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viz., from S. E. by way of S. to N. W. Thus," healthy' to have them. This was so much you perceive, we are in a sort of a bend in the more in favor of making the experiment with river. Most of the marshes are just “a wash” sun-flowers. at low water, parts of them are bare when the An acre of sunflowers will absorb during their tide is out, and all of them, in the early summer, growth many thousand gallons of water more are covered with a rank growth of grass and than are supplied by the rains. They are great weeds, which begins to decay in August. This absorbents. They are of easy cultivation, are is the commencement, too, of the sickly season, more rank than hops—they require no poles and and a few mivutes' walk about the grounds of the seed are very valuable. I paid $8 a bushel the Observatory after sunset bas been found for them. Tbis plant, therefore, apparently sufficient to bring upon strangers an attack of offered to fulfil all the conditions required to ague and fever. The place is so unhealthy that satisfy the problem ; for if the supposition that my family are compelled to desert it for four or the ague and fever poison be imparted to the atfive months every year. Last year they broke mosphere by the decaying vegetable matter in up early in May, and did not return till No. the marshes, and if this poison is set free during vember.
the process of decay, why should not the sunNow, I am not going into a dissertation con- flowers in their rank growth absorb it and again cerning malaria or miasm, for, be the seeds of elaborate it into vegetable matter, and so fix it, the pestilence what they may, those of these in. at least for a while, and until cold weather ? I termittents are supposed to be due in a great consulted upon this subject with one of the most measure to the marshes of the Potomac. The useful men this country ever produced the late decay of the vegetable matter upon them infects A. J. Downing, of Newburgh-and he thought the air with impurities of some kind, which pre- the idea a good one. dispose to chills and fevers—such is the popular Finally, I resolved to make the experiment, belief, at any rate.
at the risk of spoiling the looks of a beautiful This brings me to the history of the sunflower lawn. Accordingly, in the fall of 1855, the experiment. A process of reasoning like the gardener trenched up to the depth of two and a following led me to try it.
half feet a belt about forty-five feet broad around If it be the decay of vegetable matter on the the Observatory on the marshy side, and from marshes that produces the sickness on the hill, 150 to 200 yards from the buildings. The conthen the sickness must be owing to the dele- ditions of the theory I was about to try required terious effects of some gas, miasın or effluvium, rich ground, tall sunflowers and a rank growth. that is set free during the decomposition, and if Accordingly, after being well manured from the so, the poisonous matter, or the basis of it, stable yard, the ground was properly prepared whatever it be, must have been elaborated during and planted in sunflowers last spring. They the growth of the weeds, and set free in their grew finely; the sickly season was expected with decay. Now, if this reasoning be good, why more than the usual anxiety. Finally it set in, might we not, by planting other vegetable mat. and there was shaking at the President's House ter between us and the marshes, and by bringing and other places as usual, but for the first time it into vigorous growth just about the time that since the Observatory was built the watchmen that of the marshes begins to decay, bring fresh about it weathered the summer clear of chills forces of the vegetable kingdomn again to play and fevers. These men, being most exposed to upon this poisonous matter, and elaborate it the night air, suffer most, and heretofore two or again into vegetable tissue, and so purify the air? three relays of them would be attacked during
This reasoning appeared plausible enough to the season ; for as one falls sick another is emjustify the trouble and expense of experiment, ployed in his place, who, in turn being attacked, and I was encouraged to expect more or less would in like manner give way to a fresh hand. success from it, in the circumstance that every- And, last year, attacks of ague and fever were body said, “ plant trees between you and the more than usually prevalent in the neighboring marshes-they will keep off the chills.” But parts of the city. as to the trees, it so happens that at the very time Here is encouragement, not discovery or proof when the decomposition on the marshes is going --but it is worth further trial, at any rate. Acon nost rapidly, the trees, for the most part, cordingly the gardener is making ready to try have stopped their growth to prepare for the the experiment again this year, but with varia
. winter, and though trees might do some good, tions. The seeds are not to be planted quite as yet a rank growth of something got up for the early as in the first instance; and, in the next occasion might do more. Hops climb high; place there are to be two plantings, so that the they are good absorbents, and of a rank growth, last crop may be caught by the frost while yet the but there were objections to hops on account of plants are flowering, and therefore, in full and stakes, poles, &c. I recollected that I had often vigorous growth during the season of active seen sun-flowers growing about the cabins in the decay in the marshes. West, and had heard, in explanation, that it was Suppose the fact should be established that a
bedge of sunflowers between the dwellings of mind torpid from lack of thought; to brighten farmers and the ponds or marshes and standing up and strengthen faculties perishing with rust; pools would generally keep ague and fever to make life a fruitful field, and death a harvest away, the discovery that such a simple contri- of glorious deeds. vance would constitute an impassable barrier to " the pestilence that walketh in darkness” would be an achievement worth recording.
PLANTING POTATOES. "The destruction that wasteth at noonday' In olden time, when land planted in a slovenly may form the subject of another communication, manner produced from three to seven hundred if you can find room for it. Indeed, other bushels of potatoes to the acre, and the farmer remarks upon the subject in hand are suggesting thought himself a lucky man if he found a purthemselves, but with your leave, I will reserve chaser of his crop at a shilling a bushel, for such them for the next number of the Rural. In the has been the case within easy distance of this mean time, I hope that all who can, but especially city, not too long ago for us to remember, any those who live in noted ague and fever districts, direction how to plant so as to get a greater crop will prepare to try the sunflower experiment this would not have been found particularly interestsummer.
ing to the agricultural reader. But such a The readers of the Rural are mostly in the change has come over the spirit of their dreams region of westerly winds, and that the results of since, in Western parlance, the crop is "power
“ each experiment should throw light upon the ful onsartin,” and the product brings from $1 rest, it is desirable to know, approximately at to $2 a bushel, instead of a shilling, perhaps least, in each case, the situation of the dwelling, they will be willing to listen to a few general its distance from and height above the supposed rules, well calculated to increase the yield and region of miasma, as well as its distance from improve the quality. the hedge of sunflowers, their height, &c.
Do not select muddy soil, or ground that was know that one of the offices of the vegetable manured high last year with unfermented stable kingdom is to preserve the purity of the atmos- or hog.pen manure; and do not use either of phere; and that during their growth many plants these manures on the crop.
Use none but the take up from the air and fix for awhile various very best compost, or guano, thoroughly mixed nosious vapors. In the southern country it is with the soil; and do use lime, plaster and salt, con mon to see among the negro quarters sun
one or all.
Twenty bushels of salt, or 50 flowers growing about the pig sty; and the negro, bushels of lime, per acre, would not frighten the it asked why be plants them in such a place, potatoes out of one year's growth; and a handful will reply, “He make it healthy, Massa.” of plaster upon each hill would tell you a most
The Rural boasts of the intelligence of its interesting story. patrons, their cleverness and love of the useful, But to begin with, plow your ground-don't and why should not those of them who are in a scratch it and call it plowed. We should prefer condition to do so try this experiment, and so let the Michigan plow, run twelve inches deep, with each hare the benefit of all the rest to guide us a sub-soil plow following in each furrow, twelve Dext Tear.
inches decper; and the potatoes planted and P. S. Since writing the foregoing I have been cultivated on the level system, the work all being contersing with Mr. Watt, the gardener, upon done by horse-hoes instead of hand hoes. the subject. He informs me that many years For seed, we should use medium-sized tubers; ago similar experiments were made in France and as for the quantity per acre, no specific diwith like success. Accounts of them have been rections can be given as to the right number of published in the Cultivator. With these facts bushels, because one kind has four times as many and other circumstances to which I shall allude eyes as another kind, and it is the number of in my next, still further to inspire faith in the eyes and not the number of tubers that must be proposed preventive, I hope all of your "ague counted to get the exact right quantity per acre. and fever readers will be encouraged to try this Again, opinions differ as to the quantity of seed simple sunflower experiment. Those who live proper to be used. In our opinion, too much apɔn the prairies, in the ague and fever districts rather than too little is generally used in each of Illinois and other western states, would do hill, particularly where whole tubers are used. well to surround their dwellings with the plants We are in favor of planting potatoes in drills, having the thickest part of the bedge on the as well as almost every other farm crop. If West side.
wbole tubers are planted, twenty stalks to a hill
may often be counted, and invariably they are THE USE OF LITTLE TIME.- One of the not vigorous, and produce small potatoes and a hours, each day wasted on trifles or indolence, poor yield. saved, and daily devoted to improvement, is The seed end of potatoes, we have no doubt, enough to make an ignorant man wise in ten is cqually valuable as any other part for plantyears ; to provide the luxury of intelligence to aling, if cut so as not to have too many eyes and
sprouts huddled together; yet we have known secret fountains, enriching, rejoicing, and fersome over nice planters cut off and throw away tilizing ; then the trustful resignation of the the seed end as worthless, just as some do the Christian sheds around a sweet and holy warmth, butt ends of ears of corn, without being able to and the soul assuming a heavenly lustre, is no assign the reason wherefore. To sum up: Plant longer restricted to the narrow confines of potatoes on dry land, deep plowed and sub- business but soars beyond the Winter of a hoary soiled, manured with compost in the drill, or age, and dwells peacefully and happily upon that covered and mixed with all the surface soil with bright Spring and Summer which await him a cultivator harrow. Plant medium-sized tubers, within the gates of paradise evermore. in medium quantities, cut so as to divide the strive for and look trustingly forward to au eyes equally, and take pains to drop them care- Indian Summer like this. fully and with regularity. Use salt and lime broadcast at the first or second tending, mixing BE CHARITABLE.—When the veil of death with the soil by the cultivator. The plaster has been drawn between us and the objects of may be put on at any tiwe after the vines are our regard, how quicksighted do we become to well grown. Take care to keep the field clear their merits, and how bitterly do we remember of weeds, cost what it will, and you can grow words, or even looks of unkiudness, which may potatoes in these latter days, with more profit have escaped in our intercourse with them? than you ever did in ancient times of great crops How careful should such thoughts render us in and low prices. Even if the crop of 1857 should the fulfilment of those offices of affection which be large, you need not fear low prices—that day may yet be in our power to perform; for who has passed away. But we do urge you to in- can tell how soon the moment may arrive when crease the potato erop, and trust to Providence repentance cannot be followed by reparation ! and extra care that the epidemic that has so long
Bishop Heber. afflicted anu discouraged farmers can be over
DISCUSSION. - Whoever is afraid of submit
ting any question, civil or religious, to the test HOW WATCHES ARE MADE IN SWITZERLAND. of free discussion, is more in love with his own
A large proportion of the work bestowed upon opinion than with truth.—Bishop Watson. the manufacture of watches in Switzerland is
PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. done by cottagers, who cultivate the earth in FLOUR AND MEAL.-Flour is firm but inactive. Good the Summer, and in the Winter shut themselves brands are still held at $7 50 per bbl., and brands up with their families during the inclement
for home consumption at $7 75 a $800, and extra aod son, which Jasts three or four months. The
fancy brands at $8 25 a 8 75. There is very little
demand for export, and little stock to operate in. Rye whole family then devote themselves to the work Flour is dull at $5.00 per barrel. Lisi sales of Pennof making watch movements. Not only the sylvania Corn Meal at $4 00 per barrel. children work, but the dog turns a wheel, and GRAIN.- Wheat is quite dull and little offerihg. Last puts in motion a lathe or a pair of bellows. sales of prime Pennsylvania red were made at $1 78 a First, the rough part of the movement is made Penna. is selling at $110. Corn is less active at 88 a
$1 80, and $1 90 for good white. Rye is scarce. by water power. l'articular parts are assigned 90c for Southern yellow in store. Oats are steady ; to the young members of the family, while oth- sales of Pennsylvania and Delaware at 60c per bu. ers are employed in putting the plates and wheels together.
UMMER RETREAT AT HIGH LAND DALE. When a sufficient number have been Si prepared, the master transports them on the back
The season of the year is at hand, when many
citizens leave their homes for the benefit of pure air ; of a mule to some towu or village, where he sells the attention of the readers of the lotelligencer them to little master watchmakers, who complete is called to the pleasant Retreat of Charles and the movements, or else they are sold to travelling CATHARINE P. Foulke, who have again enlarged their agents, who case them in silver or gold. premises, and are prepared as heretofore to receive
Their farm and residence is near the crown of one INDIAN SUMMER OF LIFE.
of the mountain ridges in Monroe County, Pennsylvania, In the life of the good man there is an Indian and three miles from the Delaware Water Gap, in one
about two miles from Stroudsburg, the county town, Summer more beautiful than that of the season; of the healthiest situations to be found in Pennsylvania. richer, sunnier, and more sublime than the most On this high elevation and near the domicile is a glorious Indian Summer the world ever knew-large spring of excellent water, which supplies a Bath it is the Indian Summer of the soul. When there is much to give comfort and create a home feel
House attached to the premises, while within doors the glow of youth has departed, when the warmth ing, and make this a very desirable mountain Retreat. of middle
and the buds and blossoms The cars leave Camden in the morning and arrive of Spring are changing to the sear and yellow at the Stroudsburg station within two and a half miles leaf, then the mind of the good man, stiil ripe of High Land Dale, early in the afternoon.
T. B. L. and vigorous, relaxes his labors, and the memories of a well-spent life gush forth from their derrihew & Thompson, Prs., Lodge St., North side Penna.Bank.
PIIILADELPHIA, SIXTH MONTH 20, 1857.
EDITED BY AN ASSOCIATION OF FRIENDS.
orable and solid, the sense whereof continued
with me all over America, at times; I went PUBLISHED BY WM. W. MOORE, thence to Yelland, and many Friends came to No. 324 South Fifth Street,
that meeting from divers places to take leave of PHILADELPHIA,
me, so that it was a very large and living meetEvery Seventh day at Two Dollars per annum, pay, ing; and I parted with my brethren in great able in adrance. Three copies sent to one address for love and unity. I then came by Wray, BenthFire Dollars.
Communications must be addressed to the Publisher, am, Settle and Airton, that great and good man free of expense, to whom all payments are to be made. William Ellis being then living, and full of
power, having great and solid experience conAn account of the life, travels, and Christian ex- cerning the work of the mini-ry, who was very periences in the work of the ministry of Samuel edifying to me, by the wholescine counsel he Bornas.
gave. James Wilson was thin with me, who (Continued from page 193.)
was not at that time a publio minister, yet of I hare been more particular in the relation of great service in visiting families, being closely this day's work than I otherwise should have engaged in spirit for the maintaining good order been, as containing in it such signal marks of and discipline; and we being both very young Providence; first, That we should be detained in these things, this worthy Friend gave such in hold, just till the people from the country advice to us both, with respect to a faithful comwere coue in. Secondly, and then set at liber-ing up in our services, that we could with good ty to say what the Lord gave us. And thirdly, reason say, that his words were like “ apples of That we had so seasonable an opportunity to ex- gold in pictures of silver;" for a long time after, plain our practice as to the ministers, viz. the the sense and virtue of them dwelt on my mind, engluet of the Society towards them; and like to my great advantage. We stayed with him wise the service of our Monthly Meetings re- one night, and had a small meeting, in which specting the poor, marriages, admonishing of the preference and value I had for him, together tenders, making up differences, granting of cer- with an awe that was on my spirit concerning tificates to such as raw cause to remove them. his great services and experience as a minister, selves from one Monthly Meeting to another, as took such place in my mind, that I was silent well as to ministers. Which by their shewing before him. 89 much kindness, and raising no objection to Next day we took our leave, and he brought any thing said on these heads, did plainly dem- us on our way a little, heartily praying at partonstrate their good liking and satisfaction there- ing, that I might be preserved in my place, and with.
return with safety. The next morning we set out for England, and James Wilson came with me as far as Leeds, by the evening got amongst Friends in the bor- and then we parted, and I went through Notder, within the compass of Sowport meeting, and tinghamshire and Leicestershire, visiting sundry had some few meetings, as at the border, Scotby, meetings, (where some time before I met with Carlisle, and some others. I came to my old great trials and afflictions in mind, as already master Samuel Parrot's having no place to retire hinted) and some were convinced. My mind was th as a home, but sometimes I was at Sedgwick, strongly engaged to see them in my way, and i and sometimes quartered with my friend Robert had good satisfaction in that visit. Chambers, and sometimes at Kendal, and at Having done this, I went by the way of HitchGateside, at honest William Simpson’s, where I ing and Hertford, visiting sundry meetings, did sometimes help them in their business, he finding encouragement to go on : But I still exbeing a blacksmith. But I was now preparing pected that I should be stopt by the morning myself for a journey into America, and was near meeting, for want of a companion. I came to ready. And I had an opportunity to take my London the latter end of the Tenth month, 1701, leave of the neighboring meetings, as Dent, being by letters advised the ships would sail in Garsdale, Sedburg, Grayrigg, Kendal, Preston, a week's time, or very shortly; but a war breakwith disers other neighboring meetings there ing out between England and France, an embarabouts ; but that at Preston was the most mem-1 go was laid on all shipping for two months, so
that there was no expectation of getting off. I they were the same, and I saw by their conduct staid in London about three weeks, visiting all that they did not understand the nature of true the meetings in and about the city, which gave prayer, which is to be performed both with the the brethren a thorough taste of my service ; spirit and understanding; and if you some of my best friends advising, that I should wanted both, you could not pass such silly comnot lay my concern before the meeting, that I pliments on each other about it.” I was now designed for America, until the general or very quiet, and they said no more to me. But Monthly Meeting of ministers did come round, as soon as supper was over, and the reckoning and in that time my service as a minister would paid, they left me with free consent, for our combe generally known. I readily complied; and pany was unsuitable. when the time came, I went in great fear to lay Next day I went towards London by Newmy concern before that meeting, being still ap- bury, where I stopt at a funeral, and so to Readprehensive I should not be permitted to proceed, ing, and by Maidenhead to the city, but found for want of a suitable companion ; but as no ob- the embargo pot yet taken off. It being now ject did arise, they perused the certificates that pretty near the middle of the First month, I I had from the Monthly and Quarterly Meetings, visited some parts of Hertfordshire, having my and did well approve thereof; and a minute was dear friend John Tompkins part of the time, and made, appointing some Friends to prepare a cer- Saml. Crisp, who was a sweet companion, having tificate against the next meeting; which was ac- received the knowledge of the trutli the right way. cordingly done, brought there, and signed. About a week or two in the Second month,
All things now being clear for my going the orders were given for the merchants to get ready, first opportunity, it was thought proper to see and a convoy was to go with them. But for all for a ship, which by the assistance of some this, it was the latter end of the Third month Friends was done, but no likelihood of going before we got off; so I had an opportunity to quickly, by reason of the embargo.
visit the greatest part of Kent. And after we I had some desire to visit the west, in partic- sailed from the Downs, we were put into Portsular Dorset, Somerset, Bristol, and Wilts, but at mouth harbor by contrary winds, and lay there a loss for a horse, having sold my own soon after two or three weeks, which was very tiresome. I came to London ; but the friend to whom I But all this time I never considered any danger sold him offered that I should have him that of being taken by the French ; it did not so journey, which I accepted, and so set out, have much as enter into my mind, until I came into ing in company a young man that had been bred Philadeiphia, where hearing that Thomas Story, at a college, his name was Samuel Crisp, a pret- Richard Grores, and others, were taken some ty meek spirited youth, and rightly convinced. time before, and carried into Martinico, a French When we got forty or fifty miles from London, Island, I thought of it more closely. he had strong inclinations to go back. I made I left England in the Third month, 1702, à kind of a running visit; and when I was at about the time of the Yearly Meeting, with inBristol, my friends there were exceeding kind, ward satisfaction and peace of mind, and wrote and would willingly have had me gone from a few lines to be sent to the meeting of ministers thence; but my prior engagement at London in Kendal, or elsewhere, in Westmoreland, my would not permit it.
native place; which I here insert, being the first I staid there two weeks at least, and taking fruits of that kind to my brethren. my leave, sundry Friends brought me on my way to the meeting of Ministers at Kendal, in Westto Bath, Bradford, &c. They returned, and I
moreland. These. went on for London, and quartering at an inn at Hungerford, (not being easy to take any more My dearly beloved Brethren and Sisters, meetings till I came to London) I fell in com- In that love which in time past we have enpany with a couple of tradesmen, who, when we joyed together, do I heartily salute you, having sat down to supper, complimented each others in mind some few things to impart, as counsel about which should crave a blessing, at last they and caution to us all, including myself therein. pulled off their hats, and one of them did it in We who apprehend ourselves called into this some sort; but my sitting with my hat on was public station of preaching, ought closely to wait such an offence, that they began to reprove me on our Guide, to put us forth in the work. And very sharply. I said but very little for some dear friends, I see great need for us to carefully time, until they had spent their reproach upon mind our openings, and go on as we are led by me, and then I spoke to this effect, " that the the Spirit; for if we overrun our Guide and openappearance they made, just before supper was ings, we shall be confused, not knowing where, brought to the table, was so very void of grace or how to conclude : But if we begin and go on in their hearts, that I could not think it my with the spirit, we shall conclude so, that all place to pull off my hat to their formal prayer. who are truly spiritual will sensibly feel that we And besides, as soon as the words were out of are right. Thus will our ministry edify them their mouths and over, it appeared to me that that hear it.