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field.” Tryon would not save from the torch of the Hessian, Presidents of the Congress to 1789, and the United the Burr house. Perhaps he remembered Hancock's enter- States Government to 1829.–Would it not be of suffitainment and marriage there in 1775. “ Mrs. Burr, the wise cient interest to some of the MONTHLY's readers to warrant of Thaddeus Burr, Esq., high sheriff of the county, resolved the space to give a list of the Presidents of the Continental to continue in the mansion house of the family, and made an and National Congresses anterior to the Constitution, and attempt to save it from conflagration. The house stood at a of the earlier Administrations under the Constitution ? sufficient distance from other buildings. Mrs. Burr was

JAMES R. WATSON. adorned with all the qualities which gave distinction to her sex; possessed of fine accomplishments and a dignity of REPLY.-The information is readily accessible in histories character scarcely rivaled. She made a personal application and in other works, yel the list asked for by Mr. Watson to Gov. Tryon, in terms which, from a lady of her high re- will be found useful in this condensed form. spectability, could hardly have failed of a satisfactory answer Peyton Randolph, Virginia, was elected President of the from any person who claimed the title of a gentleman. The First Congress, Sept. 5, 1774, and re-elected to the same answer which she actually received was, however, rude and position by the Second Congress, May 10, 1775; but he was brutal; and spoke the want, not only of politeness and hu- compelled to go home within two weeks, whereupon John manity, but even of vulgar civility.” The house was sen- Hancock, Massachusetts, was elected May 24; Henry Lautenced to the flames; the Hessian incendiaries tried to rob rens, South Carolina, Nov. 1, '77; John Jay, New York, her of her watch as they applied the torch; and the house in Dec. 10, '78; Samuel Huntington, Connecticut, Sept. 28, which the President of the Continental Congress was mar- °79; Thomas McKean, Delaware, July 10, '81; John Hanried, with every thing which contributed either to comfort son, Maryland, Nov. 5. '81; Elias Boudinot, New Jersey, or elegance of living, was laid in ashes.

Nov. 4, '82; Thomas Mifflin, Pennsylvania, Nov. 3, ’83; W. T. R. SAFFELL. Richard Henry Lee, Va., Nov. 30, '85; Nathaniel Gorham,

Mass., June 6, '86; Arthur St. Clair, Pa., Feb. 2, '87; Cyrus Rev. Thomas Prince.-Rev. Thomas Prince, Pastor of Griffin, Va., Jan. 22, '88. the “Old South Church," Boston, Massachusetts, for forty THE FIRST SIX ADMINISTRATIONS.— The First.-George years, deposited a large number of pamphlets, records, Washington, Va., President inaugurated April 39, 1789, and MSS., etc. in the steeple chamber of that church, giving or- March 4, '93, both times with John Adams, Mass., Viceders that while they might freely be examined, none should President; Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, Va., Sept. be taken therefrom. Car your readers inform us if any of 26, '89, Edmund Randolph, Jan. 2, '94, and Timothy Pickthese documents are now extant ?

cring, Mass., Dec. 10, '95; Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Prince, prior to his settlement over the Old South Alexander Hamilton, Sept. II, '89, and Oliver Wolcot, Church, visited England, and procured the coat-of-arms still Conn., Feb. 3, '95; Secretary of War, Henry Knox, Mass., borne by the Prince family. By his researches it appears, Sept. 12, '89, Timothy Pickering, Mass., Jan. 2, '95, and that in the year 1582, Queen Elizabeth, by her Garter King James McHenry, Maryland, Jan. 27, '96; Attorney-General, at-Arms, granted to John Prince, of Abbey Foregate, Shrews- Edmund Randolph, Va., Sept. 26, 1789, William Bradford, bury, County of Salop (Shropshire), the coat-of-arms still Pa., Jan. 27, '94, and Charles Lee, Va., Dec. 10, '95. horne by the Prince family in that country, and which the The Second.-- John Adams, Mass., President, inaugurated Princes of America claim their right to bear, and do still March 4, '97, with Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President; State, bear. When the Rev. Thomas Prince was in England, an Timothy Pickering, Mass., March 5, '97, and John Marshall, exact copy of that coat-of-arms was presented to him as the Va., May 13, 1800; Treasury, Oliver Wolcot, Conn., March escutcheon of his ancestors. He returned to Boston in 1716. 5, 1797, and Samuel Dexter, Mass., Dec. 31, 1800; War,

The old Abbey referred to above, formed part of a richly James McHenry, Md., March 5, 1797, Samuel Dexter, Mass., endowed monastery, founded in 1083, by Roger, Earl of May 13, 1800, and Roger Griswold, Conn., Feb. 3, 'or; Shrewsbury. It is built of a red stone, and presents many Navy, Benjamin Stoddert, Md., May 21, 1798; Law, Charles curious features 'of the ancient Norman architecture. Was Lee, Va., March 5, '97. Foregate the name of the Abbey or of an appendage thereto ? The Third.—Thomas Jefferson, Va., President, inauguThe Princes, from the first, seem to have been a highly re- rated March 4, 1801, and March 4, '05, the first time with ligious family, showing in their genealogy great numbers, re- Aaron Burr, N. Y., the second time with George Clinton, presenting the Church, not only as Dissenters, but as Episco- N. Y., Vice-President; State, James Madison, Va., March palians also. They were a long.lived family, a characteristic, 5, 'ol ; Treasury, Samuel Dexter, Mass., March 5, ’on, and noticeable to our day, and not only this, rarely do any of the Albert Gallatin, Pa., Jan. 26, '02; War, Henry Dearborn, descendants fall into dotage with the passage of years. Mass., March 5, '01; Navy, Benjamin Stoddert, Md., March

Was Hon. Jonathan P. Cilley (killed in a duel with Graves 5, 'or, and Robert Smith, Md., Jan. 26, '02; Law, Levi of Kentucky) or his wife, a descendant of the Princes ? Lincoln, Mass., March 5, '01, John Breckinridge, Kentucky, It would seem that the Brewsters, Cushings, Freemans, December 23, '05, and Cæsar A. Rodney, Del., Jan. 20, '07. etc., are all collaterally related to the Princes. Four- The Fourth.-James Madison, Va., President, inauguteen Princes served in the Union army during our civil war, rated March 4, 1809, and March 4, ’13, the first time with and yet they are by no means a family martial in character, George Clinton, N. Y., the second time with Elbridge being more given to intellectual pursuits.

Gerry, Mass., Vice-President; State, Robert Smith, Md., E. O. S. ( née PRINCE). March 6, 'og, and James Monroe, Va., Nov. 25, '11;

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Treasury, Albert Gallatin, Pa., March 6, '09, G, W. Camp- mous sanctographer, tells us that Si. Crispin and St. Crispinbell, Tennessee, Feb. 9, '14, and Alexander J. Dallas, Pa., ) ian were “iwo glorious martyrs,” and states that they came Oct. 6, '14; War, William Eustis, Mass., March 7, 09, John from Rome to preach at Soissons, in France, “ towards the Armstrong, N. Y., Jan. 13, ’13, James Monroe, Va., Sept. middle of the third century, and, in imitation of St. Paul, 27, ’14, and William H. Crawford, Georgia, March 2, '15; worked with their hands in the night, making shoes, though Navy, Paul Hamilton, S. C., March 7, 'og, William Jones, they were said to have been nobly born and brothers." Pa., Jan. 12, '13, and Benjamin W. Crowninshield, Mass., Their success as preachers was so great that they soon brought Dec. 19, '14; Law, Cæsar A. Rodney, Del., March 6, '09, upon themselves the cruel hand of Rictius Varus, Governor William Pinkney, Md., Dec. 11, '11, and Richard Rush, under Maximias Herculeus, and " the most implacable Pa., Feb. 10, '14.

eneny of the Christian name,” as Butler justly stigmatizes The Fifth. - James Monroe, Va., President, inaugurated him, and he assures us they were victorious over this most March 4, 1817, and March 4, '21, both times with Daniel inhuman judge, by the patience and constancy with which D. Tompkins, N. Y., Vice-President; State, John Quincy | they bore the most cruel torments, and finished their course Adams, Mass., March 5, '17; Treasury, William H. Craw- by the sword about the year 287.” In Soissons there is a ford, Ga., March 5, '17; War, John C. Calhoun, S. C., fine old church built to their honor in the sixth century. March 5, '17; Navy, B. W. Crowninshield, Mass., March 5, It was on St. Crispin's day, 1415, that the great battle of ’17, Smith Thompson, N. Y., Nov. 30, '18, and Samuel L. Agincourt was fought, and the signal victory won by Henry Southard, N. J., Dec. 9, '23; Law, Richard Rush, Pa., V. of England, over the French under the Constable d'Al. March 5, '17, and William Wirt, Va., Dec. 16, ’17.

bret, the latter having six or seven times the English force. The Sixth.-John Quincy Adams, Mass., President, inau

THOMAS J. HARRIS. gurated March 4, 1825, with John C. Calhoun, S. C., Vice. President; State, Henry Clay, Ky., March 8, '25; Treasury,

A Witicism-Query as to its Author.-A friend Richard Rush, l'a., March 7, '25; War, James Barbour, having called upon Henry Inman, the distinguished artist, Va., March 7, ’25, and Peter B. Porter, N. Y., May 26, '28;

found him busy at his canvas, notwithstanding it was in

what New Yorkers call the annual “ heated term.” Navy, Samuel L. Southard, N. J., March 7, ’25; Law,

“ Terrible hot day,” exclaimed his friend, sopping his William Wirt, Va., March 7, '25. The Seventh was the memorable administration with

forehead with a pocket handkerchief.

“ Terrible!” returned Inman, “ but I am thinking it might Andrew Jackson at its head, with an entirely new array of

be made comfortable, if a man could sit in his bones.men in his Cabinet, every one of whom he replaced by a new man in May, 1831.

Was this original with Mr. Inman, whose wit was never

at fault? Will some of your readers tell us ? John Jay, New York, was the first Chief Justice of the

HOLLYWOOD. Supreme Court, and was inducted Sept. 26, 1789; William Cushing, Mass., succeeded Jay, Jan. 22, 1796, and died

Slavery in the North.—The table given in the Septem. within a few weeks, being succeeded by Oliver Ellsworth, ber Monthly, page 221, brings to mind the extent to which Conn., and he by John Marshall, Va., Jan. 27, 1801.

slavery prevailed in the Northern States in the early days

of our Nation and the early days of the Colonies. Among Slavery in Vermont.— The table published in your Ma

the curious things, to readers of our day, in the newspapers gazine for September, page 221, represents that in 1790 there of a hundred and more years ago, are the many advertisewere sixteen slaves in Vermont. This agrees with the official

ments of “ Slaves for Sale," “ Slaves Run Away," etc.; one publication of the census of 1790; but it is an error, as the

of these I copy as of special interest because of the afterwards Hon. Hiland Hall has clearly shown in the New Eng- famous men who figure as “ dealers ;” it is from The land Historical and Genealogical Register for July, 1875, Pennsylvania Journal of August 15, 1765: page 247. The error was occasioned by the Assistant Mar.

“ Just Imported in the ship Granby, Joseph Blewer Master, shal of Bennington County dividing the free blacks into

SEVENTY GOLD-COAST SLAVES of various ages, and three classes (namely, i, males over sixteen; 2, males under

both sexes, To be sold on board said ship at Mr Plumsted's sfxteen ; 3, females), and making no return of slaves. The wharf, by WILLING and MORRIS, And a part of them person who compiled the census, carelessly placed the free

are intended to be sent in a few days to Dock Creek, there black females in the return among the slaves, and the error, to be sold, by Mr Thomas Mudock for cash or country though often repeated, was only recently discovered.

produce." JOHN W. DEAN.

Of course the “dealers" were Thomas Willing and Robert

Morris, of Revolutionary same. “ Dock Creek” has, long St. Crispin and St. Crispinian.—Who does not know

years since, been filled up and been transformed into “Dock that St Crispin is the holy patron of that “ art, trade, mystery, Street."

J. MORAN SHRIDER. calling or occupation ” to which we are indebted for the shoes and boots we wear? He and his marvellous history John Nixon. A correspondent asks whether there has were called to my mind hy hearing a man whose feet were been any biography or sketch published of John Nixo'n, who corned wickedly cursing St. Crispin, in a manner worthy of read the Declaration in Independence Square, Philadželphia, a person corned in that way which makes one oblivious of jus. July 8th, 1776. We know of but one and that is qufite untice. St. Crispin died in the vear 287, and August 25th is the satisfactory-it contains two unexcusable errors which forbid day set apart in memory of his virtues. Alban Butler, the sa. reliance upon the other statements therein.

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CURRENT MEMORANDA.

The Turkey Bone, and who Shall Pick it.—The Turk front against the Turks; and to-day it looks as though it in Europe is a sort of new Daniel in the Lion's Den; perhaps were ere long be a fearful, perhaps final, struggle bewithout the faith, or goodness, or providential care supposed tween Iron-clads, Krupp guns and modern diplomacy. And to attach to the Hebrew Prophet; but that remains to be what are the chances ? One thing is palpable: the inevitable seen, and is just where the real interest in the present Euro- tendency of states and nationalities, not only in Europe but pean struggle centres. It is really of small moment whether all over the world in these days, is concentration. The days or not the little province of Montenegro, firmly or otherwise, of petty fighting between little princes and principalities are attaches itself to Servia in the present conflict, or whether wellnigh passed. It is not for her old independence that the two provinces together or separately urge a short or long, Servia is fighting, even though she may think it is. Is it for successful or unsuccessful war against the Sultan. If suc- a united Pan-Slavic nationality, in which she would be an cessful, it would only be a relative and questionable victory, important member, or is it only for a fifth-wheel position in a change of masters-perhaps for the better, perhaps for the Russia or Austria ? The answer to this seems to be, that worse-during the next ten or perchance the next hundred though Russia is great and strong, neither England nor Prusyears. As if thrown by cruel fates into the very jaws of the sia nor Austria would consent to her plucking or holding any hungry, European Turkey has been a bone of contention for states on the lower bank of the Danube; that as such, Auscenturies; but until within the last fifty or seventy-five years tria is not strong enough either to conquer or hold more territhe question was not how shall we divide the joints and tory than she has, and, in fact, that the jealousies of the finally dispose of the Mohammedan: it was, how shall we northwestern European nations will prevent any dismembercheck and curb his power, and prevent the Crescent from ment of European Turkey as in favor of Austria or Russia. waving on all the towers of Europe ? To this end, before It is useless any longer to talk of religious sympathies in the Russia, as an Empire, was as civilized and strong as now; matter. If Russia opposes the Sultan, it is not to help Serbefore the Hohenzollern element, through Frederick the via or the Christian vassals of Mohammedanism; it is to help Great, and later, through William and Bismarck, had made herself and enlarge her own borders. This is understood in Prussia the greatest nation of modern times; in a word, be- Europe, and cannot be allowed. On the other hand, the fore the purely civil as opposed to the ecclesiastical element Turkish element is so foreign to European civilization, and had so wholly entered into and determined to control the in fact is so small an item in it, that the Sultan will probably governments of modern nations; before England had got her not always hold sway therein, but will find himself, by the Shakspeare and Cromwell, or France her Napoleon; before growing combinations of European sentiment and power the printing-press and steam-engine; when the Pope was a against him, forced back to Asia Minor and his native ways. sort of headship of the Christian nations, all the then scat- In which event, there seems to be nothing to hinder, but tered and frequently divided Christian races and peoples everything to help, the Slavic races to a closer union; and usually united against the Sultan, the real struggle being be- Protestant Prussia and England, with republican France and tween the Crescent and the Cross, and admittedly fought on Italy, would all favor such a readjustment of European that ground. The nations do not now consciously fight for a boundaries as would, in the place of Austrian dualism, organ. religion, but for territory. Then the valley of the Danube ize the dream of generations--a Pan-Slavic Christian nation, was wanted for the Church, and Hungary won in those days, composed of the Southern States of the old and new Euroand on that ground, the prominence she now holds in the pean world. Russia could hardly refuse or object. The Austrian Empire; but the Turk was too much for our en- elements would be friendly to her. But even if she objected, thusiastic but divided forefathers. Now the Danube is the balance of power would be largely against her, and her wanted for its own sake, and the question of religion is de opposition would be sutile. Such a movement would be cidedly secondary. The game is immensely more complex wholly in harmony with all the great national movements of than it was, and the Turk having got in, it appears that the last two centuries; in fact, seems to offer the only clear England at least seems to think there may yet be good and strong outlook through the present trouble. Before it reasons why he should linger awhile. That is the full mean. comes there must rise out of the soil, somewhere between ing of her not signing the Gortschakoff Memorandum. A Vienna and Constantinople, a man that shall embody the powerful fleet of ugly-looking English iron-clads in the Bay ideas of the union, and be an able leader therein. No Rusof Besika was and is a palpable assertion to the effect that sian or Turk will do, meantime. Abdul Azis is scarcely the hour for plucking the banks of the Danube has not yet buried, before his successor, Sultan Murad, being of weak come. Moreover, the treatment Austria got from Russia at mind and generally incapable, is deposed and replaced by and after Sadowa, must have acted as a sort of hint, suggest. his cousin, Abdul Hamid, a healthier representative of ing that it was not worth while to get provinces that one “Young Turkey" and reform; and the Turks, now really led cannot hold. The Crimean war was not without its lessons by the Softas, are evidently determined to make persistent for Russia, to the effect that somehow there is, or may be, a efforts to keep their own in Europe; and, in fact, before any close relationship between London and Constantinople, be. such Slavic union as the one hinted at can come, the Pope tween the Thames and the Black Sea,

may be expected to make new moves, and perhaps some The struggles between Romanism and Protestantism again new Bismarcks and new Washingtons to spring up in the have had a good deal to do with breaking the old united old and new corners of the world,

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importance than a temporary agreement or non-agreement
on the financial questions of the hour—the satire of Mr.
Nast and the arguments of George W. Curtis to the contrary
notwithstanding. A man can honestly change his financial
views, as many prominent men are doing all the time; he
cannot change the bent of his nose, which really shapes the
record of his life.

Again, the present positions of the men are all in keeping
with their past lives and records. They have all honestly
earned their present prominence, and each pair separately,
and each man separately, is a true and proper exponent of
the parties and the peoples behind them. They stand for no
crotchets or isms, but are worthy representatives of the old
and new democratic and republican elements in the whole
country. No one of the four can properly be called a great
man, but each represents a high order of talent guided to
success by steady and well-applied industry.

Mr. Hayes's is the clearest and pleasantest face of the four.
He comes from good Scotch and English blood, New Eng.
landized for a couple of centuries, and then aerated by a
broader Western atmosphere and life. It is good stock and
a good record, and his career in Ohio has really been one of
steady triumph most flattering to a man of his years, or to
any man.

Mr. Tilden's is the strongest, most set and yet most pliable
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.

and least reliable face of the four. All the lines of the face

and the entire expression of it mark him as the one man of The Presidential Candidates and their Chances.- the four who has seen most of life and come nearest to solve The whole country is beginning to feel the agitation of the ing its mystery to his own satisfaction. It is a smooth, sleek “ Fall elections,” and it is next to impossible not to say a sort of face, but its world culture and breadth and power word or two on the subject. But we will be philosophical, command immediate respect. He is eight years Mr. Hayes's not partisan. The biographies of the men whose faces we senior, and this may be something in his favor as regards here reproduce have already been written in all the news- the settled look of the man, though Mr. Hayes at fifty-four papers of the country. We shall not repeat the well-worn may be considered in his best prime and as having some adstory. Our purpose is to touch only the salient points in the character of each, as seen in his face and record, and glance at the issues and chances of the coming campaign. After repeated studies of these faces separately and arranged side by side, the conviction again and again forces itself upon one that, physiologically speaking, we have not for many years had any Presidential tickets that were half as well balanced as these. The faces of the candidates in several previous elections will readily occur to the reader; and always taking into account the issues at stake, and the structure of society at the hour, it will be found that there were reasons upon reasons, even speaking physiologically, why the winning men should have won.

We might have to go into invidious distinctions were we to attempt to show this in detail. Let the reader muse over it at his or her leisure. In the present case, the faces of the candidates complement and fill out each other so well that it would be difficult to find among our public men four faces that went so well together and offered to the American people so fair and equal claims for the high honors and trusts of the offices of President and Vice-President of the United States. No matter how extremely partisan a man may be, a clear study of these heads, if he understands heads, will fix this conclusion in his mind. And it may be well to add herc, that these physiological harmonies and balancings are, even in the most practical and political matters, of far more vital

WILLIAM A. WHEELER.

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new, and the question to be considered is, which are the best and likeliest heads to settle and control them to the best welfare of the entire American people ?

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Why not Put it all on Grant ?—The economy of scapegoatism is wellnigh universal. Adam blamed it all on Eve; and the men have been cowards in that way from those early days till now. The trouble to-day is not to account for a falling apple, but to untangle the purse-strings of all nations. It is no mean snarl the world has got into. Excess of invention and manufacture have led to over-production and the wildest speculation. Instead of enterprise and faith we have intrigue and suspicion. The “coal interests,” the “iron interests,” the “ general industry'' of the world, seems breaking up in panic. The failures of strong houses in England, and of weaker ones at home, are rapid and appalling. Germany got so much money from France, and felt so generally good over her victory, that she went wild with speculation and rejoicing, and the result is general financial collapse in what was supposed the best-digesting stomach on the planet. Evidently, somebody is to blame. Perhaps American extravagance has become infectious and diseased the whole world. But everything centres somewhere, and it occurred to us that as Grant had been blamed for so many of our home troubles, we might saddle upon him the sickness of the race.

If it could be done, an excellent campaign speech SAMUEL J. TILDEN.

might be got out of it, and perhaps even the scales of the

near elections be tilted thereby. vantage on the side of a buoyant vitality. A thought urges But, seriously, as though a Republican administration, or itself just here, that whichever of these two is elected Presi- a Democratic or other Congress were to be blamed for the dent it is to be hoped he will live the term through; for in hard times, or could help us much even if they had the will, neither case is the candidate for Vice-President as able a and were as honorable a set of men as they ought to be! man as the Presidential candidate of either party.

France seems the only present exception to the world-wide Mr. Wheeler has a good, strong head, immense will power, but absolutely of very limited breadth and balance, and, without reference to present men or parties, scarcely the sort of man for President of the United States during the next four years. Mr. Wheeler admirably supplements Mr. Hayes ; and the two together look a good deal like victory.

Mr. Hendricks is weak just where Mr. Wheeler is strong. It is really a much better head and a finer nature, with a good deal of singleness of heart and aim, apparently fitting right into Mr. Tilden's apparent duplicity; but the upper part of Mr. Hendrick's head is better than the lower. In the lines of the mouth there is vacillation, change, the power of yielding; and just here is where the Democratic ticket is weakened.

Again, as the candidates are admirably equalled and true representatives of the old and new elements of their parties, so are the issues well balanced; and it is the only real good, square Presidential campaign we have had for a generation

Previous to the war the Democratic party was badly cut up, and previous to that the Republican party had only a would-be existence. Since the war the Republicans have had it pretty much their own way; and now this much should be admitted on all sides, that the issues of the war are no longer issues.

The Republican party has settled them by law to the utmost extent of its power. The questions of finance, of civil service, of class legislation and education, and of general industry, are all new, or as good as

THOMAS A. HENDRICKS.

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or more.

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