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The Expeditions of George Rogers Clark.-Reply of mother country. It was the subject of discussion in ConSamuel Evans to William Wirt Henry.—Mr. Henry, in his gress, and resolutions were passed recommending the two reply to the comments I made upon his assumptions with States not to foster the dispute between them, but to keep it regard to Pennsylvania, does not fully meet the point I in abeyance until the matter could be adjusted amicably. In raised. He said, "the troops were altogether Virginians, accordance with the above, Pennsylvania first made a proand mostly from the County of West Augusta, east of the position to Virginia to appoint commissioners to adjust the Ohio River;" and further on he remarks that “there is good boundary, which were acceded to on the part of Virginia; reason to believe that not a single man came from Southwest and on the 31st day of August, 1779, George Bryan, John Pennsylvania. The disputed territory near Pittsburg being Ewing, and David Rittenhouse, on the part of Pennsylvania, the only place from whence recruits could have been obtained and James Madison and Robert Andrews on the part of Virwho were Pennsylvanians.”
ginia, commissioners, met and agreed to extend Mason and I merely cited the manner and the locality where General Dixon's line due west five degrees of longitude, to be comClark procured volunteers for his expedition in 1781-only puted from the River Delaware, for the southern boundary two years after his first expedition-to show that there were of Pennsylvania. This agreement was not kept sacred by a good many Pennsylvanians in what was then claimed to be Virginians. They drove off settlers as far north as Fort West Augusta County, and many miles south of Pittsburg. Hand, in Westmoreland County. Besides, these settlers were mostly Scotch-Irish, who were On the 24th day of March, 1780, a committee of the Genever ready to embark in any dangerous enterprise which pro- eral Assembly submitted the following address to the Sumised novel adventures. And it is fair to presume that Gen- preme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, which portrays eral Clark knew what kind or manner of men they were, in vivid colors the conduct of Virginians and their policy of before he went among them in 1781. When the names of greed, as well as the policy of Pennsylvania : the two hundred are published, the reader can better judge
" SIR: as to whether any of them were Pennsylvanians.
The Supreme Executive authority of the State, on the fifThere is another fact I wish to state in relation to South- teenth day of December last, through the Delegates of this west Pennsylvania, that gives the date of the settlements in State, addressed the Honourable Congress of the United that locality, and also the title to the lands about Pittsburg. States on the unhappy dispute, subsisting between this State In November, 1768, there assembled at Fort Stanwix, New and Virginia. York, a Congress of Indians, to which representatives were The proceedure of Congress thereupon, breathed such a sent from Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and other spirit of Wisdom, Moderation, and attention to the general Provinces. This was one of the largest and most important interests, as well as the rights of the contending States, assemblages of Indians ever held in this country. They that we could not doubt it would have been received with deeded to Pennsylvania a tract of land running from the that respect and acquiescence it so highly deserved Prenortheast corner to the southwest corner of the Province, suming fully upon this, it was communicated to the inhabitwhich included Pittsburg and country adjacent thereto, for ants of Pennsylvania, accompanied with the most decisive which the Proprietors of Pennsylvania paid them £10,000. directions to yield a cheerfull and punctual compliance. Immediately after this, that country was thrown open for Our proceedings herein, with your resolve, were transmitted settlement.
to the Supreme Executive authority of Virginia, and also, to The first families to cross the mountains and take up their those who under their authority were oppressing and harrassabode in that new country, were Scotch-Irish from Lancas- ing the innocent and unfortunate settlers of Pennsylvania. ter, York, and Cumberland Counties, in this Province. Such But this event has demonstrated how vain & delusive are men as Rev. John McMillan, Rev. Joseph Smith, Rev. those hopes which are founded on the justice or moderation James Powers, Rev. C. C. Beatty, Rev. Mr. Finley, Rev. of the State of Virginia. We are authorized to declare, that Mr. Dodd, and Dunlap, preached in Southwestern Pennsyl- your resolution has been treated with a disregard bordering vania before General Clark started upon his expedition upon contempt; that our friendly expostulations on the imThese pioneers of Presbyterianism in Western Pennsylvania policy & cruelty of their proceedings, have met with the all had a following, not large in numbers in any one lo- like fate; and we now find ourselves reduced to the sad altercality, but combined they numbered some hundreds.
native of seeing a number of honest, industrious settlers, who Now as to the question of disputed boundary, and as to have peaceably purchased, cultivated, and enjoyed their whether Virginia was always “ neighborly or honorable with lands for many years, under Titles of this State, now disthe subjects of this State.”
possessed and ruined, or enter into a contest, which to us is Mason and Dixon's line in 1767 was extended from the dreadfull in contemplation. The Genious and temper of the Delaware River at the mouth of Christiana Creek due west people of this State has naturally led them, on all occasions, to a point where Dunkard Creek crosses their line, which to prefer accommodation to hostility, and even to seek the was two hundred and thirty miles distant from the Dela- path of peace with an earnestness which ungenerous minds ware River. Were a line produced, extending at right may have mistaken for timidity or weakness. For proofs of angles from this point until it intersects the Ohio River, this disposition, we may safely appeal to the Records of Vir. Pittsburg would still be within the limits of Pennsylvania, ginia, to Congress, and to the whole world. While per
petual encroachment and aggressions have irritated and dis. The dispute between the two States was a source of un- tressed the Inhabitants of this State, what people, State, or easiness throughout the entire colonies, as it tended to dis- country, have we invaded, or insulted, or who has comtract and cripple their resources in the struggle against the plained against us?
without any question.
By the great contest with the common Enemy, we have peaceable Citizens, a fatal necessity compels us to adope ser raised Troops only to oppose the common enemy. Regi. timents of a different nature. If the recollection of former ments raised, Officered, & equipped by the State, instead of Affection, with a sense of the danger to the common care, being employed to make Conquests, extend Settlements, or and injustice and impropriety of the measures of which se cover Commissions and surveyors, while Garbling out lands shall Complain, shall induce Virginia to adopt a more Juv. within disputed Territory, have been yielded to the general equitable, and friendly system, We have no rescrit mens defence. The Staple Commodity of the State locked by a which we cannot readily and chearsully Sacnfice to the to general Embargo, for the benefit of the United States, to the eral interests. entire Stagnation of all trade, While the staple of Virginia But if Pennsylvania must arm for her internal desence, ishas had a free and general exportation. The loans of this stead of recruiting her Continental line; if her attenti a art State have greatly exceeded every Other, and the Journals supplies must be diverted in like manner; is the cummer of Congress shew that the United States have availed them- enemy, encouraged by our division, should prolong the 1:1 selves of our Taxes for present supply in as great a propor. Interests of our sister States and the common cause be 11tion, and as Seasonably as any other State, whatever misin- jured or distressed; we trust we shall stand justly acuaitte? formation or prejudice may suggest to the contrary. Our before them and the whole World; and if the effuring of State has been invaded and our Capital possessed by the human blood is to be the result of this unhappy dispule, We enemy. Our frontiers desolated by the Savages Our in- humbly trust that the great Governor of the l'niverse, ***, ternal Strength greatly diminished, tho' not exhausted, by delights in peace, equity and Justice, will not impute it to as the supplies of every kind, which, in consequence of our Confiding in his protection and the Justness of our Cause, we local situation, we have afforded to the common Cause. shall endeavour to defend and preserve the Citizens of the
Under these circumstances, we must want the common State from farther violence, and if necessary, repel force with feelings of Men and Citizens, if we could, without concern, force; with what success we presume not to say. It is szt see the State impoverished and insulted, & its inhabitants cient for us that oppression, Tyranny and injustice are the reduced to beggary and wretchedness, by those who stile same, from whatever hands they proceed, and that no change themselves our brethren.
or situation can be more disgraceful or distressing." The sufferings of these poor people, as they justly observe, Thus much as to whether I was justified in attnbuting would probably have been much less if the arms of Britain neighborly conduct to Virginia. had prevailed. The calamities of that event would scarcely I will mention one other (among many) instance of gting have reached their obscure and distant dwellings, while the injustice done to our people. hand of publick and private rapacity now reaches the in- In 1763 some of the tribes composing the Six Nal: m auf most recesses of their country. It is known to all America, Indians, made an attack upon a camp of Indian Trader that Commissioners, appointed by mutual consent, have actu- at Bloody Run, in this State, and killed several me and ally settled the boundaries of this disputed Territory, and destroyed goods to the value of over £80,000. This afas that the lands on which those oppressive and unjust Claims, was one of the subjects treated upon at the Congress a: Firm both of Jurisdiction and property, are now exercised, are Stanwix, in 1768. William Trent represented twenty-tan near forty Miles within the Territory admitted to belong to of these traders, of whom he was one, The Indisi Pennsylvania. We are also assured by publick authority of siring to make restitution to these traders for their loss, on be Virginia, that this agreement will probably be confirmed at a 3d day of November, 1768, deeded to them all the land 'sing future day.
between the mouth of the Kanhawa and Monongahela River And here the policy of delay discloses itself almost with. The attention of the Indians having been called to the out disguise. It having been usual for contending States to fact that a portion of this grant was within the lim ts of confirm, mutually, the rights of Bona fide purchasers, this Pennsylvania, and which was included in the purchase is agreement, so solemnly made, is kept suspended 'til the Trea- the Penns at the same treaty, they relinquished tha: part, sury of Virginia shall be replenished, and a few of its rapa. and confirmed all of the grant now within the limits c 1: cious subjects enriched with the Spoils of Pennsylvania-A ginia. The Indians at the same time made a deed to the policy, in our Judgment, unworthy a free & generous people, King, and the King afterwards made a title to these tweep and to which we shall leave an impartial World to give a two traders. There was no question about the suticiency on suitable appelation.
this title among the best legal minds of Great Britain in' We do not ask the farther interposition of your Hon'ble America, and I believe Patrick Henry himself du noir Body. We should be sorry to commit the dignity & honour tion it; and yet the House of Burgesses in Virginia recent of Congress in farther resolves, which will probably be to recognize this right, and by force of arms the Virginitis equally disregarded with those already passed touching the drove off the settlers of the “Indiana Company," and when Claims and proceedings of this State, whose views and de. Mr. Joseph Simons, of Lancaster, one of the sufferers, wor? signs are too plain to be misunderstood, and too alarming to to Richmond for redress, he was turned away with vatret. be longer overlooked. But conscious of the Justice of our Some of these traders were thrown into prisca for dette case, of our pure and pacific intentions, we are anxious to where they died, stand justified in the Eyes of Congress and of the World for If Mr. Henry desires to investigate this matter, he will the part we are now called to act. Every peaceable over. find that I had very good reasons for stating that Virginis ture being rejected, your recommendation set at nought, and were not always neighborly or just to Penn-vivanisha the hand of violence and oppression stretched against our
Our Centennial Matter.-In our May issue, we gave the poor,” up to President of the United States, simply on twenty-eight pages of CENTENNIAL Exposition MEMO- the ground of the party affiliations of the aspirant. Our RANDA, embracing a vast amount of information in reference people are, with very few exceptions, distinctly identified not only to our great Exhibition, but to those of the past in with one or other of the great political parties, and they selFrance, England, and elsewhere, besides brief sketches of dom forget the fact, or ignore it, even in the selection of perthe leading edifices of our city identified with the Nation's sons to fill offices wherein political opinions or political prebirth. The article has met with such universal approval that ferences can have no legitimate weight or significance. we have determined to continue the subject in the same style, In our Ward or Township there is a constable to be combining conciseness with completeness. In this number elected, and there are the usual number of aspirants; the we accordingly give a Centennial Department, which will be respective political parties select each one, whose chief if found of real value long after the Exhibition has become not sole recommendation is that he is a Republican or a itself a chapter of our Republic's history. Our series will Democrat, as the case may be, and it matters not whether make a full and reliable historical sketch of the Exhibition one be a worthy man and the other a scamp, the party which and correlative matters, and cannot fail to prove of perma- usually controls the Ward or Township elects its man as a nent interest and value.
simple matter of course-if both“ regular candidates” be
scamps, no third man, however well-fitted for the post, has Crime in Official Circles.-In our May number, we in- any encouragement to contest the field, for he will not only troduced a subject which we deem of a degree of importance contest it in vain, he will secure the implacable hostility of secund to none which could be discussed in the United States the partisans of both parties, and ever after be a marked at the present time-even the questions connected with our National Finances, and the highly important Tariff and In City or County, in State and Nation, the same party Revenue questions, are scarce so important as these relating test is inexorably applied. Not only must every man elected to the causes of and remedies for the apparent development to any position whatever, stand the party test, regardless of of total depravity in our local, State, and national official all other considerations, but, if he be required to appoint a circles. We have no sympathy with those reformers who, subordinate, in the capacity of clerk or even messenger or better than the delinquent and criminal officials only because porter, he dare not ignore, but must in turn apply the same they lack the opportunities and facilities to emulate them, “ To the victors belong the spoils," was the dictum of seek to make party-capital out of the vices and evil-doings of Andrew Jackson, and in this every American politician is a their
opponents, by an indiscriminate denunciation of the Jacksonian. Let the Postmaster of New York, Philadelphia party with which the respective culprits may be identified, Boston, or Baltimore, or the Collector of any one of our nor with those independent papers which seem to glory in Ports, disregard this wicked corruption-breeding doyma, in their country's shame in so far as it supplies them with “sen- the selection of the humblest of his appointees, and how long sational matter to augment their profits by creating an in
a time will elapse before he will give place to a less manly, creased demand for their newspaper.
These shameless if not less honest, successor ? reformers and papers are not content to tell of authentic We have lately witnessed a painful illustration of the worst instances of official wickedness, but are constantly manufac- aspect of ultra party feeling, and a shameful illustration of turing out of the flimsiest materials, or creating without ma- the fact that mere partisan politicians of opposing parties terial, terrible tales of the vile doings of this one and that, will combine to strike down any honest man who will not utterly regardless of truth and of justice, and even of the stand the most rigid application of the party test. Richard fact that false accusations, even when their falsity is unques- H. Dana was and is a Republican, but he had the noble tionably shown, no less than actual instances of wrong.doing, courage to oppose Benjamin F. Butler on one occasion, a serve to bring reproach upon our country and her institutions. distinguished honor which entitled him to the admiration of
We have said, in the May Monthly, that the apparently every true man in the country, and should have commanded growing disregard of honor, honesty, and integrity in our the respect even of the United States Senate. President oficial circles, has its source in the people, and that the Grant evinced his appreciation of the worth of Mr. Dana, by people are directly chargeable with the responsibility. We appointing him to a position of suitable eminence; but the expect to demonstrate this in more ways than one, but shall petty partisans of both parties in the United States Senate be content in this issue to notice most briefly but one of the united in refusing to confirm the appointment. popular errors, mistakes, or faults (we care not which epithet Now, will any one dispute our position, when we assert is accepted as most aptly comprehending the evil), which that this extreme party system in the selection of our officials underlies the entire system of our selection of local, State, is largely the source and cause of official corruption, and that and National officers, and which, in itself, is a fruitful source the people are directly responsible for the system? of corruption-we mean the universal and undeviating habit But we shall have more to say on this theme; our space of selecting every officer, from constable," or " overseer of will not permit more in this number.
An American Historical Serial Story.-Having in this number concluded “The Silent Witness," we shall give in the July number the opening chapters of a superior American Historical Novel, entitled,
THE FAIR PATRIOT OF THE REVOLUTION.
BY DAVID MURDOCH.
LITERARY AND ART MEMORANDA.
The Old Time; a Monthly Publication, devoted to the Stokley's approval of this "Guide" seems positively absurd
Preservation of Documents and other Authentic Informa- whatever may be the worthy Mayor's merits or demerits, his tion in relation to the early Explorations and Settlement historical erudition we have never heard of under either and Improvement of the Country around the Head of the head, and the only instance in which we recollect his being Ohio. Edited by NEVILE B. CRAIG, Esq. Cincinnati : cited as an authority was in support of General Muhlenberg's Robert Clarke & Co.
right to be honored as a “ Signer.” However, the Mayor is This invaluable publication, originally issued in 1846 and perfectly correct in declaring of this “Guide,” that “ It is a 1849, as a monthly magazine of Western History, has long thorough, complete and practical Guide Book to our City.” been out of print and has been among the rarest and most It is all of that, and every citizen as well as every visitor valued of American works, readily selling for a very high should have a copy. price whenever a copy chanced to be offered for sale. Messrs. Robert Clarke & Co., in its republication in two A Century After: Picturesque Glimpses of Philadelphia handsome volumes, demand the heartiest thanks of American
and Pennsylvania, including Fairmount, the Wissahickon, readers and students and should find no difficulty in selling and other Romantic Localities, with the Cities and Landthe entire edition at the moderate price at which they have scapes of the State : A Pictorial Representation of Scenery, placed the work; there is no house in the country which has Architecture, Life, Manners and Character. Edited by done and is doing more than this right-spirited house for the EDWARD STRAHAN. Illustrated with Engravings by encouragement, fostering, and development of a correct
Lauderbach, from Designs by Thomas Moran, F. 0. C. American sentiment hy placing the best of American reading Darley, 7. D. Woodward, James Hamilton, F. B. Schell, matter within the reach of the masses. Of Mr. Craig or of E. B. Bensell, W. L. Sheppard, and other eminent artists. this work, it would be really superfluous for us to speak-his Philadelphia : Allen, Lane & Scott, and 7. W. Laupeculiar fitness as a careful and exact historian for the editing derbach, 233 South Fifth Street. of such a publication, and the special worth and great value This superb serial has reached “Part Fourteen," and of “ The Olden Time," are well-known to our readers. We “ Part Fifteen" will complete it—and a critical cross-exami: can truthfully add the single remark that we regard these nation of the entire fourteen parts confirms our high estimate two volumes as an important addition to our library.
more than once or twice expressed of its marvelous excel.
lence—it is throughout one of the finest illustrations of the The Official Guide to Philadelphia; a New Hand-book high state of persection the art of wood engraving, typogra.
for Strangers and Citizens. By THOMPSON WESTCOTT, phy and printing have attained in this country within the author of " A History of Philadelphia," “ Life of John Century. Twelve, Thirteen and Fourteen are fully as hand
Fitch,' etc. etc. With a History of the City, a large Map some as any we have noticed. The illustrations in these, of the City, showing all the Routes of the Passenger Rail. except toward the close of Fourteen, afford some of the most ways, a new Map of Fairmount Park, etc.
Illustrated “ picturesque glimpses” of the State away from the city; at the with nearly One Hundred Engravings. Philadelphia: last the Editor and Artist get back to Fairmount Park, ready to Porter & Coatis.
prepare the Centennial Exposition Part with its fifteen views Philadelphians do not require to be told, but some of the which will doubtless be the very handsomest set of Centenstrangers coming here during the Centennial months may, nial pictures—but we shall tell all about them in due time. that the author of this work is undoubtedly the highest and best authority in all matters connected with this city's past The statue of Dr. Livingstone, which is to be erected in and present. So well and savorably is Mr. Westcott known Edinburgh, has just been cast at Chelsea, England. It repreas a perfect cyclopædia vitalis of the local histories and tradi.
sents Dr. Livingstone as standing, with a Bible in one hand tions of every edifice, lot or piece of ground, every nook and and an axe in the other. and cranny of and near Philadelphia, that he can require no man or official's endorsement of any history of, or guide to, It is announced that a young French artist, named Du Philadelphia to which his name may be attached as author Val, has arrived here to make sketches of Centennial paintor authority. Hence, the obtaining and publishing of Mayor | ings, which are to be engraved.
CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION MEMORANDA.
and are now so de. servedly prosperous that they will doubt. less endure for ages.
The Philadelphia Library was established in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin, assisted by Thomas Cadwalader, Tho. mas Hopkinson, and a few others, and now, after the lapse of nearly a century and a half, it is one of the most valued and valuable of the institutions of our grand old city. The building, on Fifth street south of Chestnut street, shown in our engraving, was built in 1789-90 and
The Centennial City.- BENJAMIN FRANKLIN can never be forgotten in Philadelphia, while four such honorable and honored monuments of his vigorous mind and beneficent public spirit survive as the Philadelphia Library, the American Philosophical Society, the Pennsylvania Hospital and the University of Pennsylvania, the first two owe their origin to him, while those who originated the second two could scarcely have consummated their plans without his active, energetic coöperation—he was directly the founder of the former and really, though less directly, of the latter. These glorious monuments of the great Frank. lin have weathered the blasts and triumphed over the changes and chances of more than a century,
THE PHILADELPHIA LIBRARY.