hand soon to appear, from some of our most es- But let us look calmly at the sad truths of the whole sad teemed contributors; among these there are three which we story, and we shall see it is not a party matter in any of the propose to give in the July MONTHLY, viz., one on “ Thomas cases. The thieves are not all Republicans and they are not Jefferson," one on The Immortal Five," and one all Democrats; the thieves are not thieves because they call Patrick Henry (the last written at our urgent request by themselves by the one or by the other party name. the great patriot-orator's eminent grandson, William Wirt by any other name will smell as sweet,” and a thief has the Henry); besides these, Dr. Lossing's paper of the “ Historic same savor call him by what epithet you may. Buildings" series, is to treat of "Independence Hall”— We must look elsewhere than in party affiliations for the now, to make the set, so to speak, complete, we should very source of these public plunders and defalcations; we must much like a

History of the · Fair Copy' of the Declara- look deeper than we are in the habit of looking. tion,” we mean of the document preserved at Washington ;

The AMERICAN MONTHLY is a strictly non-partisan pub. we have seen essays in this direction, Put they have been lication, devoted especially to the promotion of true Ameri. weak and unsatisfactory, and we believe an exact and accu- can sentiments and principles, and the advancement of the rate history of that "fair copy," such as some of our careful best interests of our Nation, its institutions and its citizens ; writers (for instance, Mr. At Lee, Mr. Saffell, and others as such we propose to attempt to apply the microscope of whom we could name) could prepare, would be prized by close criticism to this growing cancer of public vice-to lay all of our readers.

bare its diagnosis, and to ask the people to apply the remedy.

We cannot do this in one number, and shall not even enter Where lies the Source ?-Who is Responsible ?--- the task in this number, beyond the general statement The people of the United States have lately been startled by that we believe that the source lies neither with the Repub. sad news from the National Capital. We have long been lican nor the Democratic Party—that neither is responsible sadly familiarized with rascality in lower circles of public for the terrible condition of official depravity that is bringing lise. State, County and City scamps are no longer able to reproach upon our Republic and her institutions : and farther create a ripple even in the small streams of local channels, that the true source is the people and that the people are while the peculations of the lower grades of officials in the responsible—you and we, dear readers, must be prepared to various branches of the National service no longer disturb accept our proposition of this responsibility. the placid surface of the great stream of National politics. larger fish are coming to the surface, betrayed by long im- The approaching Presidential Election.-In years munity and augmented greed into a degree of audacity that agone, we have been wont to have an excitement of seververifies the old maxim, that “whom the gods would destroy heat intensity months before the meetings of the party they first make mad;" for their audacity and foolhardiness is conventions to present candidates for President and Vice

a species of madness. When the Tweeds, the President, but here we are on the very eve of these delectable Warmouths, the Cardozas, the various specimens of Southern assemblages of political Savants (June 14, Republican; June

scalawag" thieves, and the myriads of local scoundrels in 27, Democratic), and none but “the leaders” of the respec. almost all sections of our country, are one by one, indeed tive parties appear to care. Does not this indicate a healthy sometimes in shoals, caught up in the great net of “investi- tendency on the part of the people ? are the people not finding gation) and so now, when the “ crooked whiskey'' school how worthless for good politicians are? We believe that



this Fall, the politicians will find the people harder to lead last. A letter from Governor Smith, expressing his regret at ihan hitherto. The party which presents the best candidates his inability to attend the anniversary exercises in February, and the shortest possible tissue of lies and platitudes in the was read by the Corresponding Secretary. A lot of news. name of a “platform,” will win, or ought to.

papers published during the late war were presented by a

Lady of Savannah, and the thanks of the Society were ordered Georgia Historical Society.-We are indedted to Mr. to be returned to her and the papers ordered to be bound, William Harden, Librarian of the Society for the following: Colonel J. Thomas Scharf, of Baltimore presented a copy of

The regular monthly meeting of the Georgia lIistorical his “Chronicles of Baltimore.”. Two new members were Society was held on Monday evening, March 6th, at eight elected. The Library committee recommended a list of o'clock, the Firs: Vice-President presiding. Colonel C. C. I books which the Treasurer was instructed to purchase. The Jones presented two hundred copies of his address on Ser proceedings at the dedication of Hodgson Hall, the Society's geant William Jasper, delivered before the Society in January | building, were ordered to be published.



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A Century After : Picturesque Glimpses of Philadelphia picture of " Skating on the Schuylkill," a still better one o!

and Pennsylvania, including Fairmount, the Wissahickon, · Boating on the Schuylkill," a good one of one of the “ Boatand other Romantic Localities, with the Cities and Land- Houses," a large, admirable scene called “ Looking up the scapes of the State : A Pictorial Representation of Scenery, Schuylkill from Chamonni.” a full-page view of the “ Read. Architecture, Life, Manners and Character. Edited by ing Railroad Bridge,” a view of “ Reading” which is worthy EDWARD STRAHAN. Illustrated with Engravings by of Schell, though we cannot discover the artist's name, after Lauderbach, from Designs by Thomas Moran, F. 0. C. which naturally comes “ Pottsville," and the number ends Darley, 7. D. Woodward, James Hamilton, F. B. Schell, with a pretty picture of a “ Coal-Breaker.” E. B. Bensell, W. L. Sheppard, and other eminent artists. Philailelphia : Allen, Lane & Scott, and 7. W. Lau

How to Write Letters: a Manual of Correspondence, derbach, 233 South Fifth Street.

Showing the Correct Structure, Composition, PunctuaAccording to the announcement in “ Part Ten," as quoted

tion, Formalities, and Uses of the various kinds of letters, in our notice thereof, the Poet and Artists who manipulate

Notes and Cards. By J. Willis WESTLAKE, A.M., Prothe pen, the pencil and the graver for this chef de'ouvre of

fessor of English Literature in the State Normal Shovi, the pictorial publications of our Centennial epoch, start away from Philadelphia and its immediate vicinage, and carry us

Millersville, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia : Sower, Potts

& Company. up the Schuylkill to the picturesque regions whence we get

When we first read the title of this little book, we had no a goodly portion of the coal to warm us withal, during the winter season, and to cook our dinners the year round, but thought of its being a book of real value; but a critical

examination has convinced us that its value can scarcely be of which many know little except what they read in the dailies when “ Molly Maguires” and her subjects get up

overstated as a popular educator; we do not overstate it their striking commotions, and threaten to afford the dealers

when we say that only the dictionary can exceed it in value. a chance to run up the price of the blackstones“ because

We cannot but hope that it will be introduced into our pubthe mines are stopped, you know!" “ Part Eleven” bas for

lic and private schools immediately, and heartıly commend its chapter title “ The Schuylkill;" Mr. Stoddard's pen is as

it to every parent who wishes to have his or her growing gracefully and charmingly poetic as it knows how to be

son or daughter write correctly and elegantly, and to every throughout the “ Part;" Mr. Schell has evidently “ been

young man and young woman. The Publishers have gotten there" to some purpose, to judge from his “ Tom Moore's

the work out in suitable excellent style; “cloth, $1.; fine Cottage,” “ Valley Forge," and " Near Quakake Junction," silt, $1.50,” with " special rates to schools” buying a halfand those who know will readily join us in assuring those

dozen or more copies. who doubt that Mr. Lauderback never puts steel to wooll without improving the delineator's best drawing; we do not Literature for Little Folks : Selections from Standard mean to intimate that in this “Purt,” or in its predecessors, Authors and Easy Lessons in Composition. By Eliza: only the work of our friends Schell and Lauderback are BETH LLOYD. Philadelphia : Sower, Potts & Company. capital, for no novice is permitted to experiment in picture. This is a positive treasure for

Little Folks" who have making for this superh serial-only master-hands with pen- mastered their letters and learned to spell and begun to read, cil and graver attempt to illustrate the editor's poetic prose; Mothers and others who have the care and teaching of chilthe consequence is a perfect harmony, the letter-press is

«Iren should examine this capital little work; few will ex.ampoetic and picturesque, and the pictures are picturesque and

ine without approval. The printing, binding, etc., are in poetic. Besides the engravings above mentioned, there are

the usually excellent style of Messrs. Sower, Potts & Coma fine night view of “ Callow hill street (Fairmount) Bridre,"

pany. Boards, 50 and Cloth, 75 cents, with discount to a terribly true representation of an “ Ice-Görge," a neat little

schools and purchasers in quantities.

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the interior, and as easily obtained the use of the chateau of St. Cloud. Here the floors were covered with superb carpets from the Savonnerie, the walls were hung with Gobelin tapestries, and the saloons and halls were adorned with the finest specimens of Sevres porcelain. At this exhibition, a plan was formed

by which a fund could be mm

raised for the benefit of the workmen. A decree of the directory frustrated this plan. The decree banished all the nobility from Paris. The Marquis was among those who

were compelled to leave. Al(Crystal Palace, LONDON EXHIBITION—1851.

though this, the first French Industrial Exhibitions of the Past.— The present is a Industrial Exhibition was strangled at its birth, the idea had most favorable time for retrospect relative to Industrial Ex- become a public one, and it was not lost. The spirit of hibitions. Industry was first made the basis of popular nationality soon found inducement to further exertion. The exhibition during the stormy period of the French Revolution Marquis returned after a time, and in 1798, made preparations at a time when the bonds of society seemed to be snapped for his second collection, locating it in the Maison D'Orsay


in the Rue de Varennes. Thousands visited it and found asunder, and eminent peril surrounded all the institutions of that country. At this period and, in fact, for years prior to not only products from the three departments above named

but beautiful specimens of furniture, marqueterie, clocks, it, three departments of manufactories in France had been under the especial rule and guidance of the government, viz., the porcelain works of Sevres, the tapestry works of the Gobelins, and the carpet works of the Savonnerie. In 1797 the French Directory appointed the Marquis d'Aveze, as Commissioner for these national establishments. He found them in a wretched condition, the operatives reduced to penury, and proofs were abundant that neither the government care nor government funds had been extended towards these exhibitions during the tumult that had marked the infancy of the Republic. He it was who conceived the idea that a new and freshened energy could be given these departments by forming a public exhibition of their products. He readily obtained the sanction of the minister of





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many departments of
manufacture. Such was
the third, and the first
strictly national, where
the expense was borne
by the State. Then
the government deter-
mined to make them
annual, and to admit
provincial towns to
equality with Paris in
respect to specimens
admitted. This was
not fully carried out, for
the second did not occur
until 1801.

This one, under the
supervision of the First
Consul, was held in
the great quadrangle
of the Louvre which
was fitted up with gal-
leries for that purpose.
It was marked by the
excellence of its wool-

ens, cottons, carpets, CORK EXHIBITION BUILDING—1853.

sancy leathers and primit

ing, and it was memwatches, silks, and other like fine manufactures from the orable by the first appearance, as an inventor, of the ingenious chief manufactories of Paris.

Jacquard. in answer to an offer from the Society of Arts, These were preliminary expositions, but they were speedily of England, of a prize for the invention of a loom for weavfollowed by others more formally under the direction of the ing fish-nets, Jacquard produced a machine and won the government. When Napoleon returned flushed with victory, prize. from his Italian campaign, with visions of Roman triumph in his mind, he bethought of a Temple of Industry as a worthy pendant to the Temple of Glory, and such a Temple was erect. ed in the Champ de Mars in 1798, with many ad. vantages to manufactures and productions. This exhibition was open only three days, but the Parisians went fairly wild over it.

The jury system was established, and among the nine jurymen we hind such men as Molard, Chaplat and Berthard. Among the exhibitors and prize holders, such men as Lenoir, Clouit, Payen and Brequet, men of great celebrity in


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the attention of the people from the peaceful arts. This

was open thirty-five days, and nearly 2,000 exhibitors were in attendance. In 1823 the sixth was held, open for two months. In 1827 the seventh was held, which exceeded all others. It lasted sixty-five days, had more than 2,000 exhibitors, and distributed more than one thousand medals. The steam-engine and its wonders told more significantly in this exposition than in any former one – in the greater regularity of finish given to various manufactured goods, and in the greater cheapness and distribution of the product. Merinoes have become an

article of extensive manuTAYLOR-SARTH

facture; shawls, tulles, and

blonde, were manufactured MUNICH EXHIBITION BUILDING—1854.

on a large scale, silks were,

by the steam-engine, made This second exhibition was open six days, and counted to include products of the spun as well as the thrown 229 exhibitors, against 119 in its predecessor. Sixty medals material; mixed silk and wool had come into use. Cotton were distributed.




printing was general, and the making of paper in endless In 1802, the third National Exposition was held. The sheets a conquest of steam power. In the interval between days were seven and the number of exhibitors 540, to whom 224 medals were distributed.

From this came the establishment of the Societe de Encouragement, a kind of society of arts, which has rendered much important service to French manufactures.

The fourth exhibition of 1806 was held when Napoleon had become a king-maker. A building was erected on the Esplanade des Invalides, and the exposition lasted twenty-four days, had 1,550 exhibitors, and distributed 650 medals. The distinguishing feature of this exposition was the great variety



of textile goods, printed cottons, silk and thread lace, blonde, cloth, shawls, etc., steel and iron were also represented.

There was a long interval between this and the fifth exposition, which was held in 1819, in the court of the Louvre. The wars of Napoleon drew



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