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The editor at first entertained some doubts of the expedi- And now, may we not hope the entire question is finally ency of printing them (the two letters of July 3) in their determined ? that the 3d of July, 1776, was the date of the original shape. But upon considering the matter well, his letter and that the 2d was the day John Adams expected deterinination to adhere in all cases to the text prevailed. would be commemorated as the Day of Independence. If any injury to the reputation of Mr. Adams for prophecy That he was mistaken in this small particular may be parshould ensue, it will be greater in the form than in the sub- doned even by the hypercritical, when they see that he was stance; and will not be perhaps without compensation in the oherwise right. I quote the famous portion of the famous restoration of the unpublished portions."

letter; it has been often in print, but it cannot be amiss to This combined and garbled letter was, in course of time, give it correctly herewith : copied by Sherman Day and by others, and came to be

· PHILADELPHIA, July 3d, 1776. received as the original. Neither Mr. Day nor any one of The day is past. The second of July, 1776, will be a the champions of the altered letter could have weight with memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to well-informed critics as against Peter Force, and when Force believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations is sustained in his date by the descendants of John Adams, as the great anniversary festival. It ought to be commemowho have had and have the original manuscript to appeal to rated as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to I cannot see how intelligent persons can longer hesitate in God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows, accepting the 3d as the true date.

games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations, from Like all similar questions, this comes up at intervals, is one end of the continent to the other, from this time forward discussed and decided, only to be again revived and again forever. You will think me transported with enthusiasm ; discussed and decided. Thus, in 1872, in The Sunday but I am not. I am well aware of the toil and blood and Mercury of Philadelphia, a writer under the nom de guerre treasure that it will cost us to maintain this Declaration, and of " Federal Arch” attempted to show that the letter was support and defend these States. Yet through all the gloom, written on July 5th, and John Quincy Adams (son of C. F. I can see the rays of light and glory—I can see that the end A., who was then in Europe) being appealed to, decided is more than worth all the means, and that posterity will that his father's statements in “The Life and Works of John triumph, although you and I may rue, which I hope we shall Adams,” and in “ The Letters of John Adams, addressed to not," etc.

AMBROSE B. CARLYLE. his Wife," were correct--this was a decision in favor of the 3d. Then, in the MONTHLY, as before reserred to, another American Pounds, Shillings and Pence. (MONTHLY, writer, ignoring or not knowing of the former decision of page 139).–Accounts in the United States were formerly the question, got off on the 5th track. And now, within kept in pounds, shillings and pence. a few weeks, “ John S. Morton,” Esq., in the Erning In the currency of New York and North Carolina, eight Telegraph of Philadelphia, again reöpened the question, re- shillings made one dollar; in that of the New England producing the old arguments in favor of the 5th. To him a States and Virginia, six shillings; in Pennsylvania, New writer signing bimself “F. D. S.” replied, attempting to Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, seven shillings and six show Mr. M. wherein he was wrong. But Mr. M. would pence, and in South Carolina and Georgia, four shillings and not be shown, and came out in a second communication, eight pence. A pound, in New York currency, was confrankly proclaiming: “ My object in addressing you my sequently equal to two dollars and fisty cents ; in Pennsylvania communication of the 30th ult. was to correct what I then currency, to two dollars and sixty cents, and in that of New thought, and still believe, to be the error of not only Charles England, to three dollars and thirty-three cents. Francis Adams, but of many others,” etc.; his arguments In New York, as eight shillings made one dollar, the coin would not be proofs, even in the absence of the carefully of the value of twelve and a half cents, was consequently preserved original with its clear date of “ July 3d,” and called a shilling, and that of six and a quarter cents, a sixthey are much less when brought in conflict with John pence. In New England currency, the same coins were Adams's own writing. “F. D. S.” conclusively replied to respectively of the value of nine pence and four and a hall Mr. Ms. second, and wrote to Charles Francis Adams, pence, and were there designated by the terms “nine pence” sending copies of the Telegraph containing the discussion. and “four pence ha'-penny.” In Pennsylvania, the larger To this he received the following reply:

coin was about of the value of eleven pence, and was called “QUINCY, 15th July, 1876. “ eleven-penny-bit,” or by corruption, “a levy," and the F. D. S., Esq., Philadelphia.

smaller coin was called “a five-penny bit,” or by corruption, Dear Sir:—There can be no controversy touching the

a "fip-ne-bit” or “fip." dates of the letters of John Adams, which I published in the

These designations were used long after accounts had year 1841. There are two separate letters, each dated very

ceased to be kept in pounds, shillings and pence, but those distinctly the 3d. In a letter written by himself to Judge of Pennsylvania are now seldom heard.

J. S. F. Thomas Dawes he says one was written in the morning, the other in the evening of the 3d. They were received by

“ The Drum."-Does I. C., Monthly for August, page Mrs. Adams on the 13th. You will find them in substance 141, refer to the song in which this line occurs: correctly printed in Niles's • Principles and Acts of the Rev.

Now the drum beats reveillé" ? olution,' together with the letter to Julge Dawes, page 330.

I used to hear it sung forty years ago, and know part of it

and the music. I shall be happy to supply the words, if CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS." this be the song desired.

DAVIES,

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Very truly yours,

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The Pretenders. In the paper on “ Early Newspaper Spain, the Duke of Savoy, and by the Pope. From that
Celebrities of America,” page 184 of this number, the writer time until about 1744 or 1745 he kept Great Britain in a
tells us that the first number of The Boston News-Leiter state of ferment by his own efforts and those of his friends
contained an extract from The London Flying Post concern- to secure the throne.
ing the Pretender, styling himself “ James the Eighth of In 1745, he resigned his " rights" in favor of his son,

Charles Edward Stuart, styled “the Young Pretender,"
who entered upon the contest with great zeal, and, for a
short time, his prospects of success were most flattering.
The enthusiasm among his adherents in Scotland was in.
tense, and the Jacobites of England were in high hope, as
his march into the country had brought him to Derby, nearly
the centre of the kingdom, and it really seemed as if he

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THE PRETENDER.

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Scotland." There is much of interest connected with the efforts of James Francis Edward Stuart, the son and heir of James II. (designated “ the Chevalier de St. George,” and the “Old Pretender"), to secure the throne lost by his father, and a dispassionate reader of the history of the British Em

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THE YOUNG PRETENDER.

FLORA MACDONALD.

were to gain the coveted crown, when vacillation and mis-
management among his adherents reversed his prospects ;
retreat and disaster succeeded, and at Culloden the hopes
of the Stuarts were blasted forever. Charles concealed
himself in the Western Isles, where he is said to have had
many romantic adventures, being hunted from place to place

by the king's troops. The beautiful and courageous Flora pire cannot but feel a measure of sympathy for him in his his need, to escape to France in September, 1746; she.com

Macdonald proved his " friend indeed” by aiding him in struggles and failures. James II. of England was VII. of ducted him disguised as Betty Burke, her female servant, co Scotland, and hence it was that his son, had he succeeded in the Isle of Skye. She

was imprisoned for a few months for attaining the throne, would have been “ James the Eighth the offence, but was soon released ; in 1750

, she married of Scotland." His father, after his decisive defeat at the Alan Macdonald," son of the Laird of Kingsburgh, with Coyne, had retired to France, and resided at Saint Germains whom she emigrated to America about 1774; she lived in until his death, in 1701, when the son was recognized as North Carolina for a time and subsequently returned to King of England by the King of France, the King of Skye where she died in 1790. Charles remained in France

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for some years, went thence to Romc, where he lived the liar institution” prevailed in the North in the earlier days of latter years of his life, dying in 1788. In 1772 he had our Nation, as compared with the South and as compared married Louisa, Countess of Albar.y, a daughter of Prince with the population. The following are official figures : Stolberg-Gedern; in 1780 they separated, in consequence of his having become intemperate, or, as some assert, he became intemperate in consequence of the separation. After his death Louisa married the poet, Alfieri, and settled at Florence.

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Pop.

39.858 34,723

66

15,017

168,824

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40,352

23
46

27
386

746
SLAVES.
None.

2,246
None.
6,050

4,578

15,510
1830.
,399,437 None.
'267,367 None.
610,014 None.
446,913 102,878
738,470 246,462
581,458 315,665
516,567 217,470
308,997 117,294
110,000 65,659
215,762 109,631
684,833 142,382
688,844 165,350
341,582 None.
280,679
297,513
1,934,000

320,7791
1,347,672

76,739
937,679
157,575
140,192
31,698

30,3831
108
310
795

24
4,177

168

237
10,851
SLAVES,
None.

17,0887
196,365
105,218
44,535
34,66
3,011
5,395

80,561
1810.
228,705 None.
217,895 None.
472,040 None.
380,546 111,502
974,622 392,518

230,700 None. 3,929,326 697,697 7,239,903 1,191,364" 12,850,240 2,010,436

214,400

70,931
810,921
245,562

72,6741
555,500
252,433
415,115

76,556
261,727
Por.
406,511

24,520
12,282
19,783
4,762

1,062
158

948
Slaves.

2,764
21,324
11,423
3.737
8,887
29,264
12,430

3,417
1790.
96.540 None.
319,728 103.036
747,610 292,627
393,951 100,572
249,073 107,094
Pop.
85,539
68,825
184,139
434,373
59,094
82,548

73,677
Massachusetts 378,787 None.

STATES AND
TERRITORIES.
N.Hampshire 141,885
Vermont........
Rhode Island
Connecticut'.
New York
Pennsylvania
New Jersey
Delaware ......
Maryland.
Virginia.
N. Carolina

Total
S. Carolina
Georgia
Alabama
Mississippi
Louisiana ......
Tennessee .....
Kentucky......
Indiana
Michigan Ter.
Illinois.
Arkansas Ter.
Missouri
Ohio..
Dis. Columbia
Florida Ter

24,023

“Wile Away.”—In the Monthly for July, page 23, in an inviting article giving A Revolutionary Game of Cards,” occurs the following: “It was, no doubt, played by our ancestors a century ago, and may serve to while pleasantly an hour or two away." The word “while” should have been printed "wile," as the author, Mr. Samuel Yorke At Lee, wrote it; the change was certainly unintentional, for, although the dictionaries authorize “ while," we are inclined to concur with Mr. At Lee in regarding “wile” as the better spelling. Webster tells us the latter is rare, but if it be right, we can but help to make it less rare by giving it the presence, and thus “stand against the wiles of the devil" which might tempt us “to follow a multitude to do (spell) evil.”

91

.........

237,946
340,120

a

Maine..........

rectness.

Lady Ackland.-On page 191 and 192 of the current number, will be found a short sketch of Lady Ackland from the pen of Mrs. Charles H. Halsey. In the MONTHLY for February, 1875, page 97, there was a paper by Rev. William ,

THEOPH. S. Walsh. Hall, which gave the facts of Lady Ackland's American experience; in it Mr. Hall has a footnote questioning the The Dark and Light of September, 1776.—The folauthenticity of the story of the Major's duel, his widow's lowing interesting paragraphs formed part of Mr. Fenwycke's temporary insanity and subsequent marriage with Mr. Bru- paper given in the August MONTHLY, being omitted bacause denell. No doubt the story originated with Wilkinson, or they belonged to September history; we insert them here was repeated by him without due inquiry as to its cor- because they are rather short for a separate paper.

We have seen that the patriot forces had obtained a brief

season of safety in New York City, that Howe was already College Boat-Racing.–Where and when did college making active preparations to attempt the capture of the city, boat-racing begin?

A STUDENT. and that Washington, aware of his enemy's purpose and

strength, had perfected plans for retreat. Taxation without Representation.—Was taxation with- A council of officers on the 7th of September decided out representation the principal grievance on which our against evacuating the city, but upon reconvening on the 12th forefathers inaugurated the American Revolution, or was it the council reversed the decision, and the movement was a general protest against the general tyranny of the King forthwith commenced. The sick were removed to New and Parliament of England; and who was really the first Jersey and the stores to Dobbs's Ferry, some twelve miles prominent American to enunciate the truth or doctrine that from the city. A force of four thousand men, under the taxation without representation was tyranny? or, was the command of General Putnam, was left in the city, with principle announced before the American Revolution ? and orders if necessary to follow the main army which retired ought not the principle if it is a true principle at all, he towards Mount Washington and King's Bridge. On the applied to the women of the United States to-day?

15th, Sir Henry Clinton, with four thousand men, landed at A WOMAN, Kip's Bay (now foot of Thirty-fourth street), being followed

shortly by another division chiefly of Hessians. I need not Thomas Carlyle.- Are there any sufficient grounds for give the details of the advance of the British, the withthe frequent assertions that Carlyle ever intended to be a drawal of Putnam's rear-guard, and the British entering upon preacher ? and if he had been a preacher what wing of the possession of the city. This was on the 15th of September, British church would he or could he have flown with ? and from this time until the 25th of November, 1783, a

ARTHUR MERLIN. period of seven years and nearly a quarter, the British held

the city. Slavery in the United States in 1790, in 1810 and in The evacuation by the patriots and occupation by their 1830---Now that the irrepressible conflict” is over and enemy were effected without fighting. But on the 16th of Seppast, it is interesting to note the extent to which the “ pecu- | tember, the British force advanced against Mount Morris and

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Harlem Cove (Manhattanville), occupied by small garrisons. of the Enimy and march'd up in good order through their On the advance, meeting a small detachment of Americans, fire, which was incessant till within 70 yards when we a sharp though brief conflict occurred. Though the Ameri- Engaged them in that situation we engaged them for one cans lost two gallant officers, Colonel Knowlton and Major hour and eight minits, when the Enimy Broke & Ran, we Leitch, and a number of men, and though their chief persued them to the next hights, when we were ordered to deemed it wise to retreat to Harlem Heights directly after- Retreat Our lose does not exceed in killed and wounded wards, the immediate result of the conflict was favorable to twenty five men, the lose of the Enimy was very considerable the patriots and raised their hitherto despondent spirits. This but cannot be ascertaind, as we observed them to carry of slight, but important victory checked the British for a time; their dead and wounded the whole time of the Engagemen:, Howe deeming the American fortifications on the Heights they left a Number of killed and wounded on the Field of too strong for direct attack, sought to reach their rear. But Battle & a great number of small Armes, the great Superthis belongs to October.

iority of Numbers and every other advantage the Enemy It will be recollected that in the fighting on Long Island, had, when considered makes the Victory Glorious, and tho' Generals Sullivan and Alexander (Lord Stirling) were among but over a part of their Army yet the Consequences of it are the prisoners. The British commander, General Howe, attended with advantages very great, as they imediately released the former on parole and sent him with a verbal quited the hights all round us and have not been trouble. message to the Congress proposing a conference with a com- some sinse, our people behaved with the greatest Spirit

, and mittee from that body, at the same time expressing regret the New England men have gained the first Lawrells. I that he could not treat with the Congress or their Committee received a slight wound in the Anckle at the first of the otherwise than as private gentlemen. The Congress replied Engagement but never quited the Field during the Engagein becoming terms, insisting that they could only act as I'm now Ready to give them the second part whenrepresentatives of Free and Independent States, but consent- ever they have an appetite, as I'm convinced whenever stir ing to name a committee to confer informally to learn exactly from their Ships we shall drubb them. what the brothers Howe had to propose. The committee Every thing here is very dear Rum 16s. l. my: p* Galls consisted of Dr. Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rut. and every thing in proportion. I expect to see you in Jan ledge. The conference was courteous and pleasant, but if heaven spares me when perhaps may fall on a sceme that fruitless,

D. ERSKINE FENWYCKE. you may think advantageous as it will be impossible for me In a valuable pamphlet which has come to hand too late to stay in the Army for eight pounds pp month should for notice in our Literary Department, we find a letter writ- esteem myself very in having a line, my Best Respects to ten by a participant in the operations about Harlem, which your Lady & Family. we copy as peculiarly apropos in this connection. The

I am with a due sense of obligations pamphlet is entitled “ American Independence: Did the

Your oblig'd & most obat Servant
Colonists Desire it? Letters of John Jay and John Adams.
Letters and Documents of other Actors in the American “To "homas Fayerweather Esq
Revolution. Compiled by Jeremiah Colburn.” It is a

Merch. In Boston"
reprint from that invaluable periodical The New-England
Historical and Genealogical Register for July of the current

George Clinton-a Query by the Editor.-In Mr. year:

Stone's sketch of this soldier and statesman of the Revolu-
New Jersey. Fort Constitution, Sept. 23. 1776.

tion it is stated that he was sent to the Continental ConSir

gress, and in May, 1775, voted for the independence of The many savors Received from you will ever hold a the Colonies

the invasion of New York, when gratfull place in my heart, and I fatter myself a Leiter will but few military men

were available, imperatively callnot prove disagreeable as I look on myself obliged in grati- ing him to the desence, and preventing his signing the declar tude to let you hear from me, as I know you must be anctious ration." Drake, in his Dictionary, tells us : " He took his for the certainty of events of which you can have at that place in Congress, May 15, 1775, and voted for indepen; distance but a confused account, as I was on the spot will

dence; but the invasion of New York, calling him to her endeavor to give you as Concise & Just account as possible; defence, prevented his signing the instrument.” In the pace on the 15th Inst we evacuated New York & took all stores of every kind out of the City, and took Possession of hights presume the "and" before " in May, 1775," should be

sage quoted from Mr. Stone we followed copy, though we of Haerlem eight miles from the City, the Enimy incamp'd transposed to follow the date. Now, we are at a loss.com about two miles from us; on the 16th the Eninimy advanced comprehend the statement that Mr. Clinton voted for Inder and took Possession of a hight on our Right Flank abt half pendence, conflicting as it does with the historic record that a mile Distance with about 3000 men, a Party from our

the New York delegates did not vote for or against IndeBrigade of 150 men who turned out as Volunteers under the pendence, because of a doubt as to their right to vote in command of Lieut. Colo Cr ry of the Regmt I belong to

view of the Congress of that Colony having refused to inwere ordered out if possible to dispossess them, in about 20

struct them. That Clinton favored Independence we feel minits the Engagement begin with as terrible a fire as ever

assured, but doubt his having voted for it. We shall be I heard, when Orders came for the whole Brigage ime

obliged to Mr. Stone or any other friend who will send in-
diately to march 10 support the first detachment, the Brigade
Consisted of abe 900 men. we immediately formed in front

formation for publication in the Monthly, or reference to
any book or books containing such information.

JOHN GOOCH.

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CURRENT MEMORANDA.

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Reformers and Reform.-Since the days of Dickens, the worst men, even in official circles, been caught and and how long before the oldest antiquarian knows not, the punished ? In fact, the reflections growing out of such expression “ Great Expectations” has been a sort of refined questions are painful, and suggest a less pointed mode of slang phrase applied to any undue hopes for the future. And expression. What are the real prospects? The cry on one slang is but a convenient form of utterance for some popular side is “ Tilden and Resorm;" but the most respectable impulse, thought or feeling, and is not always objectionable exchanges that reach us are laden with facts and wisdom by any means. • Undue hopes" is the literal heart of the going to show that Mr. Tilden was and is simply a sharp matter. It is the anticipation of some thing or things which and shrewd lawyer of the most selfish and not overly-scruin the constitution and course of nature are not due us, for pulous type; that when rebel hands were at the throat of the which we have not labored, and therefore in all probability nation, Mr. Tilden, in a dignified sort of way, applauded shall not get.

"Great expectations” is the sunbeam of the act, and did his quiet best to uphold those hands; that sarcasm which opens the real book of life, and shows in fact, so far as he is a Reformer at all, it is by an instinct the debit instead of the credit side of the ledger. We of selfishness, with the keenest eye on the probabilities of are, as to this matter of reform, as a nation, just in the his own clear gains. This is what the knowing political midst of such hopes to-day. This reform is a strange word, editors say of him. And, all questions of Northern and and the things done in its name are often far stranger Southern sentiment aside, let us ask, Is that the sort of stuff than the word. The simplest etymology of the case is out of which any healthy reform may be expected to come ? usually realized. There is necessarily with every Reform Let us fling off our nightcaps, look the devil square in the some new turn or shaping of things. This is the essence of face, and whip him if we can; but always remember that it, as the idea of Rest is the germinal thought of the old he is never thoroughly whipped till he is dead. and new Sabbath; but whether or not we reach out toward On the other hand, while admitting all the good things progress and improvement in the Reform, or devotion on the that have been and are being said about Mr. Hayes as a Sabbath, depends altogether on the average condition of the good citizen, a good Governor and an honorable gentleman, soul and the State or Nation. It is considered liy many a

still in view of the experiences of the last eight years, is healthy sign of the times that the Belknap case no longer there not much force in the repeated assertion of the danger sleeps and luxuriates on soft pillows of plunder; that whis- that Hayes and Wheeler may become the tools of the forces key rings are being found out and the ringsters exposed; that have made General Grant's administration so objectionthat salary grabs and Credit Mobiliers were actually dis- able if not disgusting to many of the strongest and best covered and in a measure gagged; but, after all, this may Republicans in the country? Let us hope and work for a only be a pretty pointed modern illustration of the kettle better state of things. But it may be worth while to recall calling the crock hard names, and in real fact seems, so far, the fact, that seven years, yea four years ago, even so bright only to be a case or cases of moderately keen and pretty and well-informed a person as George W. Curtis, thought well applied detectiveism. The bottom fact to be considered General Grant meant to reform the civil service and be is that, especially in a democratic country, the official is an much better and abler a President than he was a man. And average expression of the average spirit and character of the here is the fallacy then and now and always, to suppose that people that choose him as their official, and is, whether we any man will be better and stronger officially than he has like to admit it or not, a veritable thermometer and chro- been in his own private and previous affairs. He of course nometer showing the average condition of the moral atmo- will have more rope and a larger swing, but the tone and spere, and telling us what o'clock it really is according to grit of the man will be always the same.

It is to preach the time-pieces of the people. He is not an exceptional ex

this lesson that we touched the matter at all, viz., that in crescence, but a natural growth of the native soil at any order to get a reform administration, “Republican” or “Demspecial hour of the year or years.

ocratic," we must have candidates and officers that were The next point worth considering and especially pertinent born and bred and have by law of nature given their in these days, when we have such great expectations of lives to honesty and reformation wherever they have found

Reform,” is this, that anything worthy of the name must dishonesty and injustice the order of the day about them. mean something more than the arrest, imprisonment, and, But we have put the case as we have, to indicate that every alas ! the speedy pardon of a few convicted officials, and fly is not a spider after all, and that real spider's webs are the still speedier reception of them back into the higher only built by law of nature and of truth; that, in order circles of social life again. It must mean an innate and to have reform, there must at least be an actual reformer or widespread contempt for and avoidance of dishonesty in every iwo at the wheel and lookout to steady the ship, and if business and political circle of the nation, from the White it is north you want to go, then to head her straight for House and the President's hat down to the smallest candy- the pole star, though the captain and half the crew be shop and caucus meeting, and through and through the most washed into the sea. battered beaver of the poorest tinker that walks the streets. One thought more: whether Hayes or Tilden is to comAre there any special signs of such reform to-day? Have mand our good ship of State during the next four years, is

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