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ping my be repaid by suggesting the route of routes; but is rarely needert. Major D. C. Houston's method of sinking each of the group of the masculine persuasion has his own cribs is peculiarly ingenious, and attracts much attention individual tastes, and we are more puzzled than ever, until the from engineers engaged in this branch of work. ladies take their turn in the discussion and, by their unanimity Passing on, we come to the gabion work used in the harbor if not by the weight of beiter judgment, prove that the men of Galveston, Texas, for submerging jetties. It is made of are all wrong, as “the Women's Pavilion is unrivaled by a material almost useless for any other purpose-cane-brake any of the men's shows." Well, here is relief from our or sea cane-the gabions being rectangular in shape, with perplexity at last—we'll go see, especially as the tasty the corners slightly rounded, and having wooden tops and Pavilion is just before us and quite near. We find the bottoms. In connection with these are photographic views Pavilion itself a most attractive edifice, highly creditable to of the work in the Mississippi. the fair architect ( MONTHLY, Feb., page 150), and the dis- Next is a model of the mattress or apron used in Cape play within proves not only that “ Women can do some Fear River for choking off water fro:n one channel to things as well as the lords of creation,” and some things in another. It is made of rough logs, brush, and stone, and a manner that baffles musculine skill, but that Mrs. Gillespie when laid at the bottom superinduces the formation of a sand. and her co-laboresses in getting up the Women's Depart- bar, and thus works like the jetties. Next we find five ment” have shown marvelous judgment and matchless large drawings of the United States iron snag-boat for reability. Having devoted more time than we can spare to a moving snags from Western rivers. close inspection of the utilitarian, practical and fancy products On the east wall of the department is hung General Warof women's handicraft and braincrait, we reluctantly pass ren's map of the flood plane of the Mississippi, showing the out, and directly opposite we behold the “ United States surveys on both sides of the river connected. Vear it are Government Building," one of the handsomest, best- over one hundred fine specimes of building stone contribuplanned, best-appointed and best-filled of all the buildings, ted by General Gilmore, and also a large portfolio of military and containing, in the opinion of very many discriminating maps of campaigns in the civil war. ju lyes, the very best display, for its extent, in the Centennial Next is a model of a construction used in Lake Erie, in. World--an opinion in which we undoubtingly concur.
We tended to meet the want of a crib capable of standing the find here a display which, to do it or ourselves justice, water's horizontal force, which is much greater in the lakes would require more than one or two days' close study; but than in the ocean. In general appearanee it differs little the old truism runs somewhat like this: “We must cut our from an ordinary crib, except that it is provided with an coat according to the cloth,” and so " we must cut our stay inclined plane, up which the waves first dash, and then, in this grand building according to our time."
being thrown back, meet the incoming waves, and their force A cursory review of the leading features of this fine exhi- is thus spent upon each other instead of on the crib. Cap. bition cannot fail to be interesting. There is no department tain Howell's dredge boat used in the Southwest Pass is in the Government Building more replete with interest than peculiarly simple in construction, and yet has shown iself the section occupied by the Corps of Engineers, under Gen- perfectly adapted to the work for which it was intended. eral A. A. Humphreys. The special exhibition of the appli- Among the most interesting Government exhibits are the ances for use in both peace and war is under the direct torpedoes representing the system invented by General charge of Captain D. P. Ileap, of the Corps of Engineers, Abbott for coast defence. They are all operated by elecassisted by Lieutenant S. S. Leach and a detachment of tricity, and the explosive used is dynamite. The weight seven men from the Battalion of Engineers. The object of ranges from five hundred to one thousand pounds, and they the exhibit is to exemplify the range of duties of the corps, are generally spherical or cone-shaped. They are anchored as well as to illustrate the characteristic features of some of in a line at the point to be defended, and held in position by the engineering operations under their charge. The exca- a wire rope, where they will be struck by the keel of a vessel vations at Hell Gate probably attract the most attention from passing over them. Electricity is employed to ignite the exgeneral observers. Many other operations under General | plosive, and this is done by the closing of the current when Newton in New York harbor are also illustrated by means of the torpedo is overturned, but the electrical appliances and maps and drawings, and also by models, one of the most im- the manner of making and breaking the current remain a portant of which is a drilling scow invented by General secret. When a large number of torped Jes are used, they Newton, and used in his works with great success. An are all electrically connected by means of a connection box equally interesting exhibit is a sounding machine devised with a single cable, some of the-e boxes only connecting and constructed by Major E. H. Hoffman, under the super- three or four torpedoes, while others connect ten or twelve. vision of Colouel J. N. Macomb, and used in the improve. A most ingenious contrivance is a double torpedo, or a false ment of Rock Island Rapids, Mississippi River. Near this and a real one, intended to overcome the power of outriggers. is an end-dock for docking the United States dredges at the An outrigger is a sort of false bow extending to such a dismouth of the Mississippi. It is the invention of Captain tance beyond the ship that it touches the torpedo first and Howell, in charge of the Southwest Pass, to avoid the neces- explodes it before the hull has approached sufficiently near to sity of hiring at great expense the dry-docks owned by pri. be in danger. To circumvent this contrivance a float electrivate parties, and also to avoid delay. It serves all the cally connected with a torpedo (held so low in the water purposes of a dry dock for repairs forward and aft, it only that a ship or outrigger cannot touch it) is placed at such a being necessary to take a regular dock for repairs below the
distance from the explosive that when the float is overturned water line when the work must be done amidships, and this by the outrigger the torpedo goes off directly under the vessel.
On the south side of the engineers' department is a display of the pontoon trains used in the army. On one side are trains with wagons loaded, the first intended for light pontoons for advance guards, and the second for the main body of the army. Only two styles of wagons are used, and both the vehicles and the burdens differ but little except in the fact that one is much lighter than the other, the heavy one being for large numbers of troops, artillery, commissary, and quartermasters' trains. On one of the columns in the department are a number of army picks and shovels, those invented by General Benham, of the Corps of Engineers, designed to be carried as part of the equipment of an army when it is probable that embankments will be needed at short notice.
Next is a model of a blockhouse, invented by Colonel Merrill, and used in the Army of the Cumberland for the defence of railroad bridges. It is intended to be defended by musketry, and yet is proof against field artillery. The
FAIRMOUNT AND THE OLD WATER WORKS.
the discharge. It is, however, stated that these guns have a On the north and east walls of the ordnance department number of weak points which have been overcome in the have been arranged a collection of arms which show at a construction of the breech-loading Springfield rifle. An glance the gradual development of the rifle within the past invention of Lieutenant Metcall's greatly facilitates rapid one hundred years. At the beginning of the display is a lay firing by the introduction of a small magazine near the breech. figure dressed as a “Minute Man” of the Revolution, hold- This is made of wood and holds a dozen cartridges, inserted ing in his hands an old flint-lock musket with a clumsy butt in holes bored in the block, which is thrown away when all and large bore, and then follow other improvements, until the loads are discharged. Among the weapons in this colWe.come to the breech-loaders adopted by the Government in lection is a revolver made in London in 1818, and this only 1818, when 10,000 were issued to the troops, and used until differs materially from Cole's invention in the fact that the 1842. Several other breech-loaders exhibited have revolving barrel must be turned by hand after each shot, instead of barrels, and then follow the breech blocks, some of which revolving with the raising of the cock. A rifle and a bayonet slide out at right angles to the side, and others so pivoted as
are shown which were struck by lightning during the war. to move in the arc of a circle, these two varieties being finely It is stated that the piece was at the time carried by a soldier illustrated by the Prussian needle-gun and the Chassepot. who was in charge of two prisoners, and that the lightning, An interesting part of this display are the magazine guns, attracted by the steel point of the bayonet, prostrated all which during the latter part of the civil war rendered such three of the men, rendering them insensible for several effective service. The pieces are provided with receptacles moments. The point of the bayonet was melted, the stock containing a large number of cartridges, which, by the mere was burned, and a large piece of the butt split off. There
be at the corners.
army cloth without difficulty. Hurse equipments and harness are placed on dummies, showing what is necessary for four and six horse teams; also the pack saddles used by the troops on the frontier. The farriers' department is complete, with portable forge, sets of tools, horse and mule shoes, adapted to all climates and countries. A mounted skeleton of a horse shows the whole bony structure, each bone being plainly labelled, and a miscellaneous collection of hools shows the effect of improper shoeing and point out the propio method. The different styles of tents are set up in miniature, including the small shelter, the common wah, Sibley, and the large hospital. The different chevrons are neatly arranged in a glass frame. A camp hed gives an idea how comfortable the officer can be when not on the march, covered as it is with the army woolen blanket, mosquito net, rubber blanket and a good hard pillow. Books and blanks show how stores are drawn and requisitions made from the head. quarters of a military division down to what is needed by a company.
The small building northwest of the Government Building is used as the laboratory, and contains a number of those intricate and delicately-adjusted instruments that are used for making lists of ordnance and powder. There are sevi• ral instruments on exhibition for measuring the velocity with which a ball moves as it leaves the mouth of a rifle or can
Each of these has some peculiarity particularly its own, and in which it excels. The oldest, and the one that
was used for testing all powder purchased during the rebelRUSTIC BRIDGE IN THE RAVINE, WEST PARK. lion, is the Shultz chronoscope. The method of ascertaining
the velocity given to any projectile by the specimens of poware no “ trophies” captured during the late war exhibited, der furnished is as follows: Two targets are erected, each though Confederate arms having peculiarities in construction of which is covered with a net-work of copper-wire. The are shown, and some of these, especially the Southern wire in each of these targets forms a portion of the circuit of breech-loaders, have many meritorious points
. Among the an electro-magnet, whose armature is kept vibrating by a more striking contrasts in this collection are a breech-loading tuning fork, which, tuned to a certain key, makes a certain cannon used before 1570 by the Spaniards at the time of number of vibrations each second. These vibrations are their occupation of Mexico, and a Sutcliffe breech-loading recorded on a revolving drum. As the bullet passes through rifle piece. The first mentioned is loaded at the breech by the first target it cuts the circuit of the first magnet
, and a clumsy contrivance more resembling a flat iron wedged stops its motion, leaving its record on the drum. As it cuts into a hole than anything else, while the modern piece is the wire of the second magnet its motion also ceases, and provided with every improvement which science and ingenu- there remains a record on the drum of a certain number of ity could suggest. Pivot guns or rampart çuns were in use in vibrations in that interval which can be counted, giving in the early part of this century, but bear about the same minute fractions of a second the exact time the ball took to relation to a Parrot or Krupp as a flat-boat to a monitor. pass between the two targets.
Another instrument operates Six valuable posts for an enclosure are formed of the bronze by the magnets releasing two pendulums suspended from the cannon presented by General Lafayette to the United States same point, the other ends being held up by the magnets at during the Revolutionary War.
opposite sides of the arc. At the point at which they meet The display of the Quartermasters' Department is not
on the arc, and the distance of this record from the centre only interesting to the military visitor, but also to the civilian. point, where they would have met had they fallen together
, The exhibition comprises everything that is any way con
is the basis for the necessary calculation. Le Boulenge's nected with the department. The most striking objects, or rather the ones that first attract the attention, are a number dulums from two magnets, the second one releasing a spring
chronograph reaches the same result by dropping two penof lay figures which, though not very prepossessing in facial which makes an indentation on the first
, which is then appearance, still serve admirably to display the various falling
. The distance it has fallen is then measured, and, costumes of the different branches of the service from the with this measurement as the datum, the time occupied is nection Government tailors are in attendance who show the the force of expansive gases, so often the cause of cannon
, and in
sound by mathematical calculation. Pressure gauges to show method of making up the clothing required by the army. A bursting, are shown; also, electric primes for discharging a cloth-cutting machine is shown, which is very easily worked torpedo or cannon by electricity. There are in this building by one operator, and will cut through twenty thicknesses of other instruments of incalculable benefit to the scientific
officer and student, the building, designed and constructed by condensing engine shown is a triumph of mechanic art, It an army officer, is itself not less interesting than its contents. is of five hundred horse power, forty-eight seet stroke, with
The Navy Department, too, makes a grand display, every compound marine builer of eight feet diameter. improved appliance for use in naval warfare being shown, The Post-Office Department exhibits a handsome case in made the more interesting and valuable by comparison with which are displayed improved mail-bags in present use. the methods used in the early days of the Republic. The There are also shown marking-stamps, boxes, and blank first ohject which claims the visitor's attention upon entering forms. The scales are beautiful in workmanship, and adthe building is a model, forty-one feet in length, of the justed in an exceedingly delicate manner. The envelope United States sloop-of-war Antietam, from water line to rail, making machine is a superior piece of mechanism. The fully rigged with sails, equipment, and twenty-two broadside paper for making the envelopes is fed to a flat plate and cut guns. Another model of the same vessel, thirteen feet in into proper shape. It is then seized, folded, and turned out length, shows in detail the method of constructing a sloop- upon an endless rotating table, stamped, and ready for use. of-war. A model of the French frigate Didon, built at St. The motive power is supplied by a small steam-engine of the Malo in 1797, and noted for her extraordinary sailing quali- Baxter patent. Locks used by the department between 1800 ties, although differing materially from vessels of the present and 1876 are also shown. A regularly systematized postday, has an appearance of great strength and swiftness com- office is in operation. The mails are received and distributed bined. Sectional models of a double-bottom broadside, iron- regularly in the same manner as at the main office on clad frigate, and the war vessels Hartford, New Ironsides, Chestnut street, the list of unclaimed letters is regularly Monadnock, Kearsarge, Vandalia, Jamestown, President, posted, and every facility given for the transportation of mail St. Mary's, Constitution, Ohio, Portsmouth, and others are matter to different sections of the Union and to foreign shown. Stationed at different points among the models and
countries. other exhibits of the department are life-size figures in the The Department of the Interior occupies the southwestern uniform of marines and sailors, from the sailor of 1776 to section of the building, and is divided up into five displays, that of the present day. The arms borne by these men in each directed by a special agent, who has charge of the exthe various periods which they represent, are exceedingly in
hibits of his particular bureau, General Eaton exercising a teresting, the boarding pike, short flint-lock musket, cutlass, general supervision of the display of the department. The and cumbersome pistol contrasting strangely with the im
divisior.s are : The exhibits of the Indian Bureau, the exhiproved arms in present use. The arms themselves, of which bits of the Census Bureau, the exhibits of the General Land a large number are exhibited, attract marked attention. They Office, and the exhibits of the Patent Office. The Indian embrace the different sorts adopted for use by the Govern- Bureau, more especially at this time, when the eyes of the ment, beginning with the primitive weapons of Revolutionary whole country are directed to the Western frontier, is pardays
, and showing improved patterns up to the breech- ticularly interesting, giving, as it does, an immense amount loaders used in the late civil war and now forming a part of of valuable information regarding the modes of life, warsare, the regular armament of the navy. The guns shown are and general habits of the red man. In connection with the beautiful specimens of workmanship. Among them are the
bureau the Smithsonian Institute makes a very fine ethnologipowerful Gatling gun, Treadwell's thirty-two pounder, moun- cal and and archæological display, the result of geological ted. The shells and projectiles are of infinite variety, and surveys made by Messrs. F. V. Ilayden and J. W. Powell. the same may be said of submarine rockets and torpedoes. The photographic views from life and nature representing A monument of considerable historic interest consists of Indians, their costumes, their modes of cooking, style of liv. wood blocks taken from the ship Columbus, built in 1716; ing, and the country they inhabit, cannot fail to interest the the Delaware, 1717; United States, 1794; Raritan, 1820; visitor. Pennsylvania, 1822; Columbia and Columbus, 1825; Merri- There is a model of the Yellowstone National Park, and mac, 1855, and the Florida, 1861. A model of the United other models, which are both interesting and instructive, inStates navy dry dock at Norsolk, Virginia, is a perfect piece cluding the Grand Canon of the Colorado of the West and of workmanship, complete and true to the original in all its the cliffs of Southern Utah; geological model of the Elk details. The dock was commenced December 1, 1827, Mountains of Colorado; ancient ruins of a town on the Rio during the administration of President Adams, and opened McElmo, Southwest Colorado; ancient cave-ruin on the Rio June 17, 1833, during the incumbency of Andrew Jackson. de Chelly, Arizona; ancient cliff-houses in the canon of the A similar model shows the Navy Yard at Brooklyn, com
Rio Mances, Colorado, and many others, which lack of space menced in 1841, and finished ten years later. A hospital
forbids mentioning. A very lise-like representation of Red ship is also shown with its heds, and necessary appliances for
Cloud, chief of the Ogalalla Sioux, dressed in full war costhe comfort of the sick. A forward section of the United tume, paint, feathers, and all, is a better specimen of the lay States steamer Hartsord, shcwing “sick bay,” with its swing- figure than is usually seen. In upright cases, having glass ing beds, is also exhibited. Two ship's galleys, capable of
fronts, with each article intelligibly labelled, there are placed cooking for two hundred and five hundred men respectively, the costumes of the numerous Indian tribes, Both male are fitted up with every modern utensil pertaining to the and female dresses are offered for inspection in great variety culinary art as practiced on shipboard. At intervals upon and profusion. These include the fur dresses of the Esquithe upright cases, containing shot and shell, are hung ancient maux and Alaska Indians, and the weapons used by them in looking oil portraits of the naval heroes who have figured in the chase. The various articles used in ordinary life by the the annals of the country. A powerful-looking, back-acting savages, other than the implements of war and the chase,
such as bows, arrows, quivers, and shields, are classified into The Census Bureau occupies but a small space, and the personal adornment, including feather head-dresses, other most interesting portion is the original manuscript of the first head-dresses, etc. The shell money, articles of the toilet- census made in 1790. The small case containing this cencombs, mirrors, painting, spatulæ, depillatories, head-scratch- sus, compared with the long rows of shelves required for the ers, and paint mortars, objects relating to funcreal rites, and volumes containing the census of 1870, proves to the visitor burial bracclcts and necklaces, articles relating to dances, the immense and rapid growth of this country in population
In bottles are shown specimens of the vegetable food during the past eighty years. Maps are also exhibited, showof the Indians, such as smilax, moss, mushroom, tule root, ing by the different shades of coloring the density of populatuckahoc, mesquito bark, screw bcan, together with such tion in the various sections of country in the last decade. materials as are used for food. Models of dwellings of all The exhibits of the Patent Ofice are in charge of Ed. shapes, sizes, and varicties are shown.
ward Knight, Esq., editor of the Oficial Gazette. The The Bureau of Education has received the special attention publications on exhibition comprise a handsomely-bound set of General Eaton, still the exhibits are far from being as full of volumes, containing copies of the Gazette issued every as would have been expected in this land of free schools, week during the past five years. A General Index, issued the difficulty arising from the fact that all articles would at a cost of $25,000, contains a list of all patents issued from have to be furnislied by private parties, the Government 1799 to 1873, numbering in all 160,000. This index, a itself having no educational institutions other than those of book of 1,950 pages, was prepared by Mr. Knight, and West Point and Annapolis, and these properly belonging to gives evidence of great labor and thorough preparation. the War and Navy Departments respectively. On the tops There are also furnished for inspection prin:cd copies, handof the cases have been placed busts of Gideon Hawley, first somely bound, of the specifications and drawings of 69,000 State Superintendent of schools of New York, George Pea- patents. Among these publications is a copy in fac-simile body, and Noah Webster, of dictionary renown, and on the of the original printed register of patents issued in the columns are hung portraits of all the Secretaries of the earliest days of the Government. This shows that in 1790 Interior, and of Thomas H. Gallaudet, of Isartford, Con- patents were first granted by the Government, and from that necticut, the first teacher of the deaf and dumb in this year until 1836 the officer in charge of granting patents was country. The Indians who are located in the Indian known as the Clerk of Patents, and had his office in the Territory furnish an interesting exhibit of the progress made State Department. Dr. William Thornton was the first by the young in education, in specimens of hand-writing, person who filled this office, he being in possession from and articles of wearing apparel and household goods made | iSoz to 1808. Before this time there had been no distincby them, such as necklaces, moccasins, quilts, etc. Photo- tive officer in connection with patents, the work being per: graphs are also shown of some of the Indians who have formed by one of the clerks in the office of the Secretary of been educated, and of the schools erected in the Territory. State. In 1821 the title was changed to that of SuperintenModels of schoolhouses are numerous, and include the dent of Patents, which in 1836 was changed to Commissioner old-fashioned log schoolhouse, the ordinary frame country of Patents, the first Commissioner being H. S. Ellsworth. schoolhouse, up to the model of the Franklin School in It appears from this register that the first patent ever granted Washington, which took the prize at the Vienna Exposition in this country
was that issued to Samuel Hopkins, July 31
, The printed exhibits are made up of catalogues and year
1790, for a machine for making pot and pearl ashes, and books of colleges, catalogues of the largest and best libraries third, to the celebrated Oliver Evans, of Philadelphia
, also in the United States, reports made by the different state granted in 1790, for a machine for making flour and meal
. Superintendents of Schools, publications by scientific associa- The models furnished by the Patent Onice number about tions, photographs of schools and college buildings, with a
5,000 of the most interesting models in their possession, sew photograghs of teachers and professors; the text books
these being nearly three per cent. of all the models in the in use in the early part of the present century and those in Patent Omice, and are classified under the fo!luwing heads, use now, and an interesting collection of books in raised including a greater portion of the most wonderíul pieces of letters for the blind, in addition to the annual reports and mechanism invented in this country during the present photographs of the blind and deaf and dumb asylums in
century: Civil engineering, steam, mechanical movements, different sections of the country, wall maps, charts, drawing agriculture, fine arts, gas, journals and bearings, navigation, books and instruments, and writing-books displaying tie textile, glass, household, mills and presses
, wood: ability of scholars. The specimens of drawing and of modelling in clay, and the designs for carpets
, wall paper, tricity, ice, harvesters, architecture, railways, hydraulics.
working, pneumatics, horse-powers, firearms, stone, electiles, etc., made by pupils in the industrial art schools are
hoisting, vehicles, leather, light, chemistry, metal-working, really handsome, and evince great ability. The coloring of printing and stationery, clay, and heat. some photographs by pupils of the Cooper Union of New The display of ores of the precious metals and other minYork city, is particularly fine. Some school furniture is on
erals in the Smithsonian section has been so carefully arranged exhibition, but not in any great quantity; and there is a sct by Professor Blake that the most superficial observer must of plaster casts representing all the diseases of the tooth. find both pleasure and instruction in even the most casual The Kindergarten system of education is shown in the furni. survey. This collection exhibits the nature and variety of ture
, blocks of wood, paper weaving, small and simple paper the mineral resources of the United States, the geographical designs, and the other objects used in instructing and distribution and geological associztion of the minerals, the amusing the young scholars.
extent to which they have been utilized, the metallurgical and