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occur between Great Britain and China, Confucius, favouring these prejudices. gives to the circumstanees of the latter, 4th. Their early separation from every so little known in general, a more than circumjacent empire; a healthy climate, ordinary interest ; and when we recollect and fertile soil, rendering them independLord Clive's proposition to the British ent of all extraneous relations. Cabinet, viz. that of despatching a force On such grounds, the system of selffrom the East Indies, of which he was sufficiency appears to have been carefulthen governor, for che purpose of taking ly upheld, and enforced down to the prepossession of the Chinese dominions, sent day. We have lately seen a British which, he calculated, would enable Great ambassador, (lord Amherst) rejected at Britain to liquidate the whole of her na- the moment of his setting foot on the tional debt, our curiosity is excited to in- Chinese territory, solely, as it is said, in quire a little into the state of a country consequence of his non-compliance with thus confessedly more opulent than the the national usage of prostration before very potent antagonist whom report as the Emperor, though, we incline to think, signs to her. Our own commerce may through the influence of some great forbe materially affected by the issue of the eign power. Whatever wealth the long dispute. If it should terminate in the ex- continued intercourse of England may clusion of the British from the ports of have poured into the Chinese coffers, China, instead of Great Britain continu- whatever benefits her extensive dealing ing any longer the dispenser of peace to may promise for the future, from expeEurope, we may ourselves become the rience of the past,-appear to have had organ of that dispensation to England no weight in the consideration. The itself.
Emperor's mandarins well know, that the To the Jesuits who were permitted to English must resort to them for an arsettle in China, we are indebted for the ticle which enters into the almost necesscanty knowledge we possess relative to sary consumption of nearly every family the interior of that extraordinary Em- in the United Kingdom, and that no inpire. Mercator, in his geography, quotes dignities would drive them to the adopMarco Paulo to show that it excelled in all tion of the sole alternative, viz. that of the useful trades and mechanical arts, receiving their teas through the medium while Italy was but just emerging from of the Americans. the grossness of Gothic barbarity,--and It was not until the latter end of the Europe was depressed under the feudal 17th century, that the important article system. From Barrow we learn that of tea became an object of general conChina has continued stationary, in the sumption. Prior to that period, it is rebelief of having attained perfection, since corded that beef-steaks and ale formed the days of Paulo. No fact is more aston- the breakfasts of the Queens of England. ishing than this immovability, this con- The refreshing qualities of tea could not sistency in the rule of statu quo ante, fail to introduce it into the domestic cirwhich distinguishes so remarkably this cle, and enrich the importers. It has, I Empire. During one thousand years think, claims to supersede coffee, on ma-. “it changeth not its laws." While other ny occasions, as a wholesome beverage, tribes and nations have passed away, re- the latter, certainly when strong, being membered" as a tale that is told," only in very stimulant and heating. Accordingthe annals of the historian, like meteors ly, we find Odes to “Tea," and "the gleaming just to dazzle the beholder, and l'ea Table,” amid the varied miscellanies then immerging in silent darkness,-the of a British newspaper, while the praises empire of Confucius remains, a new of coffee remain unsung, as far as I know, example of duration,-a solitary instance in any ditty extant. of immutability, in the political world. “Te veniente die,te decedente canebo,"
The accounts of Staunton, and others is a pun of Dr. Johnson's, and seems to connected with the British embassy to be the motto of many of his countrymen, China under lord Macartney, furnish In this respect, we should probably imisome reasons to account for so singular a tate them more closely, but for the difphenomenon, of which the following ference of the comparative prices of cofseem the principal. 1st. Its early civili- see from the West Indies, and tea from zation, and consequent fancied superiori- China, the latter being more an article of ty over other nations. 2d. The rooted luxury among the rich. However, our habits of the people in obstinately pre- China trade is rapidly extending itself, ferring their ancient customs. 3d. The and if facilitated in the manner pointed peculiarity of their religion, and laws of out in our last number, may be wonderfully augmented, while, at the same time, Tin and cottori are articles, however, all eastern products would thereby be that form some part of the consideration come more accessible.
which the Kong merchants consent to Looking, then, at our connexion with receive in exchange for their teas, and are China as assuming new interest, let us perhaps the least disadvantageous that inquire how far it may be extended. On could be selected. The former article this point we have the experience of the abounds in the islands of Banca and MaEnglish East India Company, though, it lacca. It is also produced in considerashould be observed, that their monopoly. ble quantities on the western side of has a tendency to cramp the free exer- South America. · From these places, it is cise of those commercial functions which calculated tin could be exported at 701. flourish best when least restrained. For . per ton, whereas the English East India instance, the carrying, of sandalwood Company pay to the county of Cornwall from the Feejee Islands to China, now sol. per ton for the sake of the 800 tons, pursued by the colonists of New South which, by an act of Parliament, they are Wales to great advantage, and in which required to export: we might participate, is totally overlook- The cotton supplied by the East India ed by that company.
Company is shipped at Bombay and deIt is clear, that any object which is cal- nominated Surat cotton : though not suculated to obviate that alarming drain of perior to our finest Georgia, it is more specie for the China market, which, with costly in China, the cause of which is to other evils, inclines the balance of trade be ascribed to the high rate of freight in against us, deserves a very serious exami- the company's ships, arising from the exnation. We must be prepared, however, pense of their outfit and equipment. in any such experiments, to experience We have likewise heard that furs from that haughty disdain of foreigners, and our North West Coast, near the river that indifference to trade on any other Columbia and Nootka Sound, have been principle than a medium of bullion, for procured in considerable quantities, and which China is remarkable, and which thence carried to China, where they were it is better to yield to than oppose. Our sold to a profit. footing, at present, is, like that of the We mention these articles as furnishing British, confined to a small factory in the the best means we know of for adopting, vicinity of the city of Canton, occupied as far as practicable, a commercial policy by the sufferance of the court of Pekin, on the Principle of Barter round the under strict regulations, designating the Cape of Good Hope. Where that seems parties with whom, and the manner in incapable of extension, it appears our obwhich that trade is to be conducted. The vious interest to pursue the channel of Kong merchants, so termed, because ex- the Black Sea and the Caspian, as offerpressly licensed by the Chinese govern- ing a mart for manufactures, and that rement to have dealings with foreigners, ciprocal exchange of commodities on are very limited in number, being in 1793 which all commerce ought justly to protwelve, and in 1808, increased to four- ceed. By that, we may, through the teen. By these a summary power is ex- 'force of circumstances, bring about what ercised, as to the introduction or rejec- China may be unable to counteract, viz. tion of articles, and the Chinese prejudi- a traffic in teas over-land, and thus reces, extremely abhorrent of innovation, lieve ourselves from the bondage, consehave frustrated many attempts made to quent on the obligation to provide bulsupply goods in barter for their commo- lion. It is well known that teas are indities. In such cases the duties levied on jured by long voyages in a confined hold, importations made no distinction between where, especially in warm latitudes, they the finer and coarser descriptions of undergo what is denominated a sweat, goods, and this not confined to the foreign which impairs their flavour and strength. importation, but accompanying various On this account; caravan tea, brought internal duties in their progress through over-land in caravans from China, althe empire.
ways commands a preference. It is unTrials have been made in the Chinese necessary, therefore, to dilate on the immarket of woollens, Irish poplins, tab- portance of such a trade, which joins to binets, lead, stationary, window-glass, the advantage of a superior commodity sword blades, &c. but the accounts re- an unlimited vent for our cargoes. ported from Canton exhibit a considera- How far such measures are likely to ble loss on those articles,--the Chinese prevail, on their coming to the knowledge viewing their permission to land them as of the Chinese court, remains to be seen; a special favour shown to the importers! but surely there can be no loss of favour,
where China considers all foreigners as the last number of the American Month-. obliged to her for leave to purchase! Norly Magazine and Critical Review, an incan any circumvectory measures be teresting communication, recording sedeemed to infringe upon the prosperity veral "preventives and remedies of hyof “ the Most Celestial Empire,” which drophobia.” Now although it is perhaps chooses to consider itself as possessing all doubtful, whether this disease was ever the possible means and modes of well be- prevented or cured by medicines alone, ing within itself!!
J. A. M. which Dr. Rush thought to be of no more
use than “the boasted specifics which Messrs. Editors,
have been used to eradicate the gout or In your 3d number, article Miscel. to cure old age,” yet that man would be lany, in the progress of luxury in Lon-' chargeable with a dereliction of duty to don, the number of Coffee Houses is the community, who, believing himself stated at 9000. The name of Coffee to be acquainted with a remedy capable House only exists in this city, that beve- of preventing or alleviating so distressing rage being chiefly confined to domestic a disease, should refuse or neglect to use, though almost universally drank. If make it known. Accordingly, having the numerous soda water establishments noticed in Dr. Rees' New Cyclopædia, in this city would adopt the practice of under the article Dog, a simple, but as it preparing coffee, there is no doubt but it would seem, a very efficacious antidote would redound to the benefit of the pro- against this malady, both for man and prietors ; for numberless persons would beast, especially in conjunction with exbe glad to taste a dish of this enlivening ternal applications, which should never cordial immediately after dinner, to dis- be neglected, I have extracted the acpel the torpor of digestion, exhilarate their count there given of it for more genespirits, and revive the intellectual faculties ral diffusion in your useful publication. borne down by the lassitude of summer The author commences the account by heat, if ready access could be had to con- saying, “ We know of no instance of the venient accommodations: In this case complaint being cured, nor have we in particular attention should be paid to the any instance ever attempted any thing of quality and roasting of the coffee berry. this kind, but we flatter ourselves that we À cup might be reasonably and profitably have been successful in bringing forward afforded for sixpence, as nothing but su- a preventive. We claim not,” continues gar would be required; it is preferable hê, the discovery of this most valuable however and more exhilarating to tife spi- and truly important remedy ; we only, rits to take it without either milk or su- by exertion, rescued it from oblivion, and gar, and one soon becomes accustomed to by a long course of well conducted exthe improved flavour and essence of un- periments, have established the certainty sophisticated coffee.
X. of its efficacy. Out of more than 90 ani
mals, as horses, sheep, swine and dogs, MESSRS. EDITORS,
one only has gone mad, to whom (which) In Colden's Life of Fulton, of which this remedy was administered ; and this you have given a review in your number failure did not occur under our own imfor August, I find the following assertion : mediate inspection ; so that it might have
In the year sixteen hundred and sixty been wasted, or brought up. This remethree, the Marquis of Worcester discover- dy was detailed by us as early as last Deed the expansive power of steam.” Now, cember, (1807) in the Medical Review of though Mr. C. does not directly say that that month, where every circumstance rethe Marquis was the first who discovered lative to the original recipe is communithis expansive power, yet, in order to cated. This remedy, as by us prepared, prevent mistakes, it may be proper to is as follows: Take of the fresh leaves state, on high authority, that the first ac
of the tree-box 2 ounces, of the fresh count of a Steam-Engine, by Mathesius, leaves of rue 2 ounces, of sage, 1-2 ounce. a clergyman in Joachimsthal, Bohemia, iš Chop these fine, and boil in a pint of wadated A. D. fifteen hundred and sixty ter to half a pint ; strain carefully and two. Consequently the expansive power press out the liquor very firmly; put brack of steam was known one hundred and the ingredients into a pint of milk, and one years before the Marquis of Worces- boil again to half a pint ; strain as before ; ter's discovery.
K. N. R. mix both liquors, which forms (form)
three doses for a human subject. DouMessrs. EditoRS,
ble this quantity is proper for a horse or I had the pleasure to observe in
cow. Two-thirds of the quantity is suf
ficient for a large dog; half for a middling mad who (which) bit them, as great pains sized, and one third for a small dog. were in every instance taken to ascertain Three doses are sufficient, given each sub- these points.” sequent morning fasting, the quantity New-York, Aug. Oth, 1817. directed being that which forms these three doses. As it sometimes produces strong effects on dogs, it may be proper Messrs. Editors, to begin with a small dose ; but we hold it Noticing the preventives and realways prudent to increase the dose till medies for the Hydrophobia, proposed in effects are evident, by the sickness, pant- your last Number, I was reminded of the ings, and uneasiness of the dog. In the following paragraph which I met with in human subject, where this remedy ap- a late number of the Philosophical Mapears equally efficacious, we have never gazine. witnessed any unpleasånt or active effects. “ M. Van Mons announces that BregAbout 40 human persons have taken this natelli has succeeded in curing all cases remedy, and in every instance, it has suc- of Hydrophobia by means of oxygenated ceeded equally as with animals : but can- muriatic acid, employed both internally dour obliges us to notice that in a consi- and externally, which proves, (I do not derable proportion of them, other means see how), that in this malady the moral were used, as the actual or potential cau- hold in dependence the physical powers. tery: but in all the animals other means All cases of tardy hydrophobia may be were purposely omitted. That this reme- considered as the effects of imagination. dy, therefore, has a preventive quality, is Examples have occurred of the disease unquestionable, and now perfectly estab- reaching the last stage, when it has been lished ; for there was not the smallest completely dissipated by the sight of the doubt of the animals mentioned either animal by which the patient was bitten." having been bitten, or of the dog being
Yours, &c. A.
Art. 7. ORIGINAL BIOGRAPHY.
Biographical Memoir of the late Solomon Schaeffer, Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Hagerstown,
State of Maryland. 10
and character of those who have eminent- ate parents trained him up in the fear ly possessed merit, and exercised piety in of the Lord, and in the pleasant paths of an exemplary degree, while it gratifies Christianity. They applied all the means private friendship, may produce also to in their power for rendering him, under society a beneficial result.
the smiles of heaven, à profitable member Far from giving scope to vain panegy- of society. He was placed in a neigh. ric, or indulging in a search after empty bouring Academy, where he madea rapid encomium, the writer of this sketch, progress in the mathematical sciences, prompted hy affectionate remembrance, and in the Latin, Greek, and French and guided by the hand of truth, would languages. The industrious and admirain a conscientious manner record nothing ble Solomon was the boast of his profesbut well authenticated facts, while render- sors, and the pride of his fellow students. ing a deserved tribute to departed worth. When he arrived at an age which urged a
The lamented subject of this memoir, final decision as to his future pursuits in was the second son, by his consort Rosan- life, his parents and some of his friends na, of the Rev. Frederick David Schaef- would have suggested a profession differfer, D. D. one of the Pastors of St. Mi- ent from that to which he became devotchael's and Zion churches in the city of ed. As he had already an elder brother, Philadelphia. On the fourteenth day of (the Rev. D. F. Schaeffer of FredericksNovember, A. D. 1790, Solomon Schaef- town, M. D.) who wore the clerical garb, fer was born at Germantown, near Phila- they would have directed his attention to delphia, where his father was then sta-. some secular pursuit. About this time tioned as Pastor of the Evangelical Lu- a situation in Philadelphia, affording the theran Church. His tender childhood most flattering prospects, had presented evinced an existing germ of great abilities itself. He was solicited to consider the and talents ; and in his early youth he subject, and if it could be reconciled to manifested a strong propensity to the his feelings, to embrace the advantages
within his reach. But his innate inclina- ver, York County, Pennsylvania, where tion, if so it may be termed with propriety, he was examined, and licensed as a canwould not suffer him to enjoy any peace didate. By the same synod he was afof mind, until he decidedly declared that terwards fully clothed with authority and to do the work of an evangelist, and to power as a regular member of that body, minister in the temple of God, would ever and as a minister of the Gospel of Christ. be his desire and happiness. Arrange- For a short time, under the careful su. ments were therefore made that he might perintendance of his father, he attended he qualified under the blessing of the great several congregations in Montgomery Head of the church, to become useful as County, in the state of Pennsylvania. a minister of the gospel.
Hitherto he officiated chiefly in the GerHe now spent the greatest portion of man language; but on the seventh of his time at his father's house, where he January, 1810, he delivered a sermon in studied the Hebrew language, Theology, the English tongue, at the consecration and the other branches with which the of a church in Whitemarsh township, scholar and the Preacher should be con- Montgomery county, Pa. The concourse versant. He considered himself very of people was great, and collected from much favoured to enjoy the friendship of the surrounding parts, even from Philaseveral eminent Divines; and his occasion- delphia ; and the sublime, solemn, and al intercourse with the late Rev. Dr. truly pious discourse which he preached, Muhlenberg of Lancaster, he justly deem- is deeply engraven upon the hearts of ed peculiarly valuable. This worthy di- many hearers. He was destined, howvine and philosopher expressed the most ever, for another scene of laudable and flattering hopes of the rising talents of beneficial labour. By invitation he visit: young Mr. Schaeffer, and considered him ed the Lutheran congregation at Hagersas promising extensive usefulness to .so- town, Md., and preached in the German ciety and to the church of Christ. and English languages. Soon after, being
Some of the recreative hours of Mr. S. elected by an unanimous vote, he rewere devoted to Music and Poetry. It ceived a joint call from that and the may not be improper here to remark that . neighbouring Lutheran congregations, when a schoolboy, his teacher, aware of which he accepted. the poetical genius of his promising pupil, In the spring of 1810, in the twentieth requested him to prepare an acrostic, to year of his age, he left his paternal abode, his name,asa New-year's address adapted accon.panied by the fervent prayers and to the season which then was approaching. pious wishes of his parents and friends. The spirit of the young poet was fired. He then took charge of the abovemenHe applied himself with all diligence to tioned congregations, which he faithfully please his tutor. His performance was served for the remainder of his days. produced ; obtained the premium, and Faithfulness and zeal, however, could received the applauses both of teach- not secure a course of placid serenity. er and scholars. It had, however, pre- Trials are inseparable from the Christian viously received the corrections of his life, and are concomitants of the apostolic mother, from whom he seemed, as it were creed. And Mr. S: was not exempt. But inherently, to have imbibed a taste for all things seemed to work together, to poetry and the sublime. On the anui- make him more and more zealous in the versaries of his parents' birth-days, he cause of his heavenly Master. usually presented to them his good wishes In 1812 the introduction of the English and prayers, in a suitable poèm, compos- language into the church at Hagerstown, ed for the occasion.
was proposed by a respectable number of In coincidence with his inclination, his members, who had heretofore been acfather sent him to his brother in Frede- commodated but very seldom with an rickstown, where he was indefatigably English discourse. It was carefully and engaged in acquiring knowledge. There correctly ascertained, that a vast majority also, rather than in his native place, on of the congregation were desirous, that account of his modest and diffident dis-' on every third or fourth Sunday, an Engposition, he ascended the pulpit, and from lish sermon should be preached. On the time to time officiated in the congrega- intervening Sundays, the solemnities of tions under the pastoral care of his public worship were to be conducted as brother.
usual, in the German language. Mr. After the completion of his studies, in Schaeffer was officially requested to comwhich he was engaged with ardour and ply, and he considered it his duty to deassiduity, he attended a meeting of the clare the counsel of God at stated times, Evangelical Lutheran Synod at Hano- in the language wich was familiar to all