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35th Cong....1st Sess.
SENATE. ation he desires. He will remember that many keeping a work in repair when you are in fact the sand into the harbor and filling it up, years ago an appropriation was made, and a steam renewing the construction.
of going through False bay, its former mouth, boat captain of much energy, Captain Shreve, When the Government has generously gone into the ocean. That work was progressed with was employed to clear oul the raft, and so far ef into the wilderness and made a harbor where na to a certain point; it was not completed; and what fected it as to make a passage through the raft for ture had made none, and upon that harbor has was done there has been of great injury to the one or more boats to pass through. It was a very grown a great city; for that city, with its wealth, harbor, because the works are being washed into narrow passage, whereas the raft is a great island to come here annually and ask for appropriations the harbor and are filling it up rapidly. If there of interlaced logs, with some shrubs and pretty to keep up its piers, seems to me more objection- || is any case where it is necessary to appropriate large trees growing upon it. Immediately there able than that this region, lying, as it does, in a money to preserve work that has been done here. after, the logs from the sides of the raft joining frontier position, should come here in its poverty, i toforé, certainly that is one; and when the War with those borne down by the next food, filled and askaid to its navigation. Yet that is not a Department was called upon to report the works up the passage. Some other appropriations were plea which I could make; it is not a reason on for the preservation of which an appropriation made of such small amounts as really to effect which I could ever cast a vote; but if there is any should be made, that was one of those which ought nothing. In 1852, an appropriation was made, I one measure in the whole list which may be ex to have been sent in; but, as I said before, that think, of $100,000: my memory is never very ac cepted from the objection that we are making to coast is left out entirely in these appropriations. curate about numbers, but I think that was the the bills as a whole, it is the particular work which That is the justice accorded to us. sum. It devolved on me in another capacity to it is now proposed to strike out. It runs into Mr. BIGLER. I had not supposed, Mr. Presseek a contractor to remove the raft with that ap the Indian country; the navigation leads to your | ident, that the question of improving rivers and propriation. Advertisements were issued, and frontier military posts, kept there as a cover to harbors, either making new work or extending proposals were invited from persons who were the frontier settlements, and to control the Indians work that had been commenced, or repairing or said to have studied the subject, and had some pe If that navigation were open as high as the mouth | protecting improvements already made, ever had culiar facilities for removing the raft; but I could of the False Washita or Preston, it would greatly been considered a question of Democracy: I have H: BI never get a contractor who, for the amount appro- diminish the expense of keeping your military not so understood it. I could not so understand priated, was able to give bond that he could com forces on the upper waters of the Red river. It lit, looking at its history long before I came here plete the work, and I did not choose to give him might, therefore, be put on the ground of means as a member of this body. I do not recollect ever a dollar with a knowledge that I should have to of access to the frontier for military purposes, to have seen a distinct party vote on the subject. V.DE come to Congress for more. After various at and hence it might be made an exception, which It is a question of policy, of expediency, on which tempts, it was found fruitless to get a contractor; // you might take out of the bill for the purpose of statesmen may differ. It may be a question of No.BL and, on the matter being reported to Congress, the voting for it separately, when you were going to constitutional power. It may be one of policy for act was changed, and power was then given to the vote against tho bill. But that the friends of the one section of the Union, and not policy for anSecretary of War to apply the money in any man whole class of measures should take this one out other. It is generally understood to be a part of ner for the improvement of the navigation of Red on the mere pretext that it is not keeping a work our commercial policy. I recollect that in the last Mr. DA river through or around the raft.
in repair, and endeavor to discriminate against Congress members of this body who stood high Lyngre ba Upon an examination and report by a gentleman il, surprises me.
in the Democratic party advocated large approof some reputation as a civil engineer, and who is Mr. SEWARD. The honorable Senator will priations to commence new works and to extend now in charge of the work, it appeared that in allow me to suggest that I think he has misappre- | improvements of this character. I have not favored stead of attempting to remove the raft, it would hended the friends of the whole class of ihese an extension of the system; but I have a settled be better to clear out a bayou through which there measures. No person here has taken that excep- | aversion to sudden, impulsive changes of the pol
es and was already a partial navigation, and 'which ran tion. The motion comes from the honorable Sen- | icy of the Government. out of Red river above the raft, and into Red river ator behind him, (Mr. Bigler.) No person on It is not for me to attempt to inquire at this day again below the raft. They commenced the im- 1 this side of the Chamber, I know, has responded whether these improvements were necessary for provement of this bayou, which consisted in re
commerce; whether the policy has been a wise moving logs and stumps, and some little dredging Mr. DAVIS. I will make a single remark; and one. I have regarded it as part of our commercial nith those where it expanded into a kind of lake. The work I shall not continue my observations on the sub system, which had been adopted and cherished nate of th is not yet completed; I believe the appropriation ject. The Senator who sits behind me, and who, from the foundation of the Government. I am not is not exhausted. My expectation was, that the || I am very glad to say, is my friend, does not hap- | certain that it ought to be continued; but in decid
the cla money on hand would make the bayou navigable | pen to be with me on this question. This seems ing to vote in favor of reporting the necessary into Red river above the raft; but I had no doubt to be a question that upheaves party distinctions. measures to protect the works which we have, I
Mr. BI it would be necessary at a subsequent period to Mr. SEWARD. I'do not see that it does. was controlled mainly by the consideration that make another appropriation, on account of the Mr. DAVIS. I scarcely know how to find a it was unwise to change suddenly a policy which extension of the raft, which, constantly extending | Democrat on the question of internal improve the Government had so long embraced. As stated
reference up the river, would finally pass the head of the
by the Senator from Rhode Island, (Mr. Alles) ast, und bayou. Some provision was made for catching Mr. SEWARD. I do not know about the the report of the topographical bureau to the War the logs as they came down the river, and trans Democrats.
Department asked appropriations of $3,500,000, ferring them into a sort of basin or natural lake, Mr. DAVIS. A certain portion of them seem to extend and construct new improvements of lying on each side. This would require an annual always to me, somehow or other, to get se rivers and harbors. I was not willing, in the presexpenditure. Sometimes there are two floods in duced into the camp of the enemy; and I know ent depressed condition of our finances, to report the river, and when that is the case, it would re how hopeless it is to struggle against a great in favor of new works, or the extension of new
between Serred, a
in this: LE didon,
now. My judgment is clear that this $110,000
w you quire twice in each year an expenditure of money scheme, in which a variety of local interests are improvements; but I was willing, and I did vote to catch the logs and take them out of the river combined, to obtain a large sum of money out of to report bills for such repairs as seemed to be into some place of safety. I think the navigation the Treasury. Were my strength greater, my necessary to protect, for å time at least, the im. may, in the manner I have stated, be made feasi- || prudence would warn me not to make the ai provements which had been heretofore made. ble for a large portion of the year for a small class lempt.
Now, sir, I differ with my honorable friend of steamboats.
Mr. GWIN. I have no doubt that this is the
from Mississippi in reference to this Red river I would say further, that the Red river, as it most meritorious measure which has been brought improvement. I do not believe it falls within that runs now, is higher than the country for some before the Senate in connection with river and class which the instructions of the Senate con distance west of it, and there is a seeming incli- harbor improvements. The navigation of the Red templated. If I recollect aright, the resolution of nation of the river to find its way through bayous, river for iwo or three hundred miles above this the Senate was for repairs. "The Senator's own and possibly to cut a new channel. 'I think it obstruction is very good, and this raft is the only showing is, that this work is never to cease; that, would have been possible, with a very large difficulty in the way of navigation from the mouth from its very character, the improvement whicla amount of money, to remove the raft; but it was of the Red river, certainly up to the mouth of the is constructed one year is to be destroyed the not possible to do it for the amount which was False Washita, or even perhaps higher. It runs next, and so the work is to be perpetual." I conappropriated, and I do not believe it was possible into a section of country where we now have to sider such a work impracticable. "I do not conto remove the raft for an amount which could ju- || transport munitions of war at great expense, and fine my objection to the idea that it is to come diciously have been appropriated for that pur in the direction of a region where the Indians are mence new works, or complete a work instead of pose.
most warlike and commit the most depredations repairing one. From what I knew of it before I I am a little struck, however, with the excep on our frontier settlements.
heard of it here, and from what I heard in comtion which is made to this particular improve
Gentlemen speak of this as a sectional question. | mittee, I came to the conclusion that it was an ment. The reason for taking out this particular Why, sir, there never was a more partial set of impracticable scheme, did not fall within the in: work from the general class is, that it is not to measures than these bills. In the whole series structions of the Senate, was not an appropriapreserve and keep in repair work already done. there is not a single dime proposed to be appro tion for repairs, but to prosecute a hopeless enterthe of the raft and its extension thousand of sea-coast rivers that
shall be the entire bilif I above the bayou, which now constitutes the whole need improvement. It is said these measures are am requested to include this Red river appropria. navigation; and it is as much the keeping of the for the repair of works already commenced by the tion. "I think I stated in committee, that I would navigation around the raft in repair, as the bind: | Government. Well, sir, five or six years ago an hold my opinion in reserve on that point; I do so ing together of the stone piers you have built with appropriation of $30,000 was made for the purnew crib-work at the harbors along the lakes. It pose of preserving the harbor of San Diego, one is additional work in order that you may keep up of the most beautiful harbors within the bounda
to strike it out, as I intend to move to strike out meaning. They are all subject to the same objec-by the San Diego river having broken through an necessary, with a view of voting for the bill.
every appropriation which I think not pressingly tion. It is a more protext to say that you are obstruction which formerly existed, and washing I shall not trouble the Senate further.
31 caus Eter to be
Mr. PU from Pent
Does he t! wone ves
Mr.PU improve The duty
Mr. BIO lututional
ke of it
wisdom is per the
Mr. GY the from P
en is as much so as the childbierast axouinguet fermention frontsand miles Preilicage here we have the price which would be continue de vente felis, in
saction deposit of 'han the 1 Mr. D.
At not to the TUK Tas Le rast, the Red
Mr. DAVIS. The Senator from Pennsylvania low the rast, which would require an expenditure morning, instead of coming half exhausted, hav-
Senate and get some refreshment. I am not in I did not know when it would. It certainly will Mr. GWIN. I have been in that country, and the habit of taking a lunch here; I wish that uncease, whenever the logs shall be prevented from when I was in Congress before, I always looked || derstood. I think we might get along as well by coming dowli, at a remote day.
upon it as an exception; and I always thought adjourning now. This is said to be a measure of Mr. BIGLER. I I did not intend to make my that if there was anything really national in im- peculiar and of great advantage to a lovely section language too strong, so as to misrepresent the proving rivers and harbors, it was the removal of of country, most desirable for occupation, with honorable Senator, nor to dignify him with the that raft. It was most important at that time, for every fine prospect possible for the completion of position of a prophet; but I thought the case so a large portion of the country beyond it then, did the work at an early day, and a wise investment strong that, in measuring matters of finance, I not belong to the United States. Texas was a for- 1 of the sum proposed to be appropriated, $110,000. might say the expenditure would never cease. I eign country, and we had to have military posts | Let me read an extract from the intelligent report have had some experience myself in this kind of on the frontier there, and transport military sup- || of the Secretary of War: improvement. plies to the Indian country. This work was then
“The prosecution of this improvement has been atiended Mr. DAVIS. Will the Senator allow me to on the western borders of the Republic, and it was with numerous embarrassments of a character to retard its ask him when the logs that make the crib-work looked upon as a national work. I have not a progress, and greatly to enhance its cost. Among the im
pediments in the way of its advancement, the insalubrity and form the piers of the lake harbors are going solitary doubt, but that in time it may require a
of the rafi district, the difficulty of procuring and retaining to quit rotting? That is what your appropriations large sum of money, but not anything approach- laborers, the scarcity and consequent high prices of provisare for now; the logs have decayed and you want ing what we appropriate here to keep our Navy ions and labor, and the sickness and frequent desertions of to put in new ones. and our Army in marching order for the purpose
the employés, are the most considerable. Efficient labor
ers, white or black, could not be obtained at a cost less than Mr. BIGLER. That is a question which can of preserving peace on the frontier and with'for
thirty dollars per month for each hand, besides their board, be answered, and it will be answered, in refer eign nations, in any one year, to make a perfect and, in most cases, their conveyance from remote points. ence to each specific item. If you had live oak system of navigation through the raft or around “The progress of this work, from the beginning of the below the water, I should say it never would rot. the raft. I think it is one of the most meritorious
last fiscal year to the 1st of September, 1356, has been set Mr. DAVIS. But at the surface, between wind works. It was commenced many years ago, and
forth, in details sufficiently copious, in iny annual report of
that date, and in the documents appended thereto. The opand water?
if it had been prosecuted with vigor, steamboats erations subsequently performed are sufficiently explained Mr. BIGLER. That depends on the character would now be running there, as ihey do around in the annual report of agent Fuller, hereto appended.” of the timber, and when it is cut. Some of it will the falls of the Ohio, and the work is as necessary
(See Appendix, Doc. No. 8.) last ten years and another kind of timber will not to that section of the country and as useful to the We have not had an opportunity of examining last two.
whole Union as any other for which you appro- l these documents; but they are doubtless very imMr. DAVIS. I want the Senator to inform the priate money
portant, and would shed a great deal of light on Senate how one work is interminable and the The country above the raft is one of the finest this subject. other is terminable? and when he gets through the in the United States, extending for hundreds of Mr. FITZPATRICK. Will the Senator give decaying timber and makes it perennial, then I miles. It will soon be densely populated, and way for a motion to adjourn? should like to know when the sands that con- li would be now but for the Indian territory north Mr. HOUSTON. Yes, sir. stitute the deposits now floating against those of the Red river. It is a splendid country. I Mr. FITZPATRICK. I move that the Senate piers and forming bars at the end of the piers, traveled over it many years ago, and I know what do now adjourn. such as existed before the piers were built, are to it is. One of the difficulties in new portions of
Mr. SEWARD called for the yeas and nays; cease their eternal roll down the lake?and beyond the country is, that you will not give us any ap and they were ordered. that, as I do not wish to trouble the Senator again, propriations to clear out our rivers and harbors, Mr. FITZPATRICK. Although I made the I would ask him when he expects to get through because we have not had a survey; and then you motion, I shall not vote for it, because I have with those questions which involve the interfer will not give us an appropriation for a survey, so paired off with the Senator from Maine, Mr. ence of the General Government with the State that we are never to have any. There is an ob FESSENDEN. sovereignty, and which have arisen constantly struction in the Sacramento river, in my own Mr. BROWN. I have paired off with the Senon the claims of riparian proprietors at every one Slate, over which millions of commerce pass, ator from Minnesota, Mr. Shields. of those works along Lake Erie?
that is every year becoming more and more a Mr. FOOT. I have paired off with the Senator Mr. BIGLER. It is very easy to distinguish hinderance to navigation simply for the want of a from Florida, Mr. Mallory. between the character of the works to which I re- || dredging machine. Thirty millions of gold pass The question being taken by yeas and nays, ferred, and this Red river improvement. I had down that river for the purpose of benefiting this resulted-yeas 23, nays 18; as follows: reference to superstructure, to piers which will section of the country, and we cannot get an ap YEAS-Messrs. Allen, Bigler, Bright, Clay, Clingman, last, under ordinary circumstances, ten, twelve, propriation for its improvement, because we have Crittenden, Davis, Hayne, Houston, Iverson, Johnson of fifteen, or twenty years; but they will require not had a survey. I intend, at the proper time,
Tennessee, Jones, Kennedy, Mason, Pearce, Polk, Reid, slight repairs. Now, the distinction which I make to offer a resolution in this language:
Rice, Slidell, Thompson of Kentucky, Thomson or New
Jersey, Toombs, and Wright-23. is this: the Red river is found, in its natural con Resolved, That the Committee on Commerce be instruct NAYS-Messrs. Bell, Chandler, Colla mer, Durkee, Fosdition, entirely impassable to steam navigation. ed to inquire into the expediency of making an appropria ter, Hale, Hamlin, Harlan, King, Pugh, Sebastian, Seward, You may repair it one season, and the next sea tion to complete the works already cominenced for the im Simmons, Stuart, Truinbull, Wade, and Wilson--18.
provement of the harbor of San Diego; and, also, to survey son you find it in-its natural condition, from natThe rivers and harbors of the State of California.
So the motion was agreed to; and the Senate ural causes. That is what I mean by a work
adjourned. never to be completed.
Mr. HOUSTON. I do not kvow that I shall Mr. PUGH. 'I should like to ask the Senator
wish to say anything on this improvement; but if from Pennsylvania a question, with his consent. so, I should like to understand it better than I did
APPROPRIATIONS FOR LAKE HARBORS. I understand him to acknowledge the constitu
when I made my remarks before. I am satisfied tionality of these appropriations for the regulation and that the best way it could be applied would
that it is inexpedient to make the appropriation, || REMARKS OF HON. H. C. GOODWIN, and protection of commerce between the States.
OF NEW YORK, Does he think the duty of Congress is exhausted
be to take the money and throw it over this raft, in one year or in two years? and set the people to digging for it there. They
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, Mr. BIGLER. Certainly not. might by that means get it out; but if you let one
May 31, 1858. Mr. PUGH. What objection is it, then, that
contractor, or a dozen contractors, have it, you The House being in the Committee of the Whole on the an improvement has to be renewed and continued ?
will never get the work done. Put the money on state of the UnionThe duty of Congress continues. the raft, and people will get it, and in getting the
Mr. GOODWIN said: Mr. BIGLER. I made no allusion to any conmoney, they will remove the obstacle, and in that
Mr. CHAIRMAN: The commerce of the northstitutional question. The honorable Senator from
way the river will be opened, otherwise it will Ohio misunderstood me.
western lakes—those great inland seas-both from
its national importance, the vast amount of cap.
ital invested, and the number of vessels and men
Mr. SEWARD called for the yeas and mays; employed, has come to be one of the important wisdom in prosecuting a work that does not an
and they were ordered; and, being taken, resulted and leading interests of the country: as such it swer the purpose intended? -yeas 22, nays 27; as follows:
justly demands the care and attention of the Gov. Mr. GWIN. I differ entirely with the SenaYEAS_Messrs. Bright, Brown, Clay, Clingman, Crit
The Committee on Commerce both of tor from Pennsylvania, and the Senator from Mis
tenden, Davis, Fitzpatrick, Hayne, Houston, Iverson, John-
the House and Senate have reported several bills sissippi, about the practicability of making the Shields, Slidell, Thompson of Kentucky, Toombs, Wright, I making appropriations for the preservation of vaRed river navigable around the falls; for the ob
rious harbors on these lakes; absolutely necessary struction of the raft is not only on account of the
NAYS-Messrs. Allen, Bell, Bigler, Broderick, Chanddeposit of timber, but the obstruction is not greater ler, Dixon, Durkee, Fessenden, Fitch, foot, Foster, Hale,
for the protection of this extensive commerce, than the falls of the Ohio. Hamlin, Harlan, Hunter, Jones, King, Pugh, Rice, Sebas
and without which the Government works at those tian, Seward, Simions, Stuart, Thomson or New Jersey, points will be almost entirely destroyed, and the Mr. DAVIS. My friend from California has Truinbull, Wade, and Wilson-27.
irade and business of a large section of the country misapprehended me. I said, or intended to say, So the Senate refused to adjourn.
seriously injured. I ask the attention of the House that not being able to execute the task of remov Mr. HOUSTON. It is unusually late, and I while with as few words as possible, I submit some ing the raft, with the money appropriated, the really can see no particular urgency for the pas- plain facts and suggestions for its consideration work was undertaken to clear out the bayou near sage of this measure now. I think we should in relation to this subject. Here allow me to rethe raft, so as to come out of the main channel of expedite business as much by adjourning at the mark that the principle and policy involved in the Red river above the raft, and enter into it be- ll usual hour, and coming here refreshed in the these appropriations in behalf of our internal
CONDITION OF THE LAKE HARBORS.
United States Custodian.
commerce have been sanctioned by the action of tion of the country, are bounded, in part, on the ter from Captain Malcolm, United States custo-
OFFICE OF PUBLIC WORKS, administrations of Jefferson, Madison, and Jack tide waters of the Atlantic and the Mississippi
OSWEGO, April 14, 1858.
Sir: I would most respectfully call your earnest attention son. The question now presented, is not, whether i river, threading with links of intercommunication the Government will originate these works and
to the deplorable state of the Government pier at this place, many States, and adding to the wealth and pros and to the absolute necessity for an early appropriation by continue these improvements, but simply whether | perity of the whole country.
Congress for its repair. the Government will, after expending millions in
For several years past the stone work has been rapidly establishing these improvements, allow them to be
crumbling away, and during the past winter two hundred destroyed and its money lost, for the want of small The annual report of Colonel J. D. Graham,
cords of stone filling have escaped from the undermining of
the old crib work, built some twenty-five years since. appropriations to save them from destruction ? | the officer in charge of the lake harbor works,
Indeed the whole pier is in a most dilapidated condition. Whether this trade and commerce shall be in a made September 30, 1857, and published by the The counter ports or small piers inside, which strengthen, great measure paralyzed, or enabled to contribute order of this House, sets forth the condition of
and are the backbone to it, are fast washing away.
The oak plank sheathing which faces the pier at the lightto the revenues and the wealth and prosperity of these harbors and earnestly recommends imme
house, with a portion of the crib timber, is cut away some
forty feet, by the action of the waves.
find us without light-house or pier.
The loss will not end here, for the remains of the work Commerce in the Thirty-Fourth Congress, and
will be carried into the channel, entirely closing its entrance It will be found that the harbor works are in a ruinfrom other sources of information, I find that the
to the inner harbor, for which the work was designed to ous and dilapidated state, the improvements here protect. value of the commerce of these lakes in 1855 was tofore commenced by the Government, and par
In conclusion, I would most respectfully refer you to the more than six hundred and thirty million dollars; , tially completed, are being rapidly destroyed, and
admirable report of Colonel Graham, for 1857, wbieb places I also have the figures to show that the lake ton
this subject in its true light. without some aid the millions of money already nage constitutes one fifteenth of the entire tonnage expended by the Government on the lake harbor
I am very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,
WILLIAM SCHUYLER MALCOLM, of the United States; and for the last few years the ratio of its increase has been more than double that and properly, must become a total loss. Your preimprovements, necessary for the preservation of life
Hon. H. C. Goodwin, Washington. of our ocean tonnage. I also find that the clearances of vessels from ports in the United States this subject, says: sent Committee on Commerce, in the report on Again, under date of May 13, 1858, he says,
in a letter urging action on this subject: to Canada and entries from ports in Canada to
“ In many instances the fruits of repeated appropriations « There is not a harbor on the American side of Lake ports in the United States for the year 1855, were
are now perishing for want of proper attention, and in all, Ontario where the piers are not washing away, and filling greater in amount of tonnage than between the the works may be not only saved at their present state of up the channels to them. As there is nothing now in the United States and any other foreign country. The completion, by timely appropriations, but preserved for fu pier (ai Oswego) to keep it in its place, the first severe gale value of our trade with Canada, carried on main. ture improvement."
will completely demolish the whole work, and, of course, ly over these lakes, is greater than with any other Mr. Chairman, in this connection I wish to re
destroy the commerce of this port." foreign country, excepting England and France; | fer to the situation of Oswego harbor, New York, Mr. Chairman, the gentleman from Virginia, and this trade is rapidly increasing: The coast the most important one on Lake Ontario, and ne- || (Mr. LetCuer,) in his remarks made several days line of these lakes on the American side is eighteen cessary for the protection of the commerce of the since, in opposition to the proposed appropriahundred and sixty miles, and they have an average lakes; it will afford an illustration of
the condi- tions for completing custom-houses at various brendth of about forty seven miles. This lake tion of the lake harbors generally. The follow- points, referred to Oswego as a port where the shipping has also access to Lake Superior, open- | ing is an extract from Colonel Graham's report: collection of the revenue cost the Government ing new and rich avenues of trade and commerce
“Oswego HARBOR, New YORK.-The works for the pro
more than it received, and condemned the exwhich will rapidly increase in value and extent. tection of this harbor are in a very precarious condition. penditure for a custom-house at that point. I reREVENUES AND EXPENDITURES.
“ They were constructed at a period when, it would seem, | plied to the gentleman at the time. Now, I have,
there could not have been a just appreciation of the force from the Treasury Department, the figures to In the discussion a few days ago in relation to of the lake sea which they were intended to resist.
show how the matier stands between Oswego and the extravagant expenditures of the Government, ** During the present season a portion of the work has
crumbled, the gentleman from Virginia [Mr. LETCHER)
hich was built only four years ago, at the ex
the Government. The duties collected al the port of seemed to include in that term those bills making mined at four different places, and the stone washed out by tremity of the wext pier. The crib work has been under Osuo ego, from June, 1848, to Ju ie, 1856, amount lo
$1,209,113 84. The amount of appropriations for appropriations for lake harbors, and for river nav. the force of the sea. One of these breaches is within one igation. Now, sir, I will briefly refer to this point. hundred and fifty feet of the light-house. We have endeav
this harbor, from the beginning, is but $271,086, From 1837 to 1855, inclusive, the revenue derived
ored to make temporary repairs at these places, in the best After deducting the cost of the custom-house, and
manner practicable, with the very small ineans at our comfrom duties on imports at the various ports on
the cost of collecting the duties at this point, it mand ; and, indeed, while writing this report, our attention will be found that the port of Oswego has paid to the great lakes amount to $5,713,129 98. The has been frequently abstracted from it under the necessity total amount appropriated by the Government of endeavoring to save important parts of the work from
the Government, for the eight years prior to 1856 more serious injury. We have not, however, the means to an average net income of at least one hundred for the improvement of the navigation of these
do it in the permanent manner required to make it last. thousand dollars per year. lakes, from the beginning to 1855, inclusive, is "I consider the light-house to be in danger from the storms $2,884,125, less than has been appropriated for a which must occur between the present season and the en
Now, sir, it is true, that since the adoption of custom-house at New Orleans; surplus revenue resuing spring.
the reciprocity treaty" the revenue at this point ceived by the United States, $2,829,004 98.
"The inner harbor, designed to be protected by the works, || has fallen off, fór certain property is allowed to be
is also in imminent danger of being seriously injured, if The following table will show the amounts of noi altogether ruined, unless immediate appropriations be
imported duty free; but while the duties collected duties collected at the different points on the lakes granted for the most urgent repairs required.
are less, the importations and trade have greatly from 1837 to 1855:
“For these repairs I crewith submit an estimate, marked increased. The imports have to be entered at the
custom-house so that the officers may decide Oswego........
"'I would earnestly recommend that this sum be granted what are free from, and what are to be charged Genesee.........
with as litue delay as possible, and in a single appropria. Niagara.
with duties. The duties paid at this port for the
rials be collected, and certain portions of the work be done last calender year before the treaty went into efOswegaichie..
the en uing winter. The whole work of repairs should be feci, amounted to more than two hundred and Champlain....
in full vigor on the opening of spring. Cape Vincent.
ninety thousand dollars. Some of this amount Presque Isle..
was afterwards refunded under the operation of
that treaty; but had the old rate of duties been Sandusky.
" By canals and railroads it has a direct commercial con paid on the imports at this point in 1856, I am told Cuyanoga.
nection not only with Syracuse, Albany, and the city of they would have amounted to near half a million
New York, but also with Philadelphia, to which it is the Michilimackinac. 10,876 61
dollars. nearest port on the great lakes. The value of its internal
Allow me to call attention for a moChicago
and coastwise trade is not less than sixty inillion dollars ment to a few facts illustrating the importance of Milwaukee..
137,485 45 per annum, the statistics of which I shall endeavor to pre- | maintaining this harbor, in a commercial point of It will be found, by examination, that the Gov sent in detail in a future report. It is certainly the most extensive wheat market in the State of New York, and its
view. In 1856, the arrivals of vessels at this port ernment has realized from this commerce a handtrade with the Canadas is greater than that of all other ports
numbered three thousand five hundred and fifty, some income over and above all expenditures and in the United States joined together.
with thirty-eight thousand four hundred and fourexpenses.
“ The Oswego river empties into Lake Ontario at this teen men, and a tonnage amounting to eight hun; But, sir, I do not ask for these appropriations point. It is a powerful stream, studded with falls and rap
dred and fifty-six thousand seven hundred and because of the profits this commerce has yielded ids, and the water power derived from it operates a great
seventy tons; this statement is only for arrivals. to the Treasury of the nation. I place it on a " It brings into one torrent within its channel, the waters Colonel Graham, in his report, refers to its inbroader ground. Our domestic commerce is as of nearly all the small lakes in the western part of the State of New York. The united waters of the Canandaigua, the
portance as a market for wheat. There are at much entitled to the care and protection of the Seneca, the Cayuga, Owasco, and the Oneida, all flow into
Oswego and its vicinity some twenty mills, capd. Government as our foreign commerce. The presit.
ble of manufacturing more than ten thousand bar
. ervation of these harbors is essential to this com * Fort Ontario is situated on the east side of this harbor, about tuclre hundred feet from the light-house. It overlooks
rels of flour per day; and twenty-one elevatora merce; necessary for the safety of the property and completely commands the harbor entrance.
that can deliver fifty thousand bushels of grain and lives of the people engaged in it. The fact
" It is an important work in the chain of defenses requisite
per hour. I have hastily glanced at these various cannot be denied that these harbors have saved
in times of war for our uorthern frontier, but its import facts to correct any erroneous impressions that the country the amount the Government has ex ance would be greatly diminished if the harbór were to become pended on them over and over again. In princi- || deteriorated for want of the requisite protecting works.”
may have been made by the remarks to which I ple, the commerce of the lakes is a national com This report was made in September, 1857; the remarks of Colonel Graham as to the importa
have referred. I also desire to call attention to merce, as well as our ocean commerce. Seven of since that time these works have sustained seriour States, containing about half of the popula ous injuries, as will appear by the following fet- of a rupture with Great Britain, this harbor, being
he sball atinue E
The Holy Tie the C Ne SM M. CHA 978, und are not
35th Cong....Ist Sess.
Personal Explanation-Mr. Smith.
Ho. Or Reps.
protected by Fort Ontario, would be of the utmost lected by those of the committee who were pres
with him which the gentleman from Virginia repeated yesimportance to our vessels engaged in this com ent that to-day I forbore, as much as was in my
terday.” merce, and would also be essential for the safety power, to make any reference to one of the mem
Again: of Government vessels and stores, and although bers from Ilinois-the member who last spoke,
“ Now, sir, as to the facts. The time I cannot fix. Some
time early in the session, 1, in company with another gen. & war may be utterly improbable, yet all expe (Mr. Morris.} I avoided it simply from an in.
tleinan, who is a member of this House, met the gentleman rience and recent occurrences show the propriety disposition to introduce him into this discussion, from Illinois on the street. I introduced him to the gentleof not allowing the usefulness and efficiency of beyond what was indispensable. Nevertheless, man, and some conversation passed between us of a light such defenses 1o be destroyed for the want of at he came into it with matter obviously prepared,
and trivial character, I do not now recollect what. He then tention on the part of the Government.
asked me to call at his room, saying that he desired to talk and with a view, if possible, to make an issue with me. I was they on my way, I think, to the War DeMr. Chairman, there is another point to which with me on a question of fact. And, sir, never partment. I did call at his room on my return, and a long I will briefly refer, showing the importance of was I more astonished than when he introduced conversation took place between us. I cannot pretend to these appropriations for the lake harbors, and the affidavit of an old soldier, of impaired hearing, give the whole of that conversation, nor will I undertake to
give the language used, because every gentleman, whether that is the fearful loss of life and property that and who can hardly have heard or understood an he be a lawyer or not, knows how impossible it is to give occurs on these lakes from the want of proper pro- entire sentence of the conversation, and
the details of such conversations, or the precise language tection in the shape of harbors. For a period of “Whose trembling limbs have borne him to your door,”
used by any individual. I do not desire to do the gentleman eight years the value of property lost on the lakes
from Illinois any injustice. The conrersation was commenced and damage sustained, was more than five million
with a view to secure him a pension, not from by him. I did not know what his purpose was. eight hundred and twenty-eight thousand three the justice, but from the sympathies of Congress.
menced by speaking of the position which had been taken I was astonished that the member should have
by the distinguished Senator from Mlinois, and by his colhundred and forty-six dollars; number of vessels
leagues in this House upon the Kansas question. ' I underlost in that time one thousand two hundred and
sent home and got the affidavit of this old man stood him distinctly to say, that upon a conference of the
as to a question of fact between the member and friends of Judge Douglas-the friends from Ninois-it had thirty-one; of those, five hundred and sixty-six
been agreed that he should take the course which he has purlakes in 1857, was more than one million three hun- subject, naturally calculated, from its character, by which he could sustain himself at home; that unless he did were stranded. The total loss of property on the myself, who were conversing upon an interesting dred and eighty-seven thousand nine hundred and
to arouse our liveliest attention. It is a deep take that course he would not only inevitably suffer defeat at thirty-five dollars. Total loss of life in 1857, was wrong, Mr. Chairman, which the member has hoine himself, but his friends would fall with him.
** During ihis conversation, which, as I have said, was one four hundred and ninely; in 1856, four hundred perpetrated on that old man, and I now propose
of some length, and which was held with me as a friend of and seven. Those most intimately acquainted io show it. I will read here what the member
Judge Docolas, something was said about some arrange
ment by which the Democratic party could act together, and with the commerce of the lakes unite in saying, himself did say on a former occasion in this con
stand a unit upon this question." We talked a good deal upon that much of this loss, both as respects life and nection. It will be recollected, sir, that I charged property, is owing to the want of harbor accomthat a certain conversation had taken place. Now,
that subject. During the conversation there was a statement
inade, that one reason why Judge Douglas felt himself agmodations and protection. This applies partic- here is what the member said:
grieved, and why he had pursued this course, was, that there ularly to the loss sustained by the stranding of
*If I ever had a conversation with the gentleman from hal been an allempl upon the part of the present Administra-
tion to destroy hiin, to crush him, to break him down; that vessels. Why, sir, the value of the property ex. December last, in my private room at the United States his friends had been neglected in appointments, and the claims posed to the perils of lake navigation is about equal Hotel, in the presence of my family. I invited the gentle.
of Illinois overlooked ; and that Judge Ducolas did not into the total value of all the merchandise exported inan to my room for the purpose, as I think the gentleman tend to be crushed; the present Administration." from the United States to foreign countries added
will bear me witness, mainly of introducing him to an old In my speech of the 26th March, with such
friend who formerly lived in Virginia, and who had come to the value of all that is imported into our counon here for the purpose of obtaining a pensjon, and I was
statements from honorable gentlemen, the extratry. Some years it exceeds in value the sum to desirous oi enlisting the members of the House in his favor.
ordinary course of Judge Douglas and his coltal of our exports and imports, and in other years The conversation to which the gentleman alludes came up leagues in this House, and other evidence of a it falls but little short. incidentally. I entered into it with bim with a view of as.
highly significant character, which I did not feel certaining it this Kansas question could not be settled with Mr. Chairman, we are near the close of the out any serious division in the Democratic party. In that
at liberty to use, I think I was fully justified in session. These bills have been for a long time conversation much was said. I remember reinarking to the saying in reference to Judge Douglas: before the House and Senate. We have just ap
gentleman from Virginia that he ought to recollect that in “I fear ambition has done its work. I fear imaginary
Illinois we were differently situated from himself; that we propriated a million dollars to continue the works
private griess have been actively at work. I have heard of had a different constituency; that the Democracy of Mli
a meeting of the Illinois delegation to consider of the policy for bringing water to the city of Washington. nois had, before the meeting of Congress, with scarcely an
to be pursued.” We shali appropriate near a million dollars to exception, taken their position in opposition to the Lecontinue the works on the Capitol extension. compton constitution, and that neither Douglas nor any
And, sir, the gentleman from Illinois, (Mr. Now, after all this, is it right for Congress to
other m'ın could be returned from that State to the United MARSHALL,] in his first speech, breathed forth
States Senate if he farored an instrument of that character. the general dissatisfaction of Juilge Douglas and refuse or neglect to make these small appropri I recolleet stating to him that southern gentlemen ought to utions for the protection of these vast interests, have some charity and feeling for our position."
his friends, as the following extract will show.
Speaking of Illinois, the gentleman says: for the safety of life and property, for the im That is what the gentleman himself admitted
“ From the moment she became a sovereign State to the provement of these grand highways of tråde to have been the character of the conversation, and present time, she has never failed in her adherence to the and commerce? Sir, let not the Government turn yet he introduces to this House this poor old national Democracy. With men of acknowledged talents aside from these duties that lie directly in its path- | man's affidavit, backed up with a certificate signed and statesmanship in her midst, not one of her sons has ever,
at any time, received a first class appointment from the Fed. way, but mete out to the commerce of the great | by a number of persons, which was gotten up for
eral Governinent. Her claims in this respect have beendline lakes a national interest--the same measure or another purpose in the year 1855, as to his reli- regarded. Notwithstanding all this, we have adhered to our justice that it has not been withheld from our in- | ability and trustworthiness, and he makes this faith and batuled for the right without a murmur.” terests on the sea-board. poor old man say as follows:
Mr. Chairman, I will add, in this connection,
about half past seven o'clock, p. in., of said day, and re. have referred, the gentleman from Louisiana,
(Mr. DAVIDSON,) and another gentleman from
states that no such statement as said SNITI has attributed to tions, in effect, with the member from Illinois (Mr. OF VIRGINIA,
said Morris, in a speech recently delivered by him (SMITI) Morris.] And yet, sir, after that admission, after IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
in the House of Representatives, in substance, that the
my statement, after the evidence to which I have
referred, the member brings in this affidavit to The House being in the Committee of the Whole on the
to secure his reelection to the United States Senate was hy | raise a question of veracity with me! Sir, I con
opposing the adınission of Kunsas under the Lecompton con sign him to that destiny which he deserves and state of the Union-
stitution,' were inade by said Morris at the time, nor was which will be accorded to him by the judgment of Mr. SMITH said:
anything said by said Morris which could be so construed as
the House as well as by the country at large.
Having said thus much, sir, allow me to turn
in another direction. I am surprised, beyond
with the affidavit of this old man. The truth is,
with which he entertained us to-night. He has
to the statement of the gentleman (Mr. BURNETT) of the session, and this late hour of the night, to sion, it was obviously a matter of great interest
who spoke on this subject on a former occasion; make a violent attack upon the Democratic party to me that the remarks which I mighi deem proper said. He said:
but I will now read sundry extracts from what he | in general, and upon his colleagues from Ohio in to submit on that question should go out with the main debate; and yet they denied me the floor.
" The gentleman from Virginia, some time ago, in a cop.
particular, when he knows that there is a great The gentleman, also, who has just addressed versation between us, when we were discussing the action
chance that they cannot possibly have any oppor. the committee, (Mr. LEITER,] has certainly en
of the Democratic party upon the Kan-as question, or of tunity of replying to him. I submit, sir, that it
those of the Democratic party who differed with us, and was not treating the question, or bis colleagues, titled himself to some reply from me. I must the reasons for their course, said to me, substantially, what
or the Democratic party, fairly. But that I hapconfess that the line of his remarks has provoked
he has stated here. I remarked to him then that I had had no little indignation; for I consider it politically substantially, the same language to me.” a conversation with Mr. Morris, in which he repeated, I pen to have the floor at this late hour of the night
I should have had no opportunity to advert to it, unjust, and politically very abusive, in its charac
and now, having the floor, I beg leave to indulge Mr. Chairman, of course I am obliged to be very “The gentleman from Illinois (Mr. Morris] approached in a few remarks.
The gentleman commences remarkably, very brief, it being past ten, p. m. It will be recol- 11 stated that I had had, substantially, the same conversation remarkably indeed, by charging that there are
New SERIES.No. 31.
35th CONG.... 1st Sess.
Personal Explanation—Mr. Smith.
Ho. OF REPs.
traitors in the Democratic party in the North. Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. Yes, sir; the gen- ! your Speaker, and you got the committees, and Well, the gentleman is competent to judge, for heleman is now playing the part of Mr. SEWARD you, in effect, undertook to upset the Government. has had experience upon that subject.
and others, in the grand canvass of 1856, who The people took away your power of mischief. A Mr. LEITER. Yes, I have seen them. gave us the very number of hours that we, the reaction ensued, and we came here in power. Un.
Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. Yes, sir, he has | Democratic party, had to live. After the passage happily there were differences of opinion in regard been them, and been of them. I understand that of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, Mr. Seward told to Kansas affairs, in regard to the obligations up to 1854, you were of the Democratic party | the country, in that dogmatical and prophetic | growing out of the Cincinnati platform, and in reyourself, and now you charge treason upon that vein in which he sometimes indulges, the exact gard to certain proceedings in Kansas. That is party which brought you into distinction, and number of hours that it was our destiny to linger all true; but let me tell the gentleman that the gave you honor and fame.
in this vale of tears; and the gentleman humbly doctrine of popular sovereignty is a doctrine which Mr. LEITER. I wish to say that I have in follows his illustrious predecessor. Sir, I thank recognizes the power of the people to govern ac. my possession means to prove that I stand upon God that there is intelligence enough in the peo- cording to law, not according to mobs or incenthe same platform now that I did before.
ple to unmask the hypocrite. I thank God that diary assemblies. That is the great, the fundaMr. SMITH, of Virginia. Oh, certainly-ex- there is intelligence enough in the people to detect mental principle which regulates our Government actly. No man ever changes, but a great party the wolf in sheep's clothing; and that, when trai- | in all its forms. The people establish what Gorswings around to enable the gentleman to pre- tors stalk abroad, there is power enough in the ernment they choose. Squatter sovereignty is the serve his consistency! Shame on him! I would il great masses of the people to detect them, and right of a few to go into the Territories and exernot so add insult to injury as to affect to be un- hang them as high as Haman.
cise in their infancy the powers and privileges of changeable. Who sent the gentleman here? Did The gentleman talks about a time-honored com- full-grown maturity. the Democratic party?
promise, and the repeal of the Missouri restric Mr. LEITER. Who is the father of that docMr. LEITER. A part of it.
tion. He says that the great first sin” was per- | trine? Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. Ay, a very small petrated in 1854, and that the whole nation sent Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. He was no conpart, I will be bound. A hundred, perhaps, up one howl of indignant anguish. Sir, what servative man. The Territories possess no power gentlemen, who had a little fellow-feeling for his was that question? What was it? The gentle except that which the Federal Government iteelf old Democracy, whom he took into corners, per man was a Democrat up to 1854, and concurred ' possesses. It is qualified in character, and limited haps in some retired place. Sir, he was sent in the universal reprobation of that Missouri re in extent; but it recognizes the will of the people here by the Black Republican party, and he in- striction. It was almost universally conceded to when exercised in conformity to law, and in no sults them by getting up here now and claiming be a wrong. But what did its repeal do? other case. still to be a Democrat. By the gods! I have Mr. LEITER. I wish to ask the gentleman I claim that the Cincinnati platform has been never seen such cool and deliberate assurance. if he did not indorse it in 1845?
respected by the Democratic party, and by the Yes, sir, he played false to the Democratic party Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. No, sir; no. chief head of that party. What have they done? in 1854, and, as he acknowledges, practiced trea Mr. LEITER. Nor in 1849 ?
What frauds have they perpetrated? They subson against those whom he now denounces. Nor Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. No, sir; I did not. mitted to the people of Kansas the propriety of is that all; he insults the very party to whom he Mr. LEITER. Not in the annexation of calling a convention; and the people, by a vote owes his present greatness by scorning it and tell. | Texas ?
which cannot be impeached, determined that they ing us that he still cleaves to the Democracy and Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. Oh, my dear sir, I would have a convention. That convention was is still a Democrat.
you know how all that question is. It is not accordingly called. Delegates were elected, and Mr. LEITER. I do not claim to belong to worth while to go into it now. I am ready to they met in convention to perform their duties. that Democratic party. I claim that essentially, meet the gentleman upon that; but I want to deal What were those duties? To frame a constitution and to all intenis and purposes, the Republican now with the popular aspect of the question. i and submit it or not to the people. Mind you, party is standing upon Democratic principles. What did the Missouri compromise do? Who the people were acting through their representa
Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. Exactly! Lord ! did it wrong? who? The Missouri compromise, | lives. Do not we represent the people Are not "how we apples swim." Why, sir, that is the which the gentleman now whines over, did un our acts binding upon the peopleDo not the game such changelings ever play, as is shown in dertake, to be sure, to interdict the right of pop- people speak when we speak? Facit per alium, facit the history of parties in this Republic of ours for ular sovereignty, and to say that persons owning i per se. seventy-five years; the opposition to the Democ- slaves should not go on one side of a given line. Those delegates assembled, and they had the racy have all along been trying to get our name. What did its repeal do? It simply said that all right to form a constitution; and, in the absence They have nicknamed us almost every other day; | free white persons should have the power of do of all legal requirements to the contrary-and it yet, under the influence of sound principles, and ing their own will; that they should establish is not pretended that there were any–io adopt a those ennobling sympathies which bind us to their own government; and that there should be constitution in toto or in part, and to submit it is our kind, we have made even their nicknames no geographical distinctions. And who is there, toto or in part. popular. The gentleman undertook to prove us having proper sympathy in his heart and an ele Mr. LEITER. Did not Governor Walker de
Collect knaves. Sir, he proves himself and his party ment of moral justice in his bosom, will object to sire them to submit it under the instructions of fools in doing it. every white citizen in America being entitled to the President ?
adro Mr. LEITER. I wish to say that I attempted the same rights and privileges? Who can object Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. No, sir; Walker, in no such thing. I talked abuui the northern De to it? The gentleman from Ohio does. It is the my opinion, was a meddling man, out in Kansas, mocracy. misfortune of those going over from the Demo- and did a great deal of mischief. The President's
es cons Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. He charges the cratic party never again to see a ray of that glori- instructions to Walker, as the gentleman has 138, and Democratic party with hypocrisy. He used the ous light which is destined to illumine the world, shown, were to protect and sustain the legal rotere term hypocrisy more than once deliberately. He and conduct it on in its glorious career.
and to resist and punish illegal ones. Šo say ; charges us with playing the country false; with Well, the Democracy repealed that line, and And that was what he ought to have done; and falsifying our pledges. He arraigns Mr. Buch- the gentleman says a struggle ensued. So it did; having done that, he would have acted up to the anan, the head of the Democratic party, as a and the Democratic party were floored, in 1855, limit of his power and authority. But he did not criminal. In charging us thus, he undertakes by the howls of fanaticism of that pariy with stop there. He had ulterior views. He made to prove us knaves; and what does he prove, if which the gentleman is so proud to act. They himself active in shooting from his sphere, and anything? That the people of the country are floored us for a time; but Democracy, though disturbing
the repose of that Territory. I take fools; that his party, with his best efforts, claim- floored true to its exultant and buoyant nature the ground, then, which the President took in his ing the right, had not the sense to make the right springs with elastic bound to its feet again, knocks instructions. How have they been disregarded appear before the country; that we-we, the all kinds of isms into pi, and promptly recovers What voter was with held from the polls who did groundlings, the unwashed, the uncombed, the its beneficent ascendency. The intelligent people unterrified, as the enemy sometimes maliciously were aroused, spoke the voice of command, and round, but did the revolutionists stop there ? No,
not choose to stay away? The election came call us-had the intellect and the brightness, in elected our present Chief Magistrate.
they meant to have nothing to do with the organspite of all the efforts of the Opposition, to honey. But that is not all. The Black Republicans came ization of the government under the constitution
, fuggle and obfusticate the great mass of our intel- | into this Hall with a majority: What was the Who voted, then? Was not the proclamalion to ligent countrymen in whose hands repose the result? It undertook to revolutionize the Govern- | all to come in and vote?
and who have the right
, greatest sovereignty, it may be, under the sun!
in questions of this sort, but those who speak Now, sir, it is a matter of astonishment-pos Mr. LEITER. Does the gentleman mean to through the ballot-boxes? itively a matter of amazement--that the gentleman say that we had a Republican majority?
Gentlemen talk about the election of a free-State should so far forget himself as to stand boldly Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. You had, until Legislature and Governor, Is it not remarkable before the country in the attitude of acknowledge your atrocities lost it to you. You came here it it be true as charged, that there was a disposio party had not the smartness to make the people damnable that some of your own men left you out of the returns on those officers. But the same understand it. He reflects upon himself and his with disgust. You came with a majority full
of uary election comes on, and ten thousand good at any rate, that they are of very inferior capacity, glorious triumph, and
full of unction and delight; instead of the insignificant number of two charita or else chat the people are as dull as the ground but a nipping frost came, as was the case in 1841, sand tive hund red, who voted in October. I would on which he treads, and are incapable of appreci- | and has been the case on various occasions. like to know how the gentleman finds out that in LETTER. I will say to the gentleman that | est number of votes we were ever able to give for and a disposition to make a grand show , povinka
llack Re * princ
Mr. LEITER. Is it not the fact that the high- they were good voters. Where there is no continka the canvass before the people upon the issue as our Speaker was one hundred and three out of it likely that almost everybody went to the polita now made up has not yet taken place. We will two hundred and thirty-four members? try it next fall. Wait till then.
Mr. SMITH, of Virginia
. Yes; but you got ! dence which marks the character of that role.