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the benefit of Science, and the reputation ment of a wound inflicted by a rabid ani. of the city. I am assured that the mal ; it is its immediate destruction by .citizens generally will not regret this dis. caustic, or by fire, in order to annihilate position of a small portion of the public the poison. The wound requires repeated property, though it has been said that a applications of escharotics, (such as corrobetter application might have been made. sive sublimate, or red precipitate) to keep Some have suggested to demolish the it discharging, and a judicious surgical building and sell out the fee for town lots ; management according to its nature and but this would only afford a chance for situation. Until an experienced person speculation, and render it necessary to can be had to employ the powerful agency open Warren street, through the public of pure potash (caustic) it is proper to ground between the New York Institution burn linen, cotton, or tow, and even gun. and the City Hall; and the great thorough- powder, on the wound. No internal remetare, thus made near the Hall,would render dies are to be relied on without local ap. it impossible to attend to the business of plications; and Mosely says, destroying the courts from the constant rumbling of the part, and continuing the suppuration carts and carriages. It has also been sug- some weeks are sufficient to prevent all gested that if the Alms-house had been con- mischief. verted into offices it would have produced " These authors unite in the most unseveral thousand dollars income. Be this qualified rejection of all remedies from as it may, I cannot but justify and ap- empyrics, quacks, or even well meaning plaud the Corporation for the generous persons, who, being unacquainted with disposition they have made of the building; medical science, are not aware of their and I take the liberty of giving it as my responsibility, when they would waste preopinion that neither Warren nor any other cious time, and jeopardize many lives by street should ever pass so near the Hall as their nostrums, in preference to the cer. it must, if opened through the public tain and judicious means which are actual. ground, so long as the Courts of Justice ly put into our hands. hold their sessions therein. K.

"As the work of Dr. Bouriat is not yet translated into the English language, we

recommend that of Dr. Mosely, which as a MESSRS. Editors,

vade mecum should have a place in every Notwithstanding the salutary ordinances practitioner's book-case. He says, himself, of the corporation of this city, the unpar. i until the late great prevalence of canine donable negligence of its executive offi- madness in London, there were only a cers suffers the streets to be infested with few physicians who ever saw it; and that every manner of unclean beasts. Nor is after it, there was scarcely one who had the danger of suffocation from stench, or not had an opportunity of seeing it often.' of fever from infection, all that we have What warning for us to be prepared against to apprehend from the toleration of the so distressing an evil! In no other treatisc vilest nuisance that ever was permitted to of the kind can be found more authentis nauseate a civilized community. Disgust- cated success in the mode of treatment, ing as swine are, they are not so much to more experience. more of that useful in. be dreaded as dogs. As canine madness struction, which after many ages, has been is usually prevalent at this season, and as scattered among numerous books, than is we are so imminently exposed to suffer now condensed in this excellent perform. from its effects, I have thought that an ance of Dr. Mosely." account of the means that have been sug “ Before closing this article, we beg gested of preventing and curing the hydro leave to repeat the simple but cffectual phobia, would not be ill-timed.

treatment recommended by these expeA writer in the National Intelligencer, rienced physicians : under the signature of S. in May last, Destroy, as soon as possible, the bitten takes notice of the methods of treatment part by caustic or fire ; keep the wound recommended for recent wounds, by Dr. suppurating or discharging for a few weeks, Mosely, of London, and Dr. Bouriat, of and the patient is safe.” Montpelier, in France. He remarks, that William Coleman, Esq. editor of the there is an extraordinary coincidence in Evening Post, in remarking on the above. the ideas of these gentlemen, who publish- recommends a decoction of the scutellario, ed their essays about the same time, with or skullcap “ as a safe and certain preventout any previous concert. The following ive, if taken at any time after the bite and is an extract from S’s communication : before hydrophobia comes on.” Dr. Thaco.

" These physicians agree as to the er, of Plymouth, Massachusetts, in a let. speedy mode to be adopted in the treat. ter published in the first volume of the

American Medical and Philosophical Re- made at Udine, the capital of Friuli, a gister, speaks respectfully of the virtues small province belonging to this repubof this plant. Dr. Thacher, also, mentions lic. The discovery is this : a poor man the benefits that have been experienced lying under the tortures of the hydrofrom the use of the lobelia inflata He con- phobia, way cured with some draughts cludes his letter with saying,

of vinegar given him by mistake, instead “That the fatal consequences of the ra. of another potion. A physician of Padua, vaging evil in question, may, as far as pos. called Count Leonissa, got intelligence sible, be obviated, it is incumbent on pro- of this event at Udine, and tried the fessional men, to direct their attention to same remedy upon a patient that was the most eligible means of prevention on brought to the Paduan hospital, adminis. such alarming occasions. The first in tering him a pound of vinegar in the mornpoint of importance or security, unques- ing, another at noon, and a third at sun. tionably is, the operation of cutting out or set ; and the man was speedily and perburning the parts in which the bite has fectiy cured. I have diffused through been effected; but whether this be dis. Italy this discovery, by means of a periodipensed with or not, a careful and assiduous cal paper that I am writing; and I hope ablution cannot be too strongly inculcated. you will make it known in England, by

If the wounded part be scarified within a means of your public papers. And as I - few hours or even days, after the accident, am sure that this astonishing remedy will and water be poured on forcibly, and the have as happy an effect there as it had washing persevered in for a length of here, so I should be glad to be apprized of time, there is almost an infallible certainty it, that I may relate it in my said paper.” that in general the destructive poison may I have thrown together these facts and be completely eradicated before it can be opinions in one view, in the hope of aiding absorbed into the system. The above pro- the efforts of the faculty to discover some cess, however, should, for greater security, efficient specific for this frequently fatal, be followed by the application of the ni. and fatally frequent disease. trate of silver, or some other caustic in

HUMANITAS. solution, or if not speedily attainable, a New York, July 9, 1817. valuable substitute may probably be found in the properties of strong unslacked

Messrs. Editors, lime."

I offer for registry in your valuable jourDr. Hosack, in his observations on this nala Talk. made to Dr. Le Baron by a letter, expresses some confidence in the Chippewa chief. to induce the President of efficacy of preparations of copper as a the United States to pardon Pe-to-big, one remedy, and agrees with Dr. T. that wash- of their tribe, who had committed a mur. ing for a length of time is the best pre- der, of one of our citizens, in 1810. My ventive. He denies the security of exci. friend, to whom it was addressed, un. sion, though immediate.

derstands so much of the language, as to In the fourth volume of the Medical and youch for the correctness of the interpre. Philosophical Register, is a letter from the tation. The reader of this performance, late Dr. Rush to Dr. Hosack, in which he will class it among the best of the native mentions several cases, supported by good speeches authority, of cures effected by copious. You will herewith receive a map or geobleeding, followed up by calomel and

graphical sketch of the South shore of opium in large quantities. Dr. R. ex.

f. R. ex. Lake Superior from the river Onatanagan dresses a favourable opinion of this treat. to the Förd du Lac, done by an Indian lad. ment, considering the hydrophobia a fe.

who has no other education than he receive brile disease.

ed in a trader's hut. He was of a mixed In a late British magazine I met with blood, two-thirds Chippewa and one-third the following letter from the celebrated French. It is another proof, in addition Baretti, the friend of Burke, Johnson, &c. to the many I possess already, of the prolo Dr. Brocklesby, another of their inti- ficiency of ihe Tartars, and other American mates, and a distinguished physician. indizenes, in geography 'The letter is dated at Venice, May 20, I beg you to accepi my respectful salu. 1764. After adverting to the festivities tation. SAMUEL L. MITCHILL. of the season, (the marriage of the Republic to the Adriatic sea,) he proceeds: A Talk held at the Council House in Detroit, " But if you were here you would be in 1811, addressed to Doctor Francis Le much more pleased with a discovery Baron, to be cleizercd by him in person,

to the President of the United States, with of us in an hour of madness and folly has a white Belt of Wampum.

strayed from it! Forgive him, father, and MY FATHER,

evince to us your charity and your friendListen to what your children have to say, ship; the Great Spirit, in whose presence and lend an ear to what is said.

We now speak, and who sees our actions, FATHEN,

and knows our thoughts, has deigned to We were pleased to find on our arrival give us this day an unclouded sky in token here, by the smiles and conduct of your of His forgiveness. representative, (the governor of the terri. FATHER, tory, that anger reigned not in your breast, The tedious and solitary confinement of and your heart, emblematic of the white our brother has washed away his crime. walls that now surround us.

Think so, father, and unbolt the bars of FATHER,

your prison-door, and let our brother rcListen to the words of your children- turn to the bosom of his family and friends; they are the voice of three great nations, if so, father, we will be responsible for his Chippawas, Ottawas, and Pattawatties ; future good conduct. you that reign over the seventeen great FATHER, fires, and have them at command, open the chief that speaks to you is old, and your ears, and heart, and give attention to the nations he represents, respect him. what your children have to say.


Listen to your red children, and pay at. Remember, when you first came among tention to what has been said; accept this us, remember our chiefs, and the solemn belt of white wampum, in token of the contract we then made for our mutual hap- purity of our feelings towards you. piness, and the promise you then made, to FATHER, treat us as your children : in trouble once, We will offer up, in common, a sacrifice you received us under your protection to the Great Spirit for Him to watch over, we then buried the hatchet, with this so- and take care of you. Farewell. lemn appeal to the Great Spirit, never to (A true Copy.) raise it unless in one common cause.

FRANCIS LE BARON. These things are registered in the hearts of COUNCIL-Ilouse, our young men.

Detroit, July 20th, 1811.

Naggs, Interpreter, Sworn. One of our brothers (Pe-to-big) in a mo. ment of folly and madness, when the heart The editors acknowledge their obliga was blackened by intoxication, did so far tion to Doctor Samuel Akerly, of this city, forget himself, as to be guilty of the first in enabling them to lay before their readcrime; he killed his fellow man, without ers, the following full and interesting accause! He has been given up to justice, count of the insect, commonly called the and has long been confined in one of your Hessian Fly. dungeons, loaded with irons.


Of America, or the tipula vaginalis tritici, Our French and British Fathery, punish

commonly called the Hessian Fly. ed their red children, but not with death! The United States is an immense agri. No, never.

cultural country, and the injury commitFATHER,

ted upon vegetation of all kinds by insects When intoxicated, we are all mad or is so great, and so frequently repeated, foolish ; your red children are weak and that it has excited attentive inquiry into oftentimes imprudent, and are more guilty this department of the natural sciences. of this indulgence than our white bre. This class of living creatures has been die thren.-You, who are endowed with greater vided into several orders, one of which is strength of mind and good sense than we called DIPTERA, including all those insects are, must view with a charitable eye, and which have only two wings. The wheat hear with a liberal ear, this first offence of insect, that commenced anew its depreda. our brother.

tions upon our crops of grain the present FATHER,

season, has but two wings, and consequent. When you first adopted us as your chil. ly belongs to the order of diptera. It was dren, you marked out for us a path to walk long since known, by its destructive effects, in, which was strewed with Aowers, and at various times, in different parts of the lighted by an unclouded sky; we have en- country, but its nature, the changes it undearoured to walk therein, and, but one dergoes, and the means of destroying it, have not been generally understood. Ha. amounting to more than one hundred and ving examined into the subject, and made thirty, hitherto described, most of them a drawing of the insect, the following is attaching themselves to particular plants, the result of the inquiry.

as in “ Spain to a chrysanthemum, in DenThe wheat insect is a species of tipula, mark to a persicaria, in other parts of Euand in order to distinguish it from other rope to box, juniper, barberry, rye, while species of that genus of insects, Dr. Mitothers annoy orchards, kitchen gardens, chill has called it the “ wheat tipula," or and meadows, frequently committing the tipula vaginalis tritici. The creatures of most destructive ravages."* this tribe or genus of insects are numerous,

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The tipula vaginalis tritici is a very The legs of a yellowish cast, and transpasmall black insect, not so large as the mos- rent; head inflected, with a short procheto of this place, with two fine transpa- boscis. The cut here given will present : rent wings, from the roots of which three more correct idea of this little creature ribs diverge, as through the leaf of a plant. than any description. The body, when examined by a micro. scope, is found to be divided into four seg. * Dr. Mitchill's letter, as published" la the Nor. ments, with a few hairs observable on each. York Gazette, 3d July, 1817.

It is here represented in its natural size, the outside leaf, so as to lie as near to the and magnified; also in its state of chrysalis, root as possible, (as represented in the in which it is dormant. It is shown nestling cut.) It resembles, at first, a very small in the wheat stubble, near the roots, where white nit, and as it grows larger becomes it looks something like flaxseed. The a sluggish and almost inanimate maggot chrysalis is also tak. n from the stalk of the of a white colour. In this state, the prowheat, and represented of its natural size. per and most natural food of the insect is The egg and larva are omitted in the plate, the sap or juice of that kind of green as the one is a small white nit, and the wheat which has the most delicate other a small white maggot, not easily de- straw."* The change from the egg to the lineated,

. Tarva, or maggot, is so difficultly discernAll insects undergo certain changes and ible, in so small an object, that Judge Ha. transformations, which embarrass ordinary vens, whose observations are just quoted, observers; and the creatures seen in diffe. has mistaken the fact, and concluded that rent states are taken for different insects. the insect is viviparous. But although But these changes are positive and uniform, some insects do not undergo the changes and must be known to understand the sub- that have been stated, yet none of them ject and come at the truth. They are four. that are viviparous produce a larva as the 1. the orum, or egg: 2. the larra, or caler- first state of existence. Spiders lay eggs pillar; 3. the chrysalis pupa, or dormant which produce spiders, and these creastate, und 4. the imago, or perfect insect. tures, by late naturalists, have been re

Omne anjinal es ovo, (every animal is moved from the class of insects and produced from an egg,) is a favourite dog. placed by themselves on that account. The ma with some. It is true with respect to aphides, or little green insects that infest almost all insects. From the egg issues, in cabbages and other plants, and called cabo due time, called into existence by the bage-lice, deviate from the ordinary course warmth of a congenial sun, the larva or of other insects, and are viviparous. The caterpillar. In this state it partakes of its wheat tipula, however, progresses through favourite food, adapted to its nature, and the four ordinary changes common to most provided by the hand of the Omnipotent. insccts. The chrysalis js brownish or it feeds till having obtained its growth, black, and might be mistaken for the egg and performed all its functions, it is pre- of some other insect. pared to sleep away a portion of its exist. The tipula vaginalis, looks something ence previous to its revival in its ultimate like a moscheto, but smaller, and is without state. It is in the caterpillar state that the feathery palpi, or feelers, of that trou. most insects injure vegetation; and herein blesome insect. The tipula plumosa, rethey perform no other functions than eat. sembles our moscheto very much. The ing and digestion, by which they acquire American wheat tipula is said to have been their growth. This being accomplished, imported, during the American revolution, they become torpid and enter into the chry. by the German troops employed by Engsalis or dormant state, in which they conti land to repress the spirit of freedom in nue a longer or shorter interval, according her colonies, and hence this little creature to the season. In high latitudes most of has been called the Hessian Fly. Judge them hybernate and resuscitate on the ap- Havens, in his observations on this subproach of summer, not again into a cater- iect, does not decide the question, but pillar, but into the imago or perfect insect. leaves it probable that it might have been From this form of its existence it must be so, because the chrysalis of the insect is characterized and described as the parent sometimes deposited in the upper part of animal. The others are subordinate states the stalk of grain, and hence could have of being, preparatory to its perfect and been imported with straw from Europe. most complete developement. In this it But no such insect is known to infest grain performs the functions necessary for a con. in Great Britain, and one only on the con. tinuation and propagation of its species. tinent of Europe, which feeds upon wheat The wheat tipula, like the silk worm, in the eart if these facts are wrong, the lays its eggs and dies, and a new generation succeeds.

The egg of the insect is generally depo. * Havens on Hessian fly. Agricultural Sociesited between the lowest part of the leaf ty Transactions of New York, vol. ). p. 96. of the wheat and the part which forms the + Dr. Mitchill, in naming the insect tipula main stalk or straw, to the latter of which tritici, was aware that one of the same name in it closely adheres, and is generally within habited Europe, and fed upon wheat, but it was

VOL, 8. No, tv.

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