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show of goods, though it had an unfavorable feature attached to it-in so far as it was a bazaar, anything and everything was saleable, if purchasers pre.
sented themselves. ConsequentБі
ly, many of the stalls were emptied of their contents long belore the time of closing. And again it was indissolubly connected with a great political movement, which drove men into tvo antagonistic parties, and gave a party.coloring to an industrial development.
It was held in the Convent Garden Theatre in old Crown street, and was a grand affair.
In 1847 Belgium came forward, with her Eposition de l'Industrie Belge. It was the third exhibition after Belgium
became politically severed from FLORENCE EXHIBITION BUILDING—-1861.
Holland, and it received all the
eclat which the presence of the seventh and eighth expositions, Charles X. was expelled, royalty and of official dignitaries could give. The goods and Louis Philippe elected to the monarchy. The eighth were exhibited on the quay, in the Nouvel Entrepot, a large exposition was held in the Place de la Concorde. The edifice connected with commercial matters. Here Brussels ninth was held in 1839, in a building erected for the pur- lace was shown, so exquisitely fine that one pound's weight pose in the great square (Carre de Marigny) of the Champs of it was valued at 3,500 francs. Linen thread worth three Elysees, and comprised a grand hall for the textile product times its weight in pure gold. This is a striking example of Mulhausen, a gallery and eight long apartments. It oc- of the manner in which labor imparts value to raw material. cupied an area of 120,000 square English seet, and cost Later, in 1849, the French repeated the Exposition on the £14,500. This exposition lasted sixty days. France had site of the one of 1844, between the great avenue of the her tenth exhibition in 1844. The arrangements were on a Champs Elysees and the river Seine, but the building was grand scale, a scale which the French know how to adopt in much larger.
It was about 675 long by 328 feet wide, extheir public demonstrations whether in war or at peace.
clusive of the space occupied by the agricultural department. The spot selected was in the Champs Elysees, the Hyde Around the four sides of the building extended a galley 90 Park of Paris. Twenty thousand square yards were covered feet wide divided into two avenues by a double range of with products of French industry. The hours for the gen pilaster. Through this vast gallery the goods were diseral public were between twelve and four o'clock, but | played. private admissions were obtained at an earlier hour by
Birmingham held an exposition the same year, at which means of tickets. Any stranger showing his passport was
electro plate, which now constitutes such an important deadmitted. It required galleries whose aggregate length was partment of trade, was first shown. Here
, papier maché five miles
, to display the contents of this building. In the was first shown. Bronze castings constituted a very imporcentre there was a colossal statue of St. Louis, which served as a sort of guide in traversing the numerous avenues.
Scanning the other nations, we find that Bavaria was the first country to provide a permanent building for the holding of Industrial Exhibitions.
England had had many attempts at Industrial expositions, prior 10 the date of which we write.
Manchester in 1839 had a fair of this sort, to which the gentry and others lent, for the time being, whatever they thought would be of interest. Leeds, the woolen metropolis, followed with a similar exhibition. Then came the Free Trade Bazaar in 1845, which was a highly creditable
Paris ExhibitioN BUILDING—1867.
authority says : “Persons who have rooms to let are persuading themselves that a golden harvest is to be gathered. We presume to advise caution; although there will be a great influx of visitors, their stay will be short, and most of them will be content with humble accommodation."
Something about the price charged at the London Exhibition may be found interesting: Season tickets for gentlemen, £3 35.; and for ladies, £2 25. These cards were not transserable, and were the only admissions available for the first day.
On the second and third day's VIENNA EXHIBITION, MAIN BUILDING—1873.
the rate of admission was one
guinea for each person. From tant feature of this exhibition. More than 200,000 people the fourth to the twenty-second the price was five shillings;
1 visited this exposition, and it was very successful. Follow- on the twenty-sixth day the price was one shilling. ing this came the Exposition of works of Industry and Art, The first trial of the Irish at exhibitions occurred in 1853, held in London in 1851. The Society of Arts originated both at Cork and Dublin. the idea in August, 1849, and it became a settled plan in the Following these came Munich, in 1854, with 4:4 acres ; month following. The Exhibition was arranged and con- Paris, in 1855, 22'1 acres; Manchester, in 1857, with 3.9 ducted by the Council of this Society, and received no acres; Florence, in 1861, 6-3 acres; London again in 1862, financial aid from the Government.
with 25.6 acres; Amsterdam, in 1864, 10-2 acres; Paris, in The Prince Consort extended his patronage. No grant 1867, with 31 acres; Vienna, in 1873, with 56-5 acres, and of public money was either looked for or hoped for. An New York with 4:4 acres. immense sum was needed, but it was furnished from private Restricting ourselves to this mere mention of the above, it capital. Speaking of this an authority says: “ The sum may be added that Expositions became “ catching” in '59, required is an immense one, but it is absolutely insignificant and the rivalry, while of peace and goodwill, was still very when considered with reference to the mighty interests the great. Money was not deemed of value when considered Exposition is to foster, strengthen and extend.”
with reference to the great productive interest such exposi. These persons gave little thought to the moneyed considera- tions were to extend and strengthen. The Centennial Extions, the paramount idea being that the Exhibition would give position will show the strength of the still young Republic. them a true test and a living picture of the point of develop- Which is not stooped and decrepid as a century of years ment at which the whole of mankind had arrived in this makes humanity but full of mental and physical activity, great task, and a new starting-point from which all nations ready, with a piled up Pelion of renown, to start into a second would be able to direct their future exertions.
century from the very summit of fame. This view was certainly the exponent of great truths. Knowledge is power, and through this Exhibition a know- The Centennial City—There is one important respect ledge of the various products of the earth would be obtained; in which our Exposition differs from all that have gone again the application of science to the development of these, before. They were Expositions of Industrial Achievements, and the forms of beauty in which art can clothe them. From of the Progress of the Peoples of the World in Industrial this distribution the knowledge of the boundless wealth of a Appliances and Pursuits, in Household Utensils and Manunation would he obtained, and the necessity of union among facturing Apparatus, in the small Conveniences for Family nations for mutual protection. Skill was improved by Life and massive Machinery for Mines, Factories, etc.—ours comparison, and how to supply wants taught by observed is all this and more: it is a grand National Birthday Comdeficiencies
memoration, a Celebration of the Memorable Events which The building was erected in Hyde Park, London, and attended and distinguished the Creation of a Nation on a was 2,000 feet long, a little more than 300 feet across, with new and untried Basis, its Entrance upon a new and untried a red area of 900,000 square feet, or about 20 acres. Plan of Life, its Embarkation upon an unknown Ocean with The total cubic contents of the building was 33,000,000 feet, no Chart or Compass derived from Experience of other Naand the cost £150,000. America had 80,000 square feet in tions—nay, it is a glorious showing of the Marvelous Prothis building for her products.
gress and Stupendous Development of our Republic during Speaking of the accommodation of visitors in London, an its First Hundred Years, Progress and Development which
illustrate the superiority of a Pure and Genuine Democracy | public's Birth she preover all other schemes of National Government and Polity, serves with jealous care and which attest the singular Wisdom and Sagacity of the the old State-House, American Giants of a Hundred Years Ago in constructing better known as the our Grand Ship of State and mapping out her course when famous “ INDEPENshe was embarking upon a cruise unexampled in the history DENCE HALL," with of National Navigation.
the hallowed “ Liberty Were this commemorative feature wanting, and were the Bell;" the unpretend. American International Exhibition purely an Industrial Ex: ing house wherein position, Philadelphia, as the first Industrial City, the great lodged Thomas Jeffer. Manufacturing Centre, of the American Republic, would son, and wherein he have been eminently the proper place for such an exhibit- wrote the Certificate but, as this commemorative feature is the predominant cha- of our Nation's Birth;
the quaint old Carpenters Hall,” where. in, on the 5th of September, 1774, assem. bled the First Conti. nental Congress; besides many other his. toric edifices little less interesting in their Centennial memories. We give herewith care. fully executed illustrations of the “Inde. pendence" Buildings, and of some of the more noteworthy his.
edifices of Philadelphia, and propose to add to the number in our next issue.
The visitor to the
Centennial City natuINDEPENDENCE HALL IN 1876.
rally seeks first the
most famous edifice of racteristic of the exhibition, imparting to it the emphatic 'the Western Word, the designation of “ The Centennial Exhibition,” the peculiar 'grand old “Indepenfitness of selecting Philadelphia as the place, above all others, , dence Hall," and finds where it should be held, is universally conceded. Boston,, it an unpretending,
FRONT ELEVATION OF INDEPENDENCE FALL AND ITS WINGS AND ANNEXES IN 1800.
TE WEG. INGS, MILA
clared to the world the reasons why " these United Colonies” “ of right ought to be free and independent States.” The main building, “Independence Hall” itself, is just as it was one hundred years ago, except that the original steeple had been taken down in 1774, on account of some of its timbers having become decayed, and its place was temporarily supplied by a small belfry until 1828, when the present steeple, modeled from the original, was erected; the flagstaff in front of the steeple was placed there in 1861, and the flag unfurled thereon by Abraham Lincoln, about the ist of March, when on the way to Washington to enter upon his eventful first term as President of the United States, and in 1869 a statue of Washington was placed on the pavement in front of the main door.
Entering at the main door, we find Tue.HOUSE WHERE THE “ DECLARATION" WAS WRITTEN IN 1776. in the vestibule the old “Liberty
Bell,” in a conspicuous place of honor old-fashioned “State-House," which, stripped of its unri- | –deprived of its glad clarion tone, it is eloquent in its valed historic associations, would appear insignificant in dumb testimony of the proud day when it obeyed the prosize and devoid of architectural pretence; the casual specta- phetic injunction placed upon it at the time of its casting, tor, unacquainted with the true source of its greatness, and twenty-three years before, “ Proclaim Liberty throughout the viewing it only in the light of modern ideas of State edifices, land unto all the inhabitants thereof." would pass it by with scarce a glance, to admire the Masonic Then, we pass into the east room on the lower floor, Temple, the new building of the Young Men's Christian wherein sat the Congress; the members, long since passed to Association, the grand City Hall, the many handsome their rest and reward, are brought before us in a series of churches, the myriads of commercial palaces, and the superb portraits, whose authenticity as likenesses is perfectly assured modern mansions. But in this plain old “State-House,” by unquestionable evidence ; while the table, chairs, the very just one hundred and one years ago, May 1oth, 1775, there inkstand-all things have been restored as nearly as possible convened the most remarkable legislative assembly in the to their respective places as they were when, on the ad of historic chronicles of the world-called together from all I August, 1776, the members of the Congress affixed their the diversified walks of life, but few of the members having had even the most Jimited experience in public affairs, they met, in the initial days of a great crisis, to deliberate upon and promote the best interests of a Continent, and to develope a Nation out of thirteen Colonies—such was the mission, though its members were yet to learn it, of the august Continental Congress, and well did this noble assembly of America's picked men fulfil it, when, within fourteen months later, in this same old " State-House," they “ Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved;" and when, two days afterwards, in the logical and emphatic
CARPENTERS' HALL IN 1774.
“Declaration of Independence," they de.
Graff, Jr., a young bricklayer, of whom Jefferson rented the second floor, consisting of a parlor and bedroom;" it was a three-story brick Messuage or Tene ment," built by Mr. Graff in 1775; and was sold by him, July 24th, 1777, to Jacob Hilt er, who converted its first floor into a store, and some time afterwards built the house on the corner for a dwelling. Mr. Hiltzheimer died in 1801, and in 1802 Simon Gratz, having become owner of the property, added a fourth story to the two bnildings. The old Hiltzheimer store was long renowned as “Gratz's Store." The old house, as well as its corner neighbor, is a capital business stand now; but it retains enough of its “Declaration” aspect to be interesting to the patriotic American visitor.
We retrace our steps down Chestnut
street past " Independence Hall," and, a CHRIST CHURCH IN 1760.
little east of Fourth street, we discover
the venerable “ Hall of the Carpenters' names to the “fair copy” of the Declaration, engrossed on Society;" it stands back from the street, and the vacant parchment.
spaces at the street seen in our engraving are now occupied Passing over to the west room, we find the National Mu: by large, showy business edifices, which dwarf the hallowed seum of invaluable relics of the Revolutionary era collected Hall,” and give it an appearance of being even smaller with great care and singular good sense by Colonel Frank than it is; but its proud history cannot be obscured by M. Etting and his excellent co-committeemen, assisted by the closest contact with the most elaborately showy modern patriotic women and men of
architecture, and we approach it with reverence as we recol. all parts of the country, who
lect that in its main room assembled the First Continental have given or loaned souve
Congress, at a time when the clouds were lowering, the nirs of their ancestors and of
heavens darkening with portents of the approaching Revoother participants in the events
lutionary storm; as we enter the large assembly room, our of the Colonial and transition
imagination flies back to the 5th of September, 1774, and period.
we see Peyton Randolph in the chair, Charles Thomson with The “square" in the rear,
pen in hand to record the important proceedings which, unthe old State House Yard,"
known to the active participants, are to open the way to the tempts us to spend a few min
establishment of a new Nation, and we see, too, the deleutes under its beautiful shade
gates from twelve of the thirteen Colonies sitting and standtrees, and we readily recall the
ing around, solemnly impressed with the nature of the duties bright July day (the 8th) one FRANKLIN'S GRAVE. assigned them, and, as we thus, in imagination, contemplate hundred years since, and the
that august body, we cannot but be thankful that the quaint concourse of patriots assembled here to listen to the read- old “ Hall” is so reverently preserved in its historic aspects. ing of the Declaration of Independence by John Nixon; We walk down Chestnut and up Second street, and hear we can almost hear the old Bell ringing out its glorious the sweet-toned chimes of old Christ Church inviting us to proclamation.
enter the sacred temple where Washington and many of his “ Independence Hall” stands on Chestnut street, covering, compatriots were wont to worship; externally the edifice is with its wings and annexes, the square from Fifth to Sixth unaltered, while internally the old-fashioned box-like pews streets. It is well known that the “Declaration” was have given place to more modern and more comfortable drafted by a committee consisting of Thomas Jefferson, pews, but otherwise the interior is much as it was a century John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, R. R. Livingston, and ago. Christ Church is architecturally faultless, and will Roger Sherman, and that Jefferson did the actual writing, doubtless be permitted long to stand as it does and has stood while the others, especially Adams, revised his work, sug. for nearly a century and a half. The most remarkable change gesting such amendments as they deemed requisite, before is to be seen along the street, above and below the Church, the great paper was reported to the Congress; the house the curious little old structures seen in our engraving having wherein Jefferson wrote the Declaration is still standing on all disappeared “ long, long ago,” and their sites occupied by Market Street, one door west of the corner of Seventh business houses of later styles, though plainer than those of street, now known as No. 702 Market street ; it is shown in the Centennial period. The tombs of Bishop White, and his our engraving as it was when it was the property of Jacob brother-in-law, the Financier of the Revolution, Robert