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was stricken out; but the preamble remained.
35th Cong....Ist Sess.
Ho. OF REPs. The millions of this decrease of the inland com equal rights among the States and the people of and Southwest from the increasing immigration, merce, whilst it gives a solution of your financial | the States of this Union, to have their harborg The elements of political power with us are popdifficulties, shows unerringly the source of your , improved, their rivers and channels of commerce ulation and the ballot-box. revenue.
cleared for the cheap transportation of their arti The strip of a sea-board on the Atlantic, and the I might follow this inquiry and show that every cles of consumption and production to and from | manufacturing portions of the country bordering facility you added to inland transportation and the markets of the world.
on it, must sooner or later yield to the just de every consumer and producer that emigrated to the The enemies of inland appropriations vote free
mands of the numerical supremacy of the West West increased the means of your foreign com trade on the frontier, and then claim that we are for the improvement of their great lines of intermerce, and in return, increased your revenues. not entitled to any appropriation because we col. nal trade and commerce, which will and must ever
As a question in political economy in the aug. lect no revenue.' Their logic is as bad as their be kept free, open, and common to our people. In mentation of national wealth, the improvement of inconsistency is unpardonable. I will add here, 1 land commerce is the peaceful sovereign of the harbors and rivers should be the first care of the to remove the misrepresentation constantly made Union. Government.
on this floor, on these points a statement of the Its seat of empire is in the summits of the West; If those who bear the burden of Government are amount of revenues collected, and appropriations the sources of the mighty rivers of this country entitled to share any of its benefits, then these in- | made for northwestern lakes, from 1837 to 1855: are there. They cannot be in one Government land interests should not be longer neglected. The revenues collected in fifteen districts
and their outlets in another. Inland commerce, will
a kell as You do not hesitate to vote annually millions amounted to....
$5,511,129 98 hold all together-sea-board, lakes, rivers, valleys to protect life and property engaged in foreign
Amount appropriated for lakes..
and mountains, and from its outward movement commerce in distani seas; yet upon your inland
Excess of revenue over appropriations....$2,627,004 98
to the ocean will be created a community of interseas, millions of property is there sacrificed and
est and a fraternity of feeling that will bind the How thousands of lives there lost by your persistent
It will thus be seen that appropriations for the
Union of these States together and forever. neglect to appropriate insignificant susis to pre-western lakes are in the aggregate about equal serve their harbors from destruction.
to appropriations for the construction of the New You do not hesitate to vote millions for fortifi
POST OFFICE AT COLUMBUS. Orleans custom-house, which still cries "give!” cations, and harbors on the Atlantic coast, but
aded, yourinland coast, equal in national importance and
THE ONLY CONSTITUTIONAL MODE FOR THE PROTEC SPEECH OF HON. SAMUEL S. COX almost equal in extent, is unfortified, and harbors
TION OF INLAND COMMERCE.
OF OHIO, neglected and perishing receive no consideration, I have now to refer to the only mode for the even for common defense; when all know that in improvement of harbors and rivers suggested, ex
In the House of REPRESENTATIVES, the event of war with England, now threatened cept that sanctioned by the practice of the Govern
May 31, 1858. on this floor, hostile fleets, as in 1812, will againment since its origin-the lonnage system. This,
The House being in the Committee of the Whole on the encounter on every inland sea, and our whole | sir, I believe, is impracticable and unconstitution
state of the Unionfrontier again smoke and blaze with contending al. It was tried under the Confederation, and one armies. of the causes which led to the early formation of
Mr. COX said: It is true you appropriate a few thousand dol our present Constitution was the conflict between
Mr. Chairman: I did not come here this even
cannot lars every year for light-houses on our lakes, for the States in their internal and external com- || ing with the intention of saying a word; I ex.
4:S OF which we are thankful, as that gives "light" to
pected only to have been a hearer; I wished to
133 all nig warn our mariners in the darkness and the storm
The result was the transfer of the power over
pay that compliment to a distinguished colleague,
DOL VOL to shun your decaying and dilapidated piers, and both, as well as of the revenues of all the States, [Mr. LEITER.]
arsigling? your dangerous and treacherous harbors. in trust for the “ public welfare," to the General
During the course of my colleague's speech, I
league Government as the only remedy for angry col
asked leave to propound this question: whether
, THE OBJECTIONS TO APPROPRIATIONS.
stunglin lisions and conflicting rivalries between the notwithstanding all his repudiation of the Le
VERY ME In the remarks I intended to make, I cannot States.
compton constitution, and after all his statements
, If the notice fully all the objections against these appro The history of that period is full of admonition that the people had repudiated it, he did not repriations. I can only refer to two, which are the as to its inexpediency, even if it were constitu
cord his voice in favor of the preamble of the Crit
quote front principal ones: First, That they involve schemes of tional, to return to this exploded system. tenden-Montgomery bill? That preamble is as private speculation and public corruption.
We would suppose our Constitution plain on
follows: If this allegation be true, it assails the integrity this point:
" Whereas the people of the Territory of Kansas did, by of the representative and the fidelity of the public “ Nor shall vessels bound to or from one State he obliged
a convention of delegates called and assembled at Lecomp servant. It proves too much; it proves a decay to enter, elear, or pay duties in another."-Sec. 9, art. 1.
ton on the 4th day of September, 1837, for that purpose,
De preain! of public virtue that strikes at the fundamental Free trade among the States was the policy of
vel was ore
which said constitution is republican, and said convention principle as well as the progress of self-govern- the framers of the Constitution, and in analogy having asked the admission of said Territory into the Union
so that ment. When the public welfare of millions of with its spirit and all its provisions. It was re as a State, on an equal footing with the original States -
Se, for a our agricultural people must be neglected and sac-cognized in the ordinance of 1787:
My colleague denied having so voted. I ne
Montgom rificed because the Government has not vigor and “ The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and ferred him to his vote in the Globe, page 1437. hilik, bet virtue enough to prevent political profligacy from St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, He insisted on saying that he did not thus vote.
men wil shall be common highways, and forever free, as well to the dividing with them the means which the Governinhabitants of said Territory as to the citizens of the United
I told him, as I thought very charitably, that he
bers who ment appropriates for the promotion of these par States, and those of any other States that may be admitted
no doubt did so vote for the preamble, under & amouni interests, then our representative system into the Confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty there mistake. My colleague replied that he made ne is not worth preserving.
mistakes in legislation. He knew what he did when The other objection made to appropriations for This was reaffirmed by Congress after the he voted. I take him, then, at his word. I conour commercial conveniences and securities in adoption of the Constitution by an act of Congress fess, for myself and many anti-Lecompton Demthe West is, that the collection districts, as they of 7th August, 1789. So it will be seen that in ocrats, that we did not know we were voting for allege, produce no revenue. This is a modern the Constitution as well as in Congress, the prin that preamble; though I do not consider preamcavil.
ciple of liberty was not only intended to be estab bles of much legislative force. But my colleague To make revenue a test of these western appro- lished as an equal right of the people, but free makes no such mistake-not he. Let us see, then, priations is a fallacy not creditable to the intel trade between the States was made a part of our what he did knowingly. ligence and statesmanship of those who make it. organic form of government.
Mr. LEITER. We were entitled to a separate It is answer enough that these general appropri I felt called on, sir, to refer to this tonnage sys. vote on that preamble. ations are demanded by the public welfare”and tem, from the distinguished recommendation it Mr. COX. 'Did you get it? Did you ask for it! the common " defense." has received for the last six years-[Mr. Douge Mr. LEITER.
That preamble was never The reciprocity treaty diminished the revenue, Las.] It is to be regretted that it has been renewed adopted by this House. but increased the business, and has required en by some of the friends of the inland commerce of the Mr. Cox. I will refer to the record. The larged commercial conveniences. If the vigilance country, as the effect can only be to divide them gentleman, it must be remembered, never votes now maintained by the custom-house police on on the only constitutional and practicable meas by mistake. I have the Congressional Globe bethe frontier were relaxed, you would find the ure of relief.
fore me. Turn to page 1436, where Mr. Mosto West soon underselling your New York, Boston, I have thus, sir, concisely presented the leading GOMERY offered his amendment: Philadelphia, and Baltimore merchants, from the features of our inland commerce, and its claims for
* Mr. MONTGOMERY. I move to amend the bill by strik supplies of contraband goods, and the necessities these very limited appropriations. It is idle for ing out all after the enacting clause, and insert the fourfor the palatial custom-houses on the Atlantic gentlemen to suppose that they can much longer ing :" coast would no longer exist, as you would have successfully resist them. This great interest
After voting down Mr. Quitman's amendment
, must be restored to its equal position as a branch no revenue to collect.
the amendment of Mr. MONTGOMERT was voted The revenue which the West pays to the na of public service. The time was when these in. Then Mr. CAMPBELL, an old legislator, who tional Government is not to be measured by the national questions occupied the attention of this knew well the effect of the vote, called for the meager returns of your custom-houses--it must House, but,
unfortunately, slavery and anti-slave: yeas and nays on the passage of the bill. When be estimated by what its millions of consumers ry abstractions have crowded from these Halls all was that bill? I have it before me. It has a pre economy than that revenue is a tax upon the con cannot continue. These long neglected inland
interests must resume their place in the public | Mr. Campbell called for the yeas and nays on sumption of the country. Yes, sir, the consumers and producers of the mind ! Their recognition here will be enforced by the ERT, which constitute the entire House bill. O
the preamble and amendment of Mr. MoxtGON West demand these appropriations, not as concessions of favor, but of right-constitutional and | political power that is accumulating in the North ( that vote my colleague's name is recorded for the
questi . The
The con hance to
35TH CONG....1st Sess.
Post Ofice at Columbus--Mr. Cor.
Ho. OF REPS.
preamble and amendment, page 1437, fourth line which, as Mr. MONTGOMERY himself says, is the ulation of nearly forty thousand, in addition to the from the bottom of the last column.
same thing in substance, excepl, perhaps, a "few population of the city. Its revenue is $4,224 65; Mr. LEITER. It must be remembered that verbal alterations."
but that is no adequate criterion of the importresolutions and bills are always passed before the How, then, can the gentleman say there is a ance and service of the office. preambles.
preamble to the House bill, unless lie voted for 4. It is one of the three distributing offices of Mr. COX. We will come to that in a moment. it? He never gave a vote against the bill in any the State, and has in its service the labor of twelve He did not vote for that preamble; and he never shape. The preamble was voted for by him i clerks, and requires really a larger force. votes by mistake, he says. There is no escape when he voted for the bill as amended.
5. The building now in use is poorly adapted for the gentleman from this dilemma. I would Mr. LEITER. It was permitted to remain to the business of the office. Its construction does not call attention to it, but for the fact that my col. || there, when it should have been stricken out. not afford the necessary facilities for the conveleague's political friends in Ohio, in the course of Mr. Cox, Very well. I have said all I de nient transaction of business. It is badly lighted, their unexampled abuse of my vote for the con- i sired to on that point. That remark of my col- || and cannot be warmed without danger.' li is not ference bill, have quoted the same preamble which || league is enough for him. I do not refer to this a safe depository for the valuable matter passing all the Republicans voted for, for my condemna- | matter now for any other purpose than to advise through the office. In its rear is a bake-shop and tion. I do not profess to understand this thing gentlemen that they are not to be allowed to put coffee and spice-grinding establishment, which as well as the gentleman. He never votes by mis- the Democracy of Ohio to the defense of that has three times been consumed by fire. On the take; therefore, he must have sustained that bill | which they themselves did-knowingly did-did last occasion of fire, an adjoining building was as it went from the House to the Senate; and that under no misapprehension. And when we are destroyed, and many others put in danger. On bill, as it passed the House, had the preamble in charged with voting, by way of preamble, that one side is an extensive eating establishment, it. How could it have got through this House | the “people of Kansas" made Lecompton “ for which has its kitchen under the office. In the without his vote? for on this bill he voted every themselves," we point to the entire Republican upper part of the building are offices, and a public time with the majority! Can there be any doube | record to show that gentlemen, under "no mis- ball for concerts and exhibitions. The rent for about it? Turn over to page 1438, and you will take,” recorded the same thing as their opinion. the present office is $800. It is on the south side see that Mr. MONTGOMERY, after “the bill, as But, Mr. Chairman, I rose principally because of the public square, in a most convenient locaamended, was passed,” moved to “strike out of | I desired to express my views, briefly, upon a tion, but wholly inadequate for the purpose for the preamble a part of the language used." matter of local importance to my State, district, which it is used.
Mr. LEITER. We ought to have had a sep- || and city. I wish to place upon record the views 6. There is no building in the city, with a arate vote on that preamble. It was poorly engi- and facts which appertain to a local measure that proper location, and of proper construction and neered. I looked on the management then as lies close to my heart, and which I have pursued arrangement, which can be rented for the office. bungling. *
this whole session with a sleepless anxiety. The building ought to be in the heart of the city, Mr. Cox. Whether it was good engineering hold in my hand House bill No. 539, reported and no such building can be had at present. or not, my colleague voted for the preamble; and unanimously from the Committee on the Post 7. There is another claim which central Ohio he never votes by mistake. If it was bad engi- || Office and Post Roads, “providing for certain makes for the accommodation of the capital. neering and bungling, my colleague is in for it; | public buildings for post offices and other Gov- || There will be terms of the United States courts and cannot help it by his denial. Ah! the gentle- || ernment purposes." 'Among the hundred cases held again ai Columbus, when the law now re. man is beginning to understand the matter. If it submitted for their consideration, the committee, ported for that purpose in the Senate shall have was all right, and he made no mistake, and he on the 28th April, wisely selected about a dozen, passed. The exigency of the case demands such did not vote for the preamble, where is there any | and, among them, the city of Columbus, and have a law. The separation of the State into two judi. bungling? Where the bad management? If my reported $50,000 for the purchase of a site and cial districts, in 1854, was a loss to the capital, colleague did not vote for the preamble, there is the erection of a building there, for a post office, in more than one sense. It was a great disadno bungling, none at all. Why should Mr. MONT-1 and other Government purposes." Yesterday, / vantage to one third of the counties of the State, GOMERY move to strike out a part of the pream- || the Post Office Committee of the Senate selected which were interested in the litigation of the Unible, if the gentleman (Mr. LEITER) voting with Columbus, with three other cases, for the favor ted States courts. Ohio furnished at Columbus, the majority did not vote for it? Allow me to able action of the Senate. To-morrow the vote for years, a building, rent free, as I believe, for quote from the Globe, page 1438: will be taken on it in that body.
the Unit States courts; and now she asks, in “Mr. MONTGOMERY. Is it in order to move to strike out With this double and emphatic recommenda- | her necessity, for a building for Federal purof the preamble a portion of the language ?
tion, I propose to give to the House some of the “ The SPEAKER. The Chair is of opinion that it is not.
poses-as one sign, at least, of Federal recogni
tion. The question has been suggested within the last few min.
reasons I have been urging for the appropriation. utes. The proper time to have moved any amendment to I know that it is an unpropitious time for such 8. She has had but little attention of this kind. the preamble was, in the opinion of the Chair, before the matters. The Treasury is empty, although the Although paying, as I shall show, over six milbill was ordered to a third reading."
country is rich. The Government, however, has lion dollars annually, into the Federal Treasury, So that it was then too late, as it is now too no debt of any consequence to a nation like ours; she has received in appropriations for buildings, late, for any of us to get rid of that vote for the land although ihe Secretary of the Treasury frowns altogether, only about six hundred thousand, as Montgomery bill. I have no such desire. I
upon such objects at present, yet I do hope that follows: think, before the fall election is over, certain gen a case of necessity like that of Columbus will not
$291,130 tlemen will be sorry for their attacks upon mem meet with a rebuff from Congress. At least, I
75,001 bers who honestly voted for the conference bill, || shall have done my duty in presenting its merits
Sandusky.. now; trusting, if not to the present, then to the
159,800 * The complaint of Mr. LEITER is, that he did not get a next session,
to do what ought to be done now. chance to vote against the preamble; that it ought to have
$901.502 been submitted to a separate vote. The inference he would
I desire, at least, now to lay the foundation of like us to draw is, that as he could not get a separate vote,
a claim on the legislation of Congress which, at he had to vote for the whole bill--preamble and amend. a more seasonable time, I will urge, with no such
I might show what other States, whieh pay ment. Now, he had a clear course to take; if he did not drawback as a poor Treasury.
smaller tribute to the Federal Treasury, have relike the preamble, he could have voied against the previous question, which estopped a separate vote. This he did not do.
No one who has ever seen the present Colum
ceived, not counting immense appropriations for He voted to sustain the previous question. He therefore bus post office building would doubt that there
sea-coast improvements, but simply for buildings
alone. Maine has received more than $650,000. voted to cut off his own chance to get a separate vote ; for exists a pressing necessity there for the construcit is well seluled that after a bill is passed under the previous
Little Rhode Island over $264,000-a Suate with question it is out of order, as Speaker Orr decided, to
tion of a Government building. Some eight hunamend or strike out the preamble.' Never has a point been dred of its prominent citizens have memorialized
one tenth of the representation which Ohio has
on this floor. The New Orleans custom-house more notoriously settled. It was settled in the Twenty-Ninth Congress upon that subject.
alone has already cost $2,675,258, and requires, Congress, famous for its accomplished parliamentarians The following among other reasons are urged Winthrop, Cobb, Douglas, Jobo Quincy Adams, Toombs,
to finish it, $1,500,000 more. It has already cost in its behalf: Ingersoll, and others. It was settled in the Mexican war bill. Its fainous preamble ran thus: “ Whercas, by the act
1. Columbus is the capital of Ohio, in which
nearly five times as much as Ohio has received of the Republic of Mexico, a state of war exists between is annually assembled the Legislature of the State,
altogether. Virginia-less than Ohio in her Fed. that Government and the United States: Be it enacted," composed of about one hundred and sixty mem
eral representation and Federal taxes--has re
ceived $800,000 for public buildings. Many of the Opposition wished to vote supplies, but be
bers and officers. This body is in session at least lieved the preamble false. But they had no power, as they three months. The supreme court of the State
But these comparisons are invidious. I venture
to say that Ohio, by the votes of her members of knew, to amend the preamble, or strike it out. They could holds terms during one half the year. The exnot get a separate vote on it after Mr. Brinkerhoffderuanded | ecutive offices and nearly all of the public insti
Congress, has contributed liberally toward those the previous question. Mr. Garrett Davis, laboring under
improvements which lie out of her State. She has tutions are located here. this dilemma, said : " I object to the preamble, because it
been as liberal by her votes to the Atlantic and sets forth so bold a falsehood. I protest solemnly against
Other State capitals, among the rest our neigh
other States, as she has been by the payment of defiling this measure with the unfounded statement that bors, Indiana and Minois, have had the benefit
her Federal taxes. She pays, as I said, one tenth of Mexico began this war."-(Congressional Globe, vol. 15, of a post office building conferred on them. Our page 794.) Mr. Garrett Davis asked to be excused from
the Federal revenue. The taxes paid by the people voting; but he was not excused. He voted for the bill, but State has at least equal, if not superior, claims to
of Ohio stand thus: he did what Mr. Leiter did not-protested against the prethe same regard.
Taxes paid to the State.......
$2,609,395 amble. He never claimed a separate vote on the preamble, 2. The city contains a population of about
Taxes paid for local purposes.............****
6,063,903 because he knew it was unparliamentary. The parliamenttwenty-seven thousand inhabitants, and is the
Taxes paid to the United States.
6,000,000 ary law was before then well settled. No doubt many (Delano, Root, Giddings, Adams, Vance, and others) voted center of extensive and important business trans
$14,673,298 against the bill because they did not like the preamble. Mr. actions. There are four railroads radiating from Leider had the same privilege on the House bill. He did thence-to Cleveland, to Wheeling, to Indiannot exercise it; and it is too late now to coinplain. Certainly he cannot complain of the Democrats who voted with
apolis, to Cincinnati-each cardinal thorough The taxes paid to the National Government are him for the same preamble--in the Senate bill, the blouse fares to the four points of the compass.
more than double those paid to the State Governbill, or the conference bill.
3. The office performs the business of a pop- ll ment; and the people of Ohio pay for the support
Ho, OF REPs.
35th Cong..., 1 st Sess.
Washington and Oregon War Claims-Mr. Stevens.
of the State government but one sixth what they WASHINGTON AND OREGON WAR CLAIMS. Have you no vagabonds? Have you no courts, pay for the support of the National Government;
no juries, no jails, no penitentiaries? Why, even for one half of the above $2,609,000 is paid for SPEECH OF HON. I. I. STEVENS, here, murder stalks at noon-day, and has marched schools.
in procession. It has controlled the elections of The statement that we pay $6,000,000 to the
a neighboring city; and this, too, in your densely national Government is based on these facts:
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, populated old States-this, too, in your cities, 1. The average national revenue (wholly in
May 31, 1858.
where civilization and refinement reign. I say to direct) is about sixty-five million dollars per
The House being in the Committee of the Whole on the
gentlemen who fing the term vagabond into our annum. This year it may be $70,000,000; but
faces, first pull the beam out of your own eye, $65,000,000 is a fair average. state of the Union
and then you can see clearly to pull the mote out 2. The entire amount of this is paid by the Mr. STEVENS said:
of your brother's eye. white inhabitants of the United States, except Mr. CHAIRMAN: I take this occasion to present But, Mr. Chairman, I most emphatically deny ing, perhaps, a very few free blacks.
a few observations in regard to the Washington all these charges; and I speak from the most 3. Of the white population of the United States, |and Oregon war claim. This is a matter certainly abundant opporunities of personal observation. the State of Ohio has just about one tenth. of some little consequence, for it involves no less The good name of that people is dear to me.
4. The people of Ohio have as much property, & sum than $6,000,000. Incident to this, how. They have behaved in such a manner as entitles and live quite as comfortably as the people of any ever, is another question of more importance still, them-not to sufferance, not simply to be passed section of the Union,
namely: the character and honor of the people of along, but entitles them to your admiration and 5. From these facts, it follows inevitably, that those distant Territories, and the honor of our praise. They have held high advanced the flag of the people of Ohio consume one tenth of all the whole country. One question touches the Treas their country's honor, and have maintained the products on which the custom-house tax is levo ury of the United States, and the other the good humanity and beneficence of its institutions, ied, as iron, sugar, &c. They also, undoubtedly, name of the people of the United States. I shall Mr. Chairman, the Indian tribes of those two pay their full proportion of what is paid for pub- dwell upon them both. I shall endeavor to vin. Territories number some forty-odd thousand lic lands. In ihe last ten years, full seventy thou- dicate the character and conduct of the people of souls: in Washington some twenty-two thousand, sand people have gone from Ohio to lowa alone. those Territories, and the operations undertaken and in Oregon some twenty thousand. When the This is a matter of certainty. Millions of our by the authorities of those Territories for the pur. war commenced, in 1855, we had in Washington capital have been sent West and invested in the pose of suppressing Indian hostilities. I shall only about seventeen hundred able-bodied white public lands of the new States and Territories, and endeavor to show that those operations were ne men. The Indian tribes were all greatly disafhave contributed to swell the Federal exchequer. | cessary, that they were economical, and that they fected; and their friendship could not be depended The conclusion, then, is unavoidable, that the are entitled to the confidence and sympathy of on. They numbered in the neighborhood of Pu people of Ohio contribute one tenth, namely, the country; and finally, I shall endeavor to show get Sound alone some two thousand five hundred $6,500,000, to the national revenue. For caution's !! by precedents, by the course of the Government warriors, whilst on that sound we had not over sake, I put it at $6,000,000.
in regard to other portions of the country, that one thousand able-bodied white men. East of the Is it not fair and just that a State so liberal and we have a right to expect prompt and ample jus Cascades the Indian tribes are rich, proud, and ready to do her pari toward the Federal revenue tice from the Congress of ihe United States. brave. They had great chiefs--such chiefe as should receive some consideration. Even in a time Mr. Chairman, it has been often charged against Kam-i-a-y-kan and Pu-pu-mux-mux. They had when the Treasury seems depressed, when she us that that war was brought on by outrages upon shown their prowess in war; at one time requirpresents a case of necessity and urgency, should the rights of the Indians; that it was gotten up ing the provisional government of Oregon to exert she not have a small quota of the public expend for the purpose of speculation; and that it was all its strength in order to punish them for the iture? Ohio gives freely to the improvements the treaties which caused the war. Well, sir, atrocities committed in the robbery and murder of the coast. She has paid her tithe for the main suppose the treaties did cause the war; suppose of Mr. Whitman and his whole family. In the tenance of our noble little Army. She has voted we did have vagabonds in that country who com summer of 1855, just before the war commenced, to sustain the Navy which bears our flag; and mitted outrages upon the Indians; suppose some the general impression in both Territories was, though “inland far she be," she is as ready to few citizens were operated upon by the motive of that there was little or no fear of war; for, Mr. day to vote supplies of balls and powder, shells i making a speculation out of the war; if these Chairman, we had had rumors of this during preand ships, and other instruments of naval warfare, i things be true, did they make it any less the duty vious years. The Indians had been, more or less, to punish British insolence and aggression, and of the people and of the authorities of the Ter disaffected for a long time. There were many maintain the nationality of our fag, as she was ritories, a war having come upon them, to protect rumors of disaffection in the spring of 1855, though in her youth, on the 10th of February, 1810, the settlements What account would an Ex. they were generally discredited. In the spring of when, by the resolutions of her Legislature, sheecutive have had to render, who, when he heard 1855 both Colonel Bonneville, in command of the pioneered the sentiment which led to the late war that the Indians were devastating the settlements, Columbia river district, and Major Rains, in comwith England. In every relation which Ohio sus burning the houses, and massacreing the women mand at the Dalles, came to the conclusion that tains to the Federal Government, she has shown and children; had declined to protect those settle the Walla-Walla chief, Pu-pu-mux-mux, ought a fidelity and a patriotism which it is not now ments, on the ground that here and there a white to be seized and put in confinement, on the ground in bad taste, I trust, lo recall, when I ask for her man had outraged the Indians, and had driven that he was getting up a general Indian war; and beautiful capital, which I am proud to represent them to arms? Suppose the treaties did incite the he would have been seized, and put in confine here, a structure which may at once decorate it war, was it the fault of the people of those Ter ment, had it not been for the persuasions of the with a monument of elegance, and subserve the ritories? Was the appointment of commissioners, Indian officers, who, equally with myself
, dismost practical purposes of a prosperous and grow. the calling together of councils, and the forming credited the reports, and had confidence in Puing population
of treaties, their act? Not at all. It was the aci pu-mux-mux. i conclude, Mr. Chairman, by moving that the of your Government. "It was the act of your Previous to my going to the Walla-Walla cocacommittee rise.
Congress. It was done under the orders of your cil, word was sent to me by the gnod father Rich Mr. LEITER. I wish to ask my colleague a President. The people of the Territories cer ard, the superior of the missions in Yakima and question here. Have I not quoted correctly the tainly were not responsible, nor were the Exec Cayuse country, that the Yakimas, Cayuses, and remarks of Governor Paine?
utives of those people responsible. Sir, it does Walla-Wallas would attend that council with e Mr. COX. I expect you have. I expect that seem to me that it would be trifling with the in- hostile purpose, and that I would go there at the Governor
Paine will say the same thing upon the telligence, and insulting the understandings of hazard of my life. I had warning from various stump in Ohio in the next canvass. We will stand gentlemen of this committee, if I were to under sources; but the council had been called, and I up to the doctrine of the Cincinnati platform, and take to defend the people of those Territories went there in good faith, in order to attend to the we will, I have no doubt, after the election, have from the charge of having brought about this war business for which it had been called. We were the gratification of knowing that we have again for purposes of speculation. Who are the peo in council fourteen days, in friendly council and thrashed our Republican opponents. We wil not ple of those Territories? How did they get there friendly converse with the chiefs and the great claim the victory until it has been won. We will Were they mere vagabonds and outcasts? Did body of the people of all these tribes. All these not go into ecstacies over a result until it has been they go there without law, and give to the world chiefs, who afterwards took up arms, were in mi announced. We will not, as the gentleman from an example of lawlessness and insubordination? camp, and sat at my table during these fourteen Virginia says my colleague has done, count our No, sir, they were American citizens, the very days. I talked with them morning and evening chickens before they are hatched.
choice and flower of your yeomanry. They went besides our formal talks in council; and in regare Mr. LEITER. Did I not quote from the Dem- i there carrying with them the arts and arms, the to that council this House has now in its postes ocratic Central Committee of Ohio correctly? laws and institutions of their country, and there sion an official record of its proceedings-a record
Mr. Cox. I am not positive about that. I they planted empire and civilization. How is this which was taken verbalim by two secretaries sepshould like to examine for myself. I have no Government, and how are the people of these arately. It is not a fixed up or patched up cot doubt the gentleman has endeavored to quote cor- States known upon that coast? It is through the
cern. It has been charged that the Indians there rectly.
eighty-odd thousand people there who have given were threatened, and that force was brought to Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. The Democrats of to the world, from their first settlement, an ex
bear in order to get their consent to the conces the South only ask that ihe people of Kansas shall ample of a law-abiding, an industrious, a patriotic, sions they made. Mr. Chairman, how ridiculous manage their own affairs in their own way. Let | suffering-ay, and a heroic people. You are the charge! General Palmer and myself were the that be conceded to them, and there will not be a known there through them, and through the insci- commissioners, and with the Indian agents, a few murmur from us.
tutions which they have carried there with them. employés, and twenty-five soldiers to preserve Mr. COX. That is my doctrine.
Mr. LEITER. My colleague must know that try, I might with propriety refer them to Baltimore, || hundred warriors, brave and proud nien; and !
your large cities, and even to this national capital. I and bringing force to bear to get them to yield to
of sobriety u bome in who had
Kated each wikit to tu
en be violation
Tinust Berch has
35TH CONG....1st Sess.
Washington and Oregon War Claims-Mr. Stevens,
Ho. Or Reps.
our terms. The record speaks for itself. The ment. Such has ever been the policy of the Brit- general of the volunteers, trusting that the acting commissioners have no reason to be ashamed of ish Government upon that coast, although under | Governor would approve his action; and he also it; nor has the Government reason to be ashamed the control of a simple trading company. The wrote for cartridges to be sent them, as he was of it.
Hudson's Bay Company owe their ascendency deficient in ammunition. I give his letters in full, When the Indians separated, it was with a over the Indians to this fact more than to all things establishing these facts: cordial farewell on all sides; Kam-i-a-y-kan was else; that the life of a Hudson's Bay employé has
FORT STEILACOom, W. T., October 31, 1855. the last man I saw; and that chief parted from been held sacred, and the Indians' who did vio- Syr: I have the honor to state that I have called upon me in the most cordial manner, expressing the lence to it were held to a strict accountability. I
the citizens of Pierce county for one company of volunteers, utmost satisfaction at the results of the treaty.
to act against the Indians on White river and vicinity, who could mention many instances when this course
have been murdering our citizens, and attacked the comI said to him on parting, “ the agent Bolon will was pursued.
pany of rangers under Captain Eaton, mustered into the soon go into your country to select a site for the It has been alleged that the miners passing service of the United States. mills, and schools, and agency; and I wish you through the Yakima, violated the Indian women,
This call has been promptly responded to, and a company
of forty are now ready to take the field, uuder the command to advise him in the matter. ." And he replied, and committed other outrages, which provoked
of Captain Wallace, who will report to you for orders. “ I shall be glad to see him, and will point out a them to retaliate. I heard nothing of this on the I wish you would come down to our post, as I think your good place for the mill.".
Spokane coming in from the Missouri, though I presence would expedite matters. I trust you will succeed Pu-pu-mux-mux also parted from me in the used every means to ascertain whether the war in getting another company in your place, as I ain of the
opinion that no less than one hundred inen should think of same manner; and if ever the face of an Indian had been provoked by indiscretion and wrong,
taking the field, they lo act together, and the work will expressed joy and satisfaction, it was the face of | conferring not only with the Indians of the Spo- i speedily be finished. I trust that the acting Governor will Pu-pu-mux-mux. Such was the fact in reference kane and neighboring tribes, but with the fathers approve of iny action, as I could see no other way to mainto every Indian chief, and every Indian there as- of the mission at the Coeur d'Alene and at Colville,
tain the peace of our country.
am, sir, very respectfully, your most ohedient servant, sembled. I may remark, in regard to Puget Sound, and with the officers of the Hudson's Bay Com
JOHN NUGEN, that it is the testimony of the Indian chiefs, with- pany at the latter place.
Second Lieutenant Fourth Infantry, Com. Posi. out exception, and also the testimony of all well- In consequence of these murders, Major Haller | James Tilton, Adjutant General W. 7. Volunteers. informed and disinterested white men there, with- marched into the Yakima country with about out exception, and such is my own deliberate one hundred regular troops; was met and attacked
HEAD QUARTERS, FORT STEILACOOM, judgment, that if we had not made these treaties, | by a force of from ten to fifteen hundred warriors;
November 1, 1855.
Sir : I have detained Captain Wallace's company of volthe war would have been general. The treaties and though for a time entirely surrounded and cut were the controlling element in maintaining peace.
unteers to assist in protecting this post, in case an attack off from water, maintained his position, reached should be made. Dr. Tolmie, just in from Nisqually, inHad it not been for these treaties, the field of war water after an obstinate and protracted fight of forms me that one of his shepherds saw a band of some would have stretched from the coast to the divide some twenty-four hours, and finally succeeded in twenty Klickitats, just in rear of Nisqually, last night. of the Bitter Root mountains.
I have nearly all the women and children in the country making good his retreat and saving his command
at the post, and will, of course, protect them. But, sir, in the observations I submitted a few with a loss, in killed and wounded, of one third I would respectfully reqnest that all the men in this sec. days ago, I spoke of the conduct of our people, of his entire force. While surrounded, he was tion at ibe country be called out, as I ain firmly of the belief and of the conduct of the volunteers during that fortunate enough to get off a friendly Indian, who
that we are to have a general Indian war in this vicinity.
Send me down cartridges at the earliest inoment, as it is war. Their conduct was throughout humane and made his way to the Dalles, and gave informa
reported that the Indians are to make an attempt at taking meritorious. At no time during that war was tion of the condition of Major Haller's command. our fort to-night. This is just a report, but I wish to have there any unauthorized killing by the volunteer There was great excitement throughout both plenty of ammunition, and I am rather short just at this forces.
Washington and Oregon in consequence. Major
With great respect, I have the honor to be, your most
JOHN NÜGEN, sacred in the camps of the volunteers; and it is | Governors of Washington and Oregon for volun
Second Lieutenant Fourth Infantry, Com. Post. bis fact that we hold up in the noon-day sun to teers; and that requisition was promptly complied James Tilton, lisprove the accusations made against the people with. The volunteers moved into the field; and Adjutani General W. T. Volunteers, Olympia. of those Territories.
thus this war had its origin, so far as the volun- These letters show the cordial relations between The first act of war was by the Indians. I teers were concerned. I have here a whole vol- i the regular and volunteer service in the Territory, lave referred to Kam-i-a-y-kan, to his cordial ume of requisitions and orders and correspond- | when the difficulties first occurred. Such had are well when I left him, and to his promise to ence, demonstrating these facts, but will not read been our relations from the first organization of issist the Indian agent Bolon, when he went into from the volume, as it will occupy time need- the Territory. Such they continued to be until iis country. The Yakimas occupy a country lessly.
the veteran commander of the department of the rom the Cascades to the Columbia, one hundred The volunteers, Mr. Chairman, came into ser- Pacific pronounced the war the act of unprinind fifty miles east and west, and some two hun- | vice in consequence of the attack of an over- cipled white men-as having been got up as a fred north and south. In the month of August | whelming force of Indians upon the troops of the matter of speculation; denounced authorities and ve began to hear of our citizens being murdered regular service, in virtue of a requisition of the people as Indian exterminators; refused to recog, by the Yakimas. Finally the reports became so officer in command of the military district, and nize the necessity of calling out volunteers, and vell authenticated that a military force under | because the regular troops were inadequate to i endeavored to ignore them when in the field. Major Haller was sent there by Major Rains, in protect the settlements, and bring this war to a However, this same commander did finally call :ommand of the troops on the Columbia river, to conclusion.
upon me in March for two companies of volunlemand the surrender of the murderers, or, on the On Puget Sound we had extraordinary difficul- teers for the defense of Puget Sound, which I revent of refusal, lo punish the tribe.
ties to contend with. The war first broke out by fused to respond to for reasons given in full in the Who were killed by these Indians? The vic- the murder of a settlement of twelve persons on official correspondence. im of most mark was this Indian agent Bolon. White river, and under circumstances of great It is a fact well known on that coast to the de was killed by the Yakimas, and by the order | atrocity. The settlers became alarmed in conse- officers of the Hudson's Bay Company, that the if Kam i-a-y-kan, though he went there as their quence of the floating rumors that the Indians were | Indians of southern Oregon have always been so gent, loving the Yakimas. He went there, and bent on war, and had fled from their honres to the hostile that the employés of that company did vent alone, unwilling to believe that the reports nearest town-Seattle. The Indians who were not dare to trap there.' Parties passing through of their having killed our people were true, and their neighbors, went to them at Seattle, and told to California never ventured to stop there for a loping that the results of his investigations would them that they were needlessly alarmed; asked day. I have this from the chief factor of the comhow that no such killing had been done. He was them to go back to their claims, and assured them pany, at Vancouver. I need not go over the nuch beloved by the Yakimas, was recognized that if any danger should threaten them, they ground in southern Oregon; for it has been fully >y them to be their friend, but having resolved on would give them timely warning. They returned occupied by the distinguished Delegate from that var, they said, (referring to Bulon,) we kill our back; but before the morning's sun had risen, Territory: riends as well as our enemies." He was one of they were all slaughtered in cold blood, and by the Here, then, was the origin of this war--a war vur slaughtered citizens on the grounds of the Indians who had invited them back. Not men entirely unprovoked, a war caused by no bad conrakimas. We had some ten or twelve others-only were murdered, but helpless women and duct of our people; but caused altogether by the here were one or two of my own neighbors; there || tender children. Two children, with the mangled feeling of aniagonism between the two races. The vere two or three from Pierce couniy, as well as remains of their mother, were thrown to the bot- || Indians there had heard of Indian difficulties on everal from the neighboring county of King; men | tom of a well. The Indians on that sound exceeded this side of the Rocky Mountains; and it was a of sobriety, men of character, men who had means the whites as five to two. It was uime, certainly, combination with them to drive the whites out of it home in the settled portions of the Territory, but that our citizens should take up arms, and by en- the country. vho had gone, as our adventurous American peo- ergy and vigor, endeavor to reduce to subjection Mr. CURTIS. I wish to say to my friend, at le will go, into the wilderness to see whether the Indians engaged in this terrible massacre, and this point, that his country, in respect to this hey could not better their fortunes. They were prevent the other tribes joining them. It was done, ! charge of the Indian difficulties having been comcilled on their way to the mines at Colville.'I sub- and I have yet to be convinced that it was not done menced by the whites, is precisely in the same nit it to the gentlemen of this committee: was it || rightly.
situation that our whole Indian frontier has been ight that the military arm of this Government Why, Mr. Chairman, on that sound, so inad for the last ten years. Whenever there have been hould be stretched out, when a tribe of Indians, equate was the force of regular troops, and in hostilities, there are traders and others who have n violation of the plighted faith of treaties, guar- | such imminent danger was the whole community, carried abroad the idea that the first assaults were ntying safe conduct to all whites passing through that a volunteer company-raised for the field made by the whites. Never mind what atrocities heir country, slaughtered an officer of the Repub- was detained for the defense of Fort Steilacoom, || have been committed by the Indians, such are ic, and citizens of the Republic, without cause or in charge of the regular troops. Lieutenant Nugen, the reports circulated. It has been in my expeorovocation?
in command at that post, took the responsibility rience, and I have no doubt such is the case in I trust that I have not to pause for a reply. of raising a company of forty men, under Cap- Oregon and Washington, that the Indians are alsuch has been the general policy of the Govern- li tain W.H. Wallace, and then wrote the adjutant I ways the aggressors.
retary of War, and at the very next session of
35TH CONG....1st Sess.
Ho. OF REPs. And I accord my testimony to that of the gen followers, had maintained their friendship at the officers and twenty-six men are mentioned as has. tleman, that these charges against the white peo hazard of their lives, having left the main camp of ing particularly distinguished themselves. Here ple of the frontier are most unjust. I had no their tribe and encamped with the settlers who are three reports, (holding up the open volume opportunity before to reply to the remarks of the remained in the valley. These settlers were containing them,) one from Colonel Bonneville, a gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. GARNETT,) who is not attacked by Pu-pu-mux-mux and the allied gentleman well known to me; another from Capinsinuated that all these Indian wars were got up chiefs, because it could only be done by passing tain Ewell, a friend of my youth, three years with on speculation. I recollect that many years ago over the dead bodies of the friendly chiefs. All me at the Military Academy, a most gallant and Indian wars were quite as common as on the fron these facts I learned before any controversy had meritorious man; and the third from Colonel tier; and I would like the gentleman to say wheth-grown up, and before I imagined any controversy | Miles, giving all the details of this action. It was er, when John Smith had charge of the Virginia could possibly grow up, in regard to the position not a case simply of soldiership, but of conduct colony, he was not provoked by Indian warfare, of Pu-pu-mux-mux and the allied tribes and
It was not enough that the men were brave, but and had not his calamities with them as we have chiefs.
they must be well managed. It was a case of taeat this day?
A gentleman who has made himself conspicu- ties and strategy, of tanks, and rears, and reMr. SMITH, of Virginia. They were not so ous by his denunciations of the volunteers, and expensive.
his defense of Pu-pu-mux-mux, has admitted that These reports show that eight companies of Mr. CURTIS. But they destroyed your col the seizure of Fort Walla-Walla was an act of troops-four hundred men--pursued, overtook, onies. There was nothing but your bones lett. hostility; that the appropriating of Government fought, and defeated --how many? Forty warYour soil was red with the blood shed in the In- | property there, and distributing it among the sev riors. There is your feat of arms made the sub. dian wars, and the history of the country shows eral tribes, was an act of hostility; that the burn-ject of a general order, in which twelve oficers that that has been the character of this warfare. ing of the houses of all the settlers in that valley and twenty-six men are reported for distinction.
Mr. STEVENS, of Washington. I am greatly was an act of hostility; but that there was con I speak of it with entire respect. The gallant
myself. And this Indian chief, whether he be sixiy volunteers of Washington, fought three hun-
Dalles ganize for defense. But it has been said that the son's Bay Company posted at Walla-Walla. And from the Columbia valley, and from the Nez advance of the volunteers upon Walla-Walla, the record evidence is equally overwhelming and Perces country, meeting at the Walla-Walla, drove the Indians into hostility; that the Walla- conclusive that all the charges of Pu-pu-mux-mux within a single day, and then a vigorous move. Walla chief, Pu-pu-mux-mux, was friendly; and being entrapped by a fag of truce and treacher ment with a portion of this force was made across she la that even when ihe volunteers reached the valley ously killed, are ulterly unfounded. The oti- || the Blue mountains, a forced march, some sixty he endeavored to make peace; that he was treach cers, the Indian agent, and the interpreter, pres- | miles, in one night and a day, when the enemy erously slain under the protection of a flag of ene at the first conference-every eye-witness, was struck and completely routed. The troops tare the truee; that the volunteers commenced the attack, and they are men of unimpeachable' honor and from the sound crossed the Cascades, snow still and thatthe Indians resisted simply to get in safety integrity, present at his death, agrees as to the es on the mountains, and marched some tbree hubtheir women and children. The fight of the Walla- sential facis. Pu-pu-mur-mux did approach the dred miles to the point of rendezvous. Of all these Walla was a four days' fight. I was moving at the volunteer camp with a flag of truce, and a confer three columns, the arrangements were complete
, time from the Spokane to the Nez Perces country.ence was held. Colonel Kelly, in command of the and the means of transportation ample, the catI was in the midst of an Indian council with the troops, refused to receive him, except as a pris umn from the Dalles having in their train forf: bu regula Nez Peroes, making my arrangements with that
Pu-pu-mux-mux went to bis camp as a five wagons, carrying not only supplies for the tribe to get the services of its warriors, to force prisoner, his object being to gain time in order to troops, but a large quantity of provisions for the my way through the hostile Walla-Wallas, Cay-concentrate the Indian forces; and also by cun- | friendly Indians. uses, and other tribes, under the lead of Pu-pu- ning and management to induce the troops to oc Sir, I say, all honor to the officers and men who mux-mux, to the settlements, when the news came cupy a position where he could attack them with conquered the Indians in New Mexico; but I ask of that fight. The Indian, who had rode one hun advantage. On his reaching camp, Colonel Kelly the committee also to do like honor to the volundred miles the previous eighteen hours, told all still refused to receive Pu-pu-mux-mux on any teers of Washington and Oregon, who fought the the circumstances of that fight, at one end of the other terms except as a prisoner, and offered to Indians, always being outnumbered, and some council lodge, to the Indians there assembled, and let him go home. Pu-pu-mux-mux continued times more than two io one. I ask for the people
etery hon it was interpreted to me, sitting in council, at the with the volunteers, receiving from them kind of those Territories the same measure of justice other end. I had previously conferred with the treatment, and, as he stated, sent word to his which has been rendered to the people of New chiefs of the Nez Perces tribe and with the chiefs | people to keep friendly. The volunteers marched Mexico and the people of Florida. There have on the Spokane, in order to satisfy myself of the towards the Indian camp, Pu-pu-mux-mux ac been Indian difficulties in Florida, and, within attitude of Pu-pu-mux-mux. I became satisfied companying them, when they were attacked by two years, you have had twelve companies of it was one of unmitigated hostility.
Pu-pu-mux-roux's people. In this manner the regulars there, and at least six companies of relWhen I reached the Nez Perces country, the action commenced, and while it was going on the unteers. And I thank God that Florida was near chief Joseph, the third chief of the tribe, an old chief endeavored to make his escape, and was enough to the Federal capital for its Governor man of over seventy years of age, had returned killed whilst furiously attacking his guard. He to come here, post-haste, and to procure the rebut a short time froni a mission of peace to the was killed while struggling with his guard and ognition of the services of the volunteers of FlorWalla-Walla. He had endeavored to dissuade endeavoring to wrest the gun of his guard from ida by the General Government. Sir, that force Pu-pu-mux-mux from going to war. But Pu-pu- his hands. This action lasted four days, resulted was unquestionably necessary; they fought ube mux-mux drove him away with scorn and con in a complete victory over the Indians, and drove Indians, and now, when they have subdued them, tumely, telling him, " I am the chief here I am every hostile Indian to the north ward of Snake it appears that there were about one hundred and like yonder mountain above other men, I coun river. Ils effect on the Indian mind was prodi sixty-two Indians there, including womea and sel with no man. Go home! Perhaps your own gious, as I personally know from my own inter children. You sent that force against less than people will listen to you.” Joseph then went to course with the Indians of the interior at the very one hundred warriors, and the expenses incurred the Cayuses, and saw their chiefs—the Young | time.
by the Florida volunteers have been paid, and Chief, the Five Crows, and Camespelo-and in Mr. Chairman, this movement on the Walla- paid promptly, by this Federal Government, so treated them to continue friendly. They treated Walla, therefore, did protect our frontier. It with New Mexico: the expenses of the roleshim with the same scorn and contumely as did maintained the peace of the interior for the long teers in New Mexico have been paid by the Genwinter of 1855-56. In this connection I desire to
them Pu-pu-mux-mux, the more significant, as he was
eral Government, and the provision to pay allied to them by blood, being a half Cayuse. | refer to the general order emanating from the con
was put in the Army appropriation bil. So in And Joseph weni home discouraged and heart queror of Mexico, Lieutenant General Scott, combroken. These same facts I had, on reaching the plimenting the valiant officers and men of the
the case of California: Congress made an apptoWalla-Walla, from the friendly Cayuses and army, who made an expedition
of twelve days | ized a board of three Army officers to inquire into
priation to pay the Frémont riflemen, and organ: Walla-Walla chiefs, small in number, who per- | against the Apaches of New Mexico. It was an sisted in their refusal to join the war party. How- expedition of eight companies--four hundred men
the balance of the claims. The Army ofices
made an examination, they reported to the Sex lishwampo, Tintemitse, and Stickas, of ihe Cay- | --moving against one of the nomadic tribes of the
the arrogan! for, afarn mudint
Sir. Ime I was bred kompletne Amy earl
beaten tha bad bere i ta, those ter teady