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the freedom-producing nature of truth, tu they submitted to the terrible religious ism of the crown and the ecclesiastical an: ities. This religious despotism continue, th occasional slight relaxation in rigor followed by terrible augmented fury, until and after the Commonwealth-the persecutors of one period becoming the victims of the next, and in turn again the persecutors.

There are memorials in all parts of England of the sad and terrible years of religicos bigotry-some like the Stone of Hadleigh (commemorating the faithfulness of Dr. Ros. land Taylor) which speak directly, others, liss the Lollard's Prison of Lambeth Palace, the Star Chamber of Westminster Hall, the dusgeons of the Tower of London, the Covenanters' Prison on the Bass Rock, which los directly but emphatically bear their testimony, and still others, like Westminster Abbey, with its many tombs and monuments, and many aí the cathedrals and churches, which were the scenes of the unchristian zeal of bishops, pasti and laymen against the "heretics''who obeyed God rather than men.

During all the years of religious persecution, WESTERN ENTRANCE TO WESTMINSTER ABBEY. the struggle between king and people for abso

lute civil sovereignty on the one hand and for joined in the persecution of the Lollards, were, in the Magna Charta on the other, was continued an important measure, the agents of the Roman with but brief intervals, the chief period of tot power. Now, however, Henry and his Protestant being the short reign of the mild and good successors developed and carried forward a perse- Edward VI., who succeeded Henry VIII. ; buf cution so bitter, so cruel, so absolutely fiendish, Edward died when he was but sixteen years old, that the treatment of the Lollards was merciful in before his kindly heart was hardened or his Chriscomparison. The “Lollards’ Prison" in Lambeth tian feelings corrupted, and was succeeded all too Palace was too humane a prison for the true Pro- soon by his sister, “the bloody Queen Mary," testants of the Reformation, and the dungeons of the Roman Church returning with her to power, the Tower of London, hitherto reserved for so. and Latimer, Ridley, Cranmer, Hooper, and nearly called “traitors” were now filled with so-called three hundred less conspicuous followers of Christ, “ heretics," and all the terrible “punishments” a “noble army of martyrs," went to the state. heretofore reserved for “traitors” were now shared Mary's half-sister, Elizabeth, upon her death in by "heretics.” We have neither space nor heart 1558, came to the throne, and the Reformation for the heart-sickening story of the religious ty. revived—it has been claimed that “the goud ranny of the Reformation period in England, and Queen Bess" permitted no executions for religious only allude to it to note the fact that the same opinions; but the convenient appellation of tallove of liberty which has ever characterized the tor” was but a cloak under which too many went English masses in civil and political affairs was to the Tower and to the scaffold for their relievinced by them in religious; it was only for a gion, even under her comparatively mild reiga short season, while they were blinded by the mar. James gave the realm more Bibles but no more velous light, and until they had become sufficiently liberty, and Charles I., nominally a Protestant, used to it to be able to see the truth and to realize proved worse than Mary-she was doubles ade


ated by sincere, if terribly mistaken, convictions rageous of human kind,” an outspoken foe of of duty, while Charles had no extenuating plea, oppression, who dared to speak and act as he being destitute of religion, truth, or honor. His thought, in spite of king or “ protector;" John defiance of the Magna Charta, his cruel, inhuman Pym, the ablest and greatest and best of the true tyranny in civil and religious matters, sealed his patriots of his day; and the well-known Braddoom; the people had borne much, but would shaw, Whitelock, Ludlow, Marten, Vane, Crombear no more.

well, St. John, Skippon, Fairfax, William Prynne, Fuller says of Puritanism, that “In the days of John Milton, Algernon Sidney, Richard Baxter, King Edward was conceived ; in the reign of and John Bunyan. Hampden died before the Queen Mary was born (though beyond sea at Commonwealth had taken shape, as did Pym. Frankfort); in the reign of.

Bradshaw became President Queen Elizabeth was nursed

of the Great State Council, and reared ; under King

and Milton its Secretary, and James grew up a youth or

the others, except Sidney, tall stripling; but towards

Baxter, Bunyan, Prynne and the end of King Charles's

Lilburne, were among its reign shot up to the full sta

members. Of these five exture and strength of a man,

ceptions, Sidney was a posiable not only to cope with but

tive, uncompromising repubto conquer the hierarchy, its

lican, and could not be a adversary"—this mighty spirit

Commonwealth man; Baxter and power of Puritanism.

and Bunyan were more reliAnd this is the "spirit or

gionists than politicians, but power" which now is to

neither hesitated in denouncdrive Charles from the throne

ing Cromwell and his rule; to the block, and to suspend

Prynne was so decidedly an for a time the very form of

anti-Cromwellian that he was monarchy; this is the mighty

unlawfully ejected from Parinfluence which, under the

liament; and Lilburne was controlling genius of Crom

so obnoxious to Cromwell well, is to substitute, for a

that an attempt was made in decade, for the royal despo

1651 to silence him, and intism a military despotism,

deed to get entirely rid of brilliant and all.conquering

him, by accusing him of treawhile its wonderful head lives, but to go out like son—this failed in his acquittal by the court. Of a spent rocket so soon as he shall have passed those who were co-members of the Council with away.

Cromwell, the foremost afterwards, upon discoverAmong the early actors against Charles I., the ing the true character of Cromwell, became his most conspicuous were John Hampden, a good opponents, the only exception being Whitelock, a and true man, who was the idol of the populace; royalist though not favorable to Charles I., who John Lilburne,' whom Hume describes as “the so well understood the “protector” that he urged most turbulent, but the most upright and cou- him to be consistent and assume the title and in

signia, as he had already exercised more than the ? In 1638 John Lilburne and John Warton were summoned to the Star Chamber in Westminster Hall, for « un prerogatives, of king ; Vane and Ludlow were lawfully printing and publishing libellous and seditious republicans and patriots, the latter character inbooks,” in direct violation of a recent decree by Laud placing ducing them to hold the former in abeyance and the press under censorship. The prisoners were required accept office in the Commonwealth, in the deluto take an oath to answer truly any interrogatories the sive hope that the latter might conduce to the Court might propound; both refused, Lilburne affirming welfare of their country—so true a republican was that no “free-born Englishman could be required to criminate himself.” From this reply he was ever afterwards Vane that he was put to death after the restorapopularly called " Free-born John."

tion, because Charles II. declared he was “ too


Richard Po

dangerous to be permitted to live," and so true, though greater than common mortals in ability; was Ludlow that when he found that the Crom- and Cromwell dies; Richard is his heir and suc. wellian influence in the government could not be ceeds him as “ protector.” He is a good, wellrestrained, he retired from public life, surrender- meaning, amiable young man, but utterly unfitted ing a high position in the army rather than co- to wield the usurped sceptre; he is quietly set öperate in sustaining so absolute a despotism, and aside and Charles II. ascends the throne. Alas! he returned to office

has learned from only upon the

his father's faildeath of Crom

ures and fall but well; Bradshaw

one lesson—that was a true and in

of intense hate corruptible friend

towards all who of liberty, and,

had been the though not cer

agents of justice tainly a republi

and liberty in can, could not

overthrowing connive at despo

the unjust tyrant, tism under Crom

and his twentywell more than

five years' reign under Charles I.

is one of child But not only is

ish weaknesses the despotic chaCHARLES II.


combined with racter of Cromwell's government indicated by the shameless tyranny and injustice. James II. sucturning against him of all the best men of the ceeds him and proves far worse than his brother Commonwealth; it is even more strongly seen in –indeed, so arbitrary is his reign and so thothe fact that the Presbyterians, who had been roughly bad is he that the people once more the foremost in

apply the only overthrowing

possible remedy, Charles I., and

driving him thus were enti

from the king. tled to a voice

dom, and giving in the govern

the throne to ment growing

William, Prince out of his over

of Orange, and throw, were so

his wise, Mary, unjustly denied

daughter of their rights that

James, who they were com

reign jointly. pelled to antag.

The ship which onize the Com

bore William monwealth.

and Mary to Nor was the WILLIAM


England carried tyrant in Cromwell his worst characteristic; with a a grand flag with the grander motto: "I will possible grain of genuine Puritanism, he betrayed maintain the Protestant religion and the liberties a vast amount of hypocritical cant: witness his of England." The revolution was easily effected, words when he had shown what an unscrupulous and the effort of James to recover the crown, astyrant he could be in dissolving the Parliament, sitsed by the French monarch and by a considerable “When I went to the house, I did not think to portion of the Irish people, was speedily and have done this; but perceiving the spirit of God effectually defeated. And now began England's strong upon me, I could no longer consult flesh happiest days; William and his consort were true and blood.”

to the pledge of their flag-motto, and happiness and Oliver Cromwell, however, was but mortal, prosperity have been the fruit of liberty and justice.

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SOVEREIGNTY of the Sea is a term often used as and Indian Oceans; and the Spaniards asserted a mere fiction of history to express a certain prepon- absolute dominion over all the seas of Spanish derance of maritime influence possessed by one America. The pretensions of these two counparticular State over all others. The Tyrians, for tries were treated with but little indulgence, howexample, in the early history of navigation, called ever, by other maritime States. themselves “Kings of the Sea ;” probably from the The right of dominion of the sovereign of the fact that they controlled the ocean trade of the shore over the contiguous sea has sometimes been world. The Phænicians claimed the exclusive right pushed beyond the limits of reason. Thus, the to the tin trade with Britain, and resorted to force claim of Russia to the sovereignty over the Pacific to prevent all others from participating in its advan- Ocean, north of the 51st parallel of latitude, as a tages. The Athenians, when in the meridian of close sea, was considered by our Government in their naval power, were the Sovereigns of the Sea, 1822 to be against the rights of other nations; no other nation being able to oppose their fleets. and in claiming exemption from the payment of Carthage, in her turn, claimed this dominion, it the “Sound dues" imposed by Denmark, the being her boast “ that, save by her permission, a American Secretary of State vindicated a great Roman could not even so much as wash his hands in national principle of extensive and various applithe sea." According to Cæsar, the Veneti formed cation. the dominant naval power on the Atlantic coasts While the open sea is not capable of being of Gaul; but after the battle of Actium and the possessed as private property, still it is a wellconsolidation of the Empire, the Romans exercised settled principle that navigable rivers which flow undisputed dominion over the seas for several cen- through a territory, and the navigable waters inturies. Canute, when elected King by the fleet cluded in bays and between headlands and arms of Britain in 1014, said, “ Thou, O Sea! art of the sea, belong to the sovereign of the adjacent subject to me as is the land on which I sit; nor is territory, as being necessary to the safety of the there any one therein who dare resist my com- nation and to the undisputed control of the neighmands."

boring shores. Applying this principle to England In a stricter sense, the sovereignty or dominion at the time of its conquest by the Romans, it is of the sea means the exclusive right of domain clear that, as both sides of the English Channel and territorial jurisdiction extended to bays, arms belonged to the Norman princes, the Channel of the sea, or portions of the sea inside of lines itself was subject to their jurisdiction. During the drawn from one prominent headland to another, century and a half which followed the conquest, called in England the King's Chambers. Thus, the French Kings of England were more powerful the United States assert the right of domain over on the Continent than the Kings of France, and Long Island Sound, and to the control of the had the Plantagenets, as at one time seemed likely, waters lying inside a line drawn, say, from Mon- succeeded in uniting all France under their govtauk Point to Gay Head. Some countries have ex- ernment, England would have been regarded as a tended this claim to narrow seas and straits adja- mere outlying province, and the island, as well as cent to their shores; as the sovereignty formerly the intervening waters, as property of the French claimed by the Republic of Venice over the Adri- Kings. John, the seventh of these Kings, issued, atic; that claimed by England over the narrow in the second year of his reign, an edict declaring seas; and that by Denmark over the Sound and that any ship failing to strike and lower her sails at the two belts which form the outlet of the Baltic. the command of the King's lieutenant or admiral

Other countries have claimed the right to cer- should be treated as an enemy. This edict was tain parts of the open sea by virtue of discovery. written in Norman French, the language of the Thus, the Portuguese claimed the monopoly of Three years later (1204), Normandy was trade with the Indies through the South Atlantic lost to England; but the idea of owning the



waters which flowed through what had been one last case of its recognition being demanded orrcountry, was kept alive long afterwards by the ring in August, 1806. But, in view of the great spirit of conquest which, for more than one hun- naval victories gained under Nelson, it was & dred years, led the English Kings to seek to es- the British Government that a claim the cisttablish an Empire on the Continent. They came enment of the age showed to be altogether In to regard the crown of France as a mere appen- tenable might be honorably and gracefuliy moun dage to the crown of England, and their exclusive nounced. Instructions to that effect were, siert. right to the intervening waters in no way inter- fore, put in force January 1, 1807. fered with. The claim of proprietorship over the The Channel Islands on the coast or Surnarii narrow seas, founded originally in reason, was of where the old Norman French is still soka, ilcourse forfeited by the English with their loss of main to this day a part of the dominions of the foothold on the Continent; yet in violation of the British crown, and a substantial memorial of ite natural rights of others, they not only persisted in ancient and direful controversy. regarding the opposite shores of the Channel as And now the Sovereignty of the Sea or the their proper boundary, but by an unjustifiable in- jurisdiction over adjoining seas, as being nout terpretation of the words finis terra, extended it to the safety of the nation, is a question or as from Cape Finisterre in Spain to the land of importance to the United States to-day as it is Staten in Norway. The manner in which the England under the Norman Kings. Our units

. recognition of the claim was en forced, rather than on international law all agree in saying that is the claim itself, rendered it extremely odious to great extent of the American coasts and ti...: all nations whose ships were obliged to pass within shoalness, together with the natural boundary tcrthe wide range of its exaction, and led to long nished by the Gulf Stream, entitle us to immunes and bloody wars, particularly with the Dutch, who from belligerent warfare for the space between ti.: resisted it with more pertinacity than any other limit and the coast line. The Little Belt +2, nation.

cruising many miles from the shore, between ce It is related that in 1554 Lord Howard of Ef. Henry and Cape Hatteras, yet her being use". fingham, having been sent in command of a hauled by the President was justified by our (r squadron to escort Philip, son of the King of ernment on the ground that she was "hovering 3 ( Spain, to England, on meeting the Spanish fleet our coasts,” and that we had a right to know le of 160 sail in the Channel, fired at the ships and character of armed ships in such a situation, forced thein to strike their colors and lower their Let us apply these principles and deductiocs to topsails, in reverence to the English flag before he the Florida Channel patrolled by Spanish cruises would permit his own ships to salute the Spanish we will not say the Fishery question on our ExPrince. The second Lord Howard forced another ern coast, for the reason that all questions of 18Spanish fleet, some fifteen years later, to submit to ternational rights between the United States and a similar humiliation, in acknowledgment that Great Britain may be settled by arbitration; but Elizabeth possessed the sovereignty of the seas is not so with Spain, and we must be prepare which surrounded her kingdom.

where our interests may clash with hers, to act wir In 1730 Lieutenant Thomas Smith, who was, vigor first, and to negotiate afterwards. But in V: during the absence of his Captain, in temporary of the heavy sea-going iron-clads of Spun, oi command of the Gosport (frigate), fired into a high speed, and armed with the latest of Engi? French frigate, the two countries being at peace, rifled ordnance, how are we, with a navy at ehs for the reason that while coming down the Sound “low ebb" to which ours has fallen, according : she had neglected the usual salute. On the com- our highest official authority-how are we to 1.17plaint of the French Ambassador, Lieutenant tain the freedom of the Florida Channel, #1: Smith was dismissed the service, to be com- great highway of ocean commerce, in the even: ui missioned the next day as Captain, and to live some future Virginius case terminating less helps in history as “Tom of Ten Thousand.” This for the United States ? This great question is:0:“privilege of the flag" was maintained by England tainly worthy the calm and careful icdicctva v for 606 years (dating from the edict of John), the our legislators. .

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