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were famous naturalists, and each in his day and way contributed to the history of our good old city. Alexander Wilson, the Ornitholo. gist, has a world-wide renown, and we need not repeat the story of his life here; those desiring tu peruse it in condensed but most interesting form will find a capital paper in POTTER'S AMERICAN MONTHLY for April, 1875. A native of Paisley, Scotland, a poor man, a weaver by occupation, he had come to this country in 1794. After working for a time at his trade, he was induced to undertake the Union School, Kingsessing, and the old schoolhouse still stands, now occupied as

a blacksmith's shop; it is on the THIRTEENTH AND MARKET STREETS.

southwest side of the Darby Road,

west of and near the depot of the ing the general care of the poor of the city. In 1829, the Darby Railroad. Then not far away is a curious old house, city having grown westward and southward, it was decided built of hewn stone, almost concealed in vines, and charmto remove the Philadelphia Almshouse and Hospital farther ing in its quaint beauty as in its history. A stone set in the westward, and a considerable farm in the township of Block- wall, inscribed “ JOHN AND ANN BARTRAM, 1731,” enables ley was purchased. The buildings, still standing and occu- us to identify the old house as the old-time home of John pied, were completed in 1835, and since then numerous Bartram, the renowned botanist, and the home of his sons additional structures have been from time to time built. The Almshouse and Hospital buildings are comino lious, and perfectly appointed for their important work, and the grounds, occupying one hundred and thirty acres, are admirably laid out, a portion being carefully cultivated and devoted to the raising of vegetables, etc., while a less though considerable por. tion is beautified with ornamental plants and flowers.

While upon the western bank of the lower Schuylkill we must not fail to visit iwo quaint, interesting old structures, whose

PHILADELPHIA ALMSHOUSE AND HOSPITAL. occupants in the days gone by

and descendants for a hundred years. The pious old natu-
ralist engraved on a stone-

“ 'Tis God alone, Almighty Lord,
The Holy One, by me adored,

JOHN BARTRAM, 1770,"
and this he built in the wall over the front window of his
study, where it remains to testify of his faith. The old
house belongs now to Andrew M. Eastwick, Esq., and is
well worthy of a visit as the site of the first botanical garden
in this vicinity.

We have already spoken of the United States CustomHouse and the Post-Office on the adjoining ground, and it is

not needful that we say a word to accompany the engraving UNITED STATES NAVAL ASYLUM.

of the same. We have likewise stated that the site of the

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late bolldings of the Pennsylvania University and contiguous accommodate the United States Courts. We give, page 73. properties on Chestnut and Market streets had been pur- a superior engraving made from drafts and plans in posses Chased by the United States, and that a vast edifice is in sion of Postmaster George W. Fairman. The engraving counse of erection for the purposes of a Post-Office and to tells plainly enough that the building will be an ornament

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as well as a business blessing to our city.

We give also in this number a small engraving of the United States Naval Asylum. The grounds cover

of twenty-five açres, and were bought by the Government in 1826, with a view to the erection of the Naval Asylum, which still remains and flourishes there, and a Naval School which was discontinued in 1845, or, rather, removed to Annapolis. The grounds are handsomely and usefully laid out, and appropriated partly to vegetables and a moderate portion to flowers and ornamental

EASTERN PENITENTIARY. trees and plants. The buildings, completed and occupied in 1831, are admirably planned actually finished at about the commencement of the war, but for their noble purpose, the care of old sailors; each inmate was not used by the county for some time afterwards. Durhas a comfortable apartment for his separate use, is supplied ing the war the “Walnut Street Jail” was used by the bountifully with good food, and has besides a liberal annual patriot authorities for the incarceration of prisoners of war; allowance of money for clothing, a small monthly allowance while the British held the city, such unfortunate patriots as for pocket-money, and a moderate supply of tobacco. There fell into their hands were confined here, under the wardenare suitable houses for the governor and chief resident sur- ship of John Cunningham, who is said to have exercised his geon. The Naval Hospital is upon the Asylum grounds, and brutal instincts in abuse and ill treatment of the Americans in a sense it may be considered an adjunct of the Asylum, thus placed in his power. The county subsequently took yet it is under separate control. The Gray's Ferry Branch possession of it, and it was the regular County Prison for of the Spruce and Pine Streets Railway passes the Asylum. some years. The Prison fronted on Walnut street, facing The United States Arsenal will be noticed hereafter, as other Independence Square, and the enclosing wall took in the subjects demand our present attention.

half block from Walnut to Prune and Fifth to Sixth street ; In every community, and that of the Quaker City is r.o on the corner of Sixth and Prune (now Locusts) streets was the exception, there is a more or less numerous criminal class of famous “ Debtors' Prison,” in which the patriot Financier of permanent and floating population, and we have commodious the Revolution, Robert Morris, spent four miserable years of public houses for the special accommodation of all indi- his old age (see Potter's American Monthly, February, viduals of this class who are caught and convicted.

1876). In 1807 a large prison was erected upon the south In 1683 the only " prison“ in Philadelphia was a cage side of Mulberry (now Arch) street between Broad and seven feet high, seven long, and five broad. Shortly after. Schuylkill Eighth (now Fifteenth) streets; it was intended wards two houses were rented, one adjoining Christ Church on the north, and the other also on Second street, but the site is not known. Then, in 1702, or earlier, the first prison built by the county of Philadelphia was erected in the centre of High street east of Second street, and it was of the diminutive size of twenty-four by eighteen feet. Then a considerably larger edi. fice was built on the southwest corner of Market and Third streets ; this was completed in 1723, and was used as a prison until after the Revolution Some time before the war, the large building shown on page 70 was projected, and it was

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COUNTY PRISON.

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LES 12 PRE

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for State prisoners, but, a

car, on Arch street, of the dispute having arisen as to its control, it was appro

Ridge Avenue Railway,

and ride out to the Laurel priated to debtors and per

Hill Cemetery, not now to sons accused of crime

view the beautiful City of awaiting trial.

ATENEU DE

the Silent-that we defer The erection of “ Moy.

to a more convenient sea. amensing Prison," now the

son; our present purpose regular County Prison, was commenced in 1832, and

is simply to look out from it was finished in 1835.

among the tombs upon and In 1836–37 the Walnut

across the Schuylkill. The and Arch street buildings

beauty and picturesque

grandeur of the view will down. Vis

well itors can reach the Prison

repay the short jourby the Tenth street cars or

ney out of our way to the those of the Passyunk

Centennial. Stepping

down to the river bank, Avenue Branch of the Lombard and South streets

we find a landing at which

a trim little steamer awaits Railway, and will find adjoining the building on

us; we step aboard, and the northeast an Egyptian

are borne to the Lansstyle of structure not shown CUSTOM-HOUSE AND POST-OFFICE.

downe Ravine, or the Hor.

ticultural Hall, Entrance in our engraving—this was the “Debtors' Apartment,” to the Grounds. under the old laws.

By-the-way, it may not be amiss to remark The “Eastern Penitentiary," on the line of the Green

that among the many means of transit to the Exhibition, Street and Fairmount Avenue Railway (the cars of which

the Fairmount steamers form doubtless the most agreeable,

even delightful. also run down Fourth and up Eighth street), is the “State

If we do not go first to the Cemetery, we Prison” for the eastern portion of the State, and is controlled

may take the steamer route by going out to the Park in a car by Inspectors appointed by the Supreme Court of Pennsyl

of the Spruce and Pine Streets, the Green Street and Fairvania. The famous “ Pennsylvania plan" of solitary con

mount Avenue, of the Union Railway. We must not omit, finement prevails here, though materially modified-indeed,

while upon this “transition" theme, to mention the enterprise

of the Philadelphia and Reading and the Pennsylvania Railthough the solitary plan was perfect in theory, experience road Companies; the former runs trains every fifteen minutes soon demonstrated the impracticability of a rigid adherence to it; absolute seclusion for a protracted term produced in

srom Broad and Callowhill streets, every fifteen minutes from

Ninth and Green streets, and every thirty minutes from Port sanity in some instances and imbecility in others; all the Richmond, and charges but ten cents for a single passage, or benefits of the solitary plan are now insured without the six tickets for half a dollar; exchange tickets are sold on the evils, by relaxing, according to circumstances, in its enforce- Street Railways, including the ride to the depot and thence ment.

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to the Grounds, for fifteen cents. The Pennsylvania ComThe House of Refuge for juvenile culprits and House of pany also runs Centennial trains at short intervals, connecting, Correction for those requiring correction without the harsher at the intersections on Washington avenue, with the horserules of a regular prison, and for those whose chief crime is consti

cars running north and south, and tutional repugnance to work, will

with the Ridge Avenue Line.

These steam-roads offer the adreceive notice in due time. We must now ask our reader once

vantage of speed and the equally

desirable inducement that passenmore out to the grand Park, of which we give herewith a capital

gers are not subjected to the dis

comfort of being crowded. map, the best on a small scale we

We had arrived at the Lanshave yet seen, which will facili. tate the finding of the many points

downe Ravine, or the Horticul.

tural Hall, Entrance to the Cen: of interest in that beautiful resort.

tennial Grounds, when we paused It must be borne in mind that the Exhibition Grounds extend all

steam-railroads. We pass through the way to George's Hill, and

the stile, and are well up northward.

within the We have in former trips taken the City Passenger Railways out to the Grounds; this time, start.

in the immediate vicinity, we must ing a little earlier, let us take a

Wilson's SCHOOL-HOUSE.

visit Horticultural Hall, which,

to speak of the steamboats and

once more

Centennial Grounds. While

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New Post OFFICE. beautiful externallyis perfectly gorgeous ; the plants We propose August

are chiefy" tropicai, Bure they are home condition, and / of reviews of the more important exhibits in all parts of the

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and worth careful inspection. Then if we enter the annex on the north we shall be charmed with the superb display of Rhododendrons, one of the most elegant exhibits in the International Regions.

The grounds connected with the Centennial Conservatory are themselves a study; some of the most eminent fori. culturists of the world have done their best in the beautifying of this, their section of the Exposition Grounds, and the result is a vast garden, of palatial extent and style.

great Exposition ; this series will be illustrated so far as is practicable. We also hope to offer views of some of the State and other Buildings not yet given in the MonthLY. We present but one illustration this month, and that of one of the edifices built by private en: terprise. Upon a well-chosen site, close by the grand Memorial Hall, is a neat but showy building, attractive upon

the outside and more upon the inside; it is the building of the Singer Manufacturing Company, and within are some of

BARTRAM'S HOUSE.

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