Page images

have a tendency to promote the glory of God, also make a way of escape, that ye may be able and the good of your fellow creatures, it will to bear it.” But then you must not depend bring peace; but if it should only have a ten- upon your own strength, but seek unto Him for dency to gratify a vain mind, or sensual inclina- wisdom and ability, for unto them who ask in tion, it will bring sorrow. This care and these sincerity, "He giveth liberally, and upbraideth

, considerations will not prevent you from enjoy- not.” ing the comforts of this life, but will give you a Be particularly careful of your reputation, for truer taste and sweeter relish for them.

if that be once blasted it is scarcely ever to be Carefully guard against pride, high-minded- regained. Be not too familiar with young men, ness and self-conceit, and be modest and humble. nor court their company, neither admit them Cleanliness and neatness, accompanied with plain- into confidence, that may lesson the dignity of ness, is commendable; but a disposition to imi- character that ought always to be maintained by tate and follow the vain and changeable fashions the virtuous and amiable of your sex. which are now so prevalent, will neither procure Marriage is the most important act in this you peace of mind, the love of God, nor the life; and if you should marry, not only your affection and regard of good men and women. temporal happiness depends upon making a right

You are now going to a strange place, and choice, but it may also be a means of promoting much depends on your conduct, to make it profit or hindering your spiritual progress. Therefore able to yourselves, and agreeable to those with be very careful and upon your guard ; do not fix whom you may reside. You will have the op- your

affections upon

those who may be unworthy portunity, (if you make a right use of it,) both of you, and pretend they love you, neither trust on your journey, and at other times, of making altogether to your own judgment in a matter of observations which may be useful to you in your such moment, but diligently seek for wisdom several stages through life.

and direction from above, and if you should not When I have beheld the poor negroes toiling have me to consult with, do not be ashamed to underan overseer, some of them almost naked, and consult and advise with some weighty, sober others quite so, and perhaps not bread enough friends on the occasion, who may have more to satisfy their appetites, I have said in my heart, knowledge of the person than you have. they are children of the same Universal Father Do not set your mind upon, nor look for great that I am why then am I placed in a situation things in this world ; neither give encourageso much more easy and agreeable? It is from ment to any who are not religious, or that you the mercy and favor of God and not from any think you cannot love sincerely; and before you merit of mine. Surely then much more is re- fix your choice make particular enquiry into his quired of me. When I have seen many poor natural disposition and moral conduct. families not able to procure necessary food and From the present appearance of affairs, it does clothing, many of them laboring under painful not seem likely that I shall have much left to sickness and disease, which I have been exempt give you; it will therefore be necessary for you from, some deprived of the use of their senses, to be frugal and industrious, and learn to be and others of the use of one or more of their satisfied with real necessaries ; for happiness conlimbs, I have had to query with David, “what sisteth not in the possession of abundance, but shall I render to the Lord, for all His benefits in having food and raiment, and being therewith to me?" I hope and believe that some such content;


“ seek first the kingdom of thoughts and considerations will some times Heaven and the righteousness thereof,” you need occur to you, and when they do, I entreat you not fear but all things necessary will be added not to put them away, but cherish and encourage

and I can tell

you your encourthem; if you give them their weight, you will agement, that when I was separated from both find them to convey both pleasant and profitable father and mother, the Lord was my preserver instruction ; they will teach you to be humble, in my youth, and my deliverer out of many and make you thankful to the Giver of every temptations. I can therefore say unto you, as good gift, for the many blessings and favors David said unto his son Solomon, “know you


the God of your fathers, and serve Him with a They will also teach you to be courteous and perfect heart, and with a willing mind; if you civil to all, let their station in life appear ever seek Him, He will be found of you, but if you so low, and make you delight in doing good, and forsake Him, He will cast you off forever.” affording assistance to others, when it is in your I have committed these few hints to writing power.

in order to give you an opportunity of perusing You may have many snares, temptations and and considering them when I may be dead and dificulties to pass through, but always keep in gone. I once more entreat you to choose the remembrance that there is a God above, who is Lord for your portion, and seek for “the wisall powerful and able to deliver, and so merciful dom which is from above, which is first pure, that He " will not suffer you to be tempted above then peaceable, gentle and easy to be entreated, what ye are able ; but will with the temptation full of mercy and good fruits ;” and if I should

unto you;


bestowed upon you


never see you again in this world, remember the dedicated pilgrim a foretaste of those glorious advice of an affectionate parent, who ardently realities which are out of the reach of the mutadesires and prays for your happiness, both here

tiods of time. and hereafter. EDWARD STABLER.

Thus exercised with matters of vital inter

est, he does not pass over, as unnecessary attain. FRIENDS' INTELLIGENCER. ments, the acquisition of useful knowledge, the

cultivation of courteous and agreeable manners, PHILADELPHIA, EIGHTH MONTH 1, 1857. and cleanliness, neatness and plainness (sim

We have been gratified to observe that the plicity in dress, whilst he deprecates pride, highrequest made to the subscribers of Friends' In-mindedness, and self-conceit. telligencer, in one of our former numbers, has It may not be out of place here to remark, not passed by unnoticed. They bave occasion that Edward Stabler, of Petersburg, Va., was ally forwarded from their stores of old manu. the father of the late Edward Stabler, of Alexscripts, valuable mementoes of the piety and andria, whose powerful and eloquent ministry, experience of those who lived in other times. together with his extensive information on literIn our columns of this day's issue, we publish a ary and scientific subjects, and his benevolence letter of advice from Edward Stabler of Peters- and usefulness as a citizen, caused him to be exburg, Virginia, to his daughters, written in the tensively known and respected. year 1781. The good sense and fervent piety which animated the bosom of this judicious pa- of consumption, Mary Anna CROASDALE, aged 18

DIED,—In Bristol, Bucks County, on the 10th inst., rent, recommend his admonitions to the atten- years, 2 mo. and 1 day. A member of Middletown tive perusal of our readers. He appears to have

Monthly Meeting.

On Fifth day evening, the 2nd of the 7th mo.. been encompassed by many trials; he had lost at the house of his son-in-law Cyrus Griest, in Monalthe beloved companion of his days, and his chil-len Township, Adams County, Pa., Samuel Cook, Sen. dren were motherless; his fellow-countrymen County, Pa. in the 85th year of his age.

a member of Warrington Monthly Meeting, York were at that time enduring the darkest period

On Seventh day morning, the 11th of 7th of their revolutionary struggle; the operations of month, at her residence in Horsham Township, commerce, of agriculture and of the mechanical Walton, in the 56th year of her age. A valued mem

Montgomery County, Pa., Hannah, wife of Jacob arts, were either quite suspended, or much in- ber of Horsham Monthly Meeting. Although attended terrupted, and the privations of the members of ful one, her work having been attended to, and her

with severe physical suffering, her close was a peacethe Society of Friends were greatly increased duties performed in the day time.” Her remains by their want of conformity to the warlike dis- were interred in Friends' burial ground at Horsham,

on 3d day the 14th of 7th mo., 1857. position of the times, yet with few exceptions On the morning of 4th mo., 3d, 1857, at the they remained steadfast to the faith which residence of his son Edward, in Fall Creek township,

Madison Co., Ind., ABRAM VERNON, in the 84th year breathes " peace on earth and good will to men.” of his age ; he was formerly a resident of Chester Co., The spirit of this faith appears to have covered Pa. our friend as with a mantle; he does not indulge

NATURE AND POWER OF COMETS. himself in severe strictures against the powers who had produced such a train of circumstances, in the heavens, surpassing millions of leagues,

Although comets occupy an immense spaec but endeavors by his Christian precepts to lead

yet, on account of the absence of atmosphere in his daughters into that straight and narrow way those regions permitting fluids to be infinitely wherein they might experience safety, though rarefied, the matter of these bodies is reduced to surrounded by outward besetments. His abid- the most feeble proportions. Sir John Herschel ing concern, therefore, appears to have been, to idea can be formed of it, is composed of a few

says, that the tail of a large comet as far as any place in an impressive manner before their pounds of matter, and perhaps, only of a few view the idea of their accountability, the im- ounces. And M. Babinet, well known in both portance of cherishing a humane spirit, and hemispheres as one of the greatest authorities of the certainty of an increase of happiness to those the age, in physical astronomy, has gone so far whose attention is steadily directed to the admo- in coming in collision with a comet, would be no

in respect to this subject as to say that the earth, nitions of the Divine Monitor and Counsellor more affected in its stability than would a railin the heart, whose teachings present to the way train coming in contact with a fly.

[ocr errors]



AIDS AND OBSTACLES TO SELF-CULTURE. events of the period, the springs of action in the

performers, the resulting effects on succeeding The mere acquisition of elementary truths— times, and this one period of their country's his. the outline of knowledge obtained at school is tory will be, as it were

, painted upon the mental

— but a key to a casket-a gate by which we enter constant companion—a common-place book or upon

the more recondite paths of true knowledge. index rerum. School education (so called) is often but a bad striking passage occurs that is peculiarly de

When any remarkable fact or preface to an unread volume. The key is forced serving of retention, it should be noted in the upon us, but we alone can open the casket; we index; and years afterwards it may be readily have the preface read to us, but we alone can found. The index rerum should be entered in read the book. The fruit of this tree of knowledge never falls : it must be plucked. The tree columns two or three inches wide ; it should be

a blank book, say of 150 or 200 pages, ruled in never grows unaided : it must be pruned and divided alphabetically in the usual proportions to tended; but the more it is pruned, the faster it each letter. While the student is reading, the grows ; the more the fruit is plucked, the quicker index rerum should be within reach, and any. it is re-produced. Knowledge is a sparkling, thing specially noteworthy may then be readily ever-flowing stream that marks out a track of verdant loveliness in the desert of human igno- such a brief entry, and yet the reader will

entered. Not one minute will be occupied by rance.

gradually acquire a ready key to all the more To pluck this fruit, to drink of this stream, is important facts in his library. How often the man's duty, if he would fulfil the purposes of his student wants a fact, a brilliant passage, a cogent creation. “ That the soul be without knowledge argument, which he knows he has somewhere, it is not good ;” God has given reason to be de- but—where? Such an index will be found inveloped-mind to be cultured-soul to be ele- valuable to those who read for permanent instrucvated; and this, despite obstacles in us and tion. The common-place book is merely an exwithout us. Self-culture and improvement are tension of the index rerum : it is larger, say folio as clearly our duty as Adam's duty in the Garden size, 300 pages, and affords room for extracts of Eden was to dress it and to keep it.

from works we may never see agaiu ; notes of The first great aid to self-improvement is lite- the student's opinions of the books he reads, etc., rature. The literature of this country is so vast duly indexed. and so accessible to the determined student, that Another aid to self-culture is the attendance tbe difficulty lies in the selection of books; and upon lectures. Lectures by eminent men, on the the danger is rather that the number may pro- most important subjects, are constantly delivered duce apathy to each book, than that any one in our great towns. But the objections urged volume may be read simply from its accessibility. against

reading, by the idle and careless, that One tolerably good book well used is more pro- they cannot remember what they read, applies ductive of good than a library skimmed over. with double force to the lecture. There are but The greatest men have often begun with but one two remedies for this the cultivation of memory old book, which they have read over and over and the taking notes. For the latter purpose agaio ; while many a shallowpate has devoured a any system of short-hand is available to secure pyramid of books, but it has never been digested. the substance; and even a self-made system of Read and mark, and you will learn and digest. contracted long-hand will enable the student to Read much and superficially, and your mental note some of the more salient points of the lecdigestion will become impaired, and your mind ture. Half a dozen facts noted at a time, and

, will be incapable of assimilating the food you re-entered in the common-place book, will usually ceive. Study history, and you will incidentally adhere to the memory in the process; and if not, acquire the teachings of philosophy. Art, sci- they may be readily found when wanted. Most ence, ethics, political economy-all are in one of our great writers and thinkers have resorted sense subservient to history; they are all com- to these aids. municated to man by her agency; and if we Associations of young men, for purposes of would understand our present relation, or con- study and mutual improvement, for the intertemplate the future with any serenity, we must change of thought and sentiment, and for the reverently listen to her story of the past. In perusal and discussion of essays, may be made this land of cheap publications and books there subservient to the most beneficial ends. They is no lack of historical treasures; but they are may be perverted, but they are on the whole too hastily and cursorily read. Associative study productive of good. Mechanics' Institutions and should be oftener resorted to. Take a standard Literary Associations are especially adapted for book-let a few students meet, and one read aloud those whose early education has been neglected. certain chapters ; let the listeners take notes, When Aristotle was asked what boys should be from which they may write out from memory the taught, he replied, “What they will want to principal facts; let them meet again, discuss the I practice as men.” Hundreds of those who have


not been taught on this principle,—and how few wisely to use : “I can truly afirm," he says, have, -thus annually educate themselves. that

my studies have been profitable and availA combination of these aids to culture will af- ing to me only in as far as I have endeavored to ford the external apparatus for the acquisition of use immediately my other knowledge as a glass knowledge. To fix them into one focus should -enabling me to receive more light, in a wider be the aim of the student. Concentrate them field of vision, from the Holy Scriptures.”—Leias much as possible on one subject at a time. sure Hour. Read upon it; hear a lecture upon it; take notes of the more prominent points; and, lastly, write upon it; and, in nine cases out of ten, by the Extract from a Review of Maury's worle" upon use of these means, you will acquire a respecta- the great and watery empire of the Globe. ble acquaintance with it.

« There is a river in the ocean.

In the seA glance at some of the chief obstacles to selfculture, and we have finished. 6 Want of time"

verest droughts it never fails, and in the mightiest

floods it never overflows. Its banks and its botis the stereotyped excuse, which a little self-examination would often prove to be want of in- tom are of cold water, while its current is of clination ; for the indifference and apathy within its mouth is in the Arctic Seas. It is the Gulf

The Gulf of Mexico is its fountain, and us are far more formidable barriers to progress than all the obstacles that exist without us. Late stream: There is in the world no other such

Its current is more hours of business is one of the great evils of this majestic flow of waters. great country; but it is rapidly becoming miti- rapid than the Mississippi or the Amazon, and gated. The bane of long hours of daily toil is Its waters, as far out from the Gulf as the Caro

its volume more than a thousand times greater. one which needs no comment now from us—it is admitted on all hands. The only difficulty is lina coasts, are of an indigo blue. They are so disthe remedy, which, as has been proved over and tinctly marked, that this line of junction with

the common sea-water may be traced by the eye. over again in the most practical way, often lies

Often one-half of the vessel may be perceived with the young men themselves. While they floating in Gulf-stream water, while the other aim at more time for self-improvement, let them half is in common water of the sea; so sharp is well use what they have, and opportunities of the line and such the want of affinity between self-culture will not be wanting.

Want of purpose is far more fatal to the im- these waters; and such, too, the reluctance, so provement of the mind than want of time. to mingle with the common water of the sea.”

to speak, on the part of those of the Gulf-stream Most of those who have elevated themselves from the ranks of mere hewers of wood and

This eloquent passage delineates, in terms bapdrawers of water, have first made their own op- pily chosen, some of the most striking features portunities, and then rightly used them. Have of this wonderful stream. But there are yet an object; let it be a good one; steadily pursue others to be noted; and we shall dwell somewhat it; and you will be surprised how much time in detail on a natural phenomenon thus remarkayou have previously thrown away.

ble: one, moreover, in which we, the people of Frivolous pursuits—the mere tickling of the the British Isles, have a direct and momentous ear, pleasing the eye, or gratifying the palate interest, as well in reference to commerce and take

far too můch of the attention of the young navigation, as to its certain and various influences men of the present age. What must necessarily on the climate under which we live. be the mental condition of that young man who The general description of the Gulf-stream, spends his whole leisure in lounging, gossipping, apart from any present question as to its sources, dressing, smoking, and the evanescent amuse- is that of a vast and rapid ocean-current, issuing ments which are regularly set as traps for the from the basin of the Mexican Gulf and Caribbutterflies of society? Knowledge and wisdom bean Sea ; doubling the southern cape of Floriare not thus to be won. We must sow, if we da; pressing forwards to the north-east, in a line would reap; we must work, if we would win the almost parallel to the American coast ; touching reward. If the great philosopher Theophrastus on the southern borders of the Grand Banks of could say, at one hundred and seven years old, Newfoundland, and at some seasons partially pasthat life was too short for the student, and that sing over them ; thence, with increasing width it terminated just when we were beginning to and diffusion, traversing the whole breadth of solve its problems, how much rather may we say, the Atlantic, with a central direction towards the " Art is long, and time is fleeting,

British Isles; and finally losing itself, by still And our hearts, though stout and brave, wider diffusion, in the Bay of Biscay, on our own Still, like muffled drums, are beating

shores, and upon the long line of the Norwegian Funeral marches to the grave.

coasts. Its identity in physical characters is In conclusion: one of the most devoted stu- preserved throughout the many thousand miles of dents of modern days has left us a saying which its continuous flow—the only change undergone it would be well for the young men of our day I is that of degree. As its waters gradually com


mingle with those of the surrounding sea, their from ever crossing the equator from one hemisdeep blue tint declines, their high temperature phere to the other—a fact now well ascertained. diminishes, the speed with which they press for- The various species of fish, which are firm and ward abates. But taking the stream in its total of excellent flavor in the colder belt of sea upon course, it well warrants the vivid description of the American coast, lose all their good qualities our author, and the name he bestows upon it of when taken out of the Gulf-stream, running "a river in the ocean.” This epithet (bringing closely parallel to it. On the other hard, the to memory the poú Nxezvcïo of Homer), is, in truth, more delicate marine productions, whether anisingularly appropriate to this vast current, so mal or vegetable, which multiply and prosper by constant and continuous in its course, and so warmth, are redundant in the Gulf-stream, even strangely detached from the great mass of ocean after it has quitted the tropical regions whence waters; which, while seemingly cleft asunder to its heat is derived. The food is thus matured give path to its first impulse, are yet ever pres- for the whale field of the Azores, where this huge sing upon it, gradually impairing its force and denizen of the seas flourishes in colder waters destroying its individuality.

amidst the abundance so provided. The maximum of velocity, where the stream Lieut. Maury describes yet other peculiarities quits the narrow channel of Bemini, which com- of this wonderful current. Its waters are found presses its egress from the gulf, is about 4 miles to be warmest at or near the surface, cooling an hour. Off Cape Hatteras in North Carolina, gradually downwards, so as to render it probable where it has gained a breadth of 75 miles, the that there is a bed or cushion of cold water bevelocity is reduced to 3 miles. On the parallel tween them and the solid earth lying below. of the Newfoundland Banks it is further reduced Again, the surface of the stream is shown to be to 14 miles an hour, and this gradual abatement not strictly a plane; but having its axis or cenof force is continued across the Atlantic. The tral portion raised somewhat higher than the temperature of the current undergoes similar level of the adjoining Atlantic; thus giving it change. The highest observed is about 85° Fah. a sort of roof-shaped outline, and causing the Between Cape Hatteras and Newfoundland, surface water to flow off on each side. The exthough lessened in amount, the warmth of the istence of such surface current has been proved stream in winter is still 250 or 30° above that of by boats floated near the centre of the stream, the ocean through which it flows. Nor is this which drift either to the east or west, according heat wholly lost when it reaches, and is spread to the side of the axis on which they may be. over, the coasts of Northern Europe. The waters, This curious fact has been attributed to the centhus constantly flowing to us from the tropical tral waters of the current being the warmest, regions, bring warmth, as well as abundant mois- and, therefore, of least specific gravity. It may ture, to our own islands; and Ireland especially, be so; but we cannot altogether discard another upon which they more directly impinge, doubt- physical cause, viz., the enormous lateral comless deri ves much of its peculiarity of climate, pression exercised upon the stream by the ocean its moisture, verdure, and abundant vegetation, waters through which it forces its way; tending from this source. Were it needful to seek proof to heap it up towards the axial line. Those who of the permanence of the great natural phenom- have beheld the wonderful spectacle of the Nienon of which we are speaking, we might find it agara River, three miles below the falls, so urged in those curious passages of ancient geogra- and compressed into a narrow ravine, that the phers,– Pomponius Mela, and J. Solinus Poly- middle of the stream rises twelve or thirteen feet histor, for example—which describe the peculi- above the sides, will be able to conceive this arities of the Irish soil and climate eighteen cen- hydrodynamic influence, even on the wide scale turies ago, almost as we should depict them now. of operation which we have now before us. But the influence of the Gulf-stream does not There is some evidence that the waters of the stop even here. The climate it may be said to Gulf-stream, when emerging from the Caribbean convey is diffused, more or less, over the whole Sea, are salter than those of the Northern AtNorwegian coast; the aspects and produce of lantic through which they flow. But as the difwhich singularly contrast with those of the cor- ference scarcely exceeds a half per cent, we hesiresponding latitudes in North America, Green- tate in believing, with Lieut. Maury, that this land, and Siberia. Other causes doubtless con- greater saltness is the soul source of the deep tribute to this effect; but none, we apprehend, blue color they assume. We receive too with so largely or unceasingly.

some distrust his speculations on what he conThe influence of the temperature of the Gulf-siders the probable "galvanic qualities" of this stream upon animal life in the ocean is very cu- great stream. We have little doubt, indeed, rious. The whale so sedulously shuns its warm that the electrical element pervading, in one or waters, as almost to indicate their track by its other of its forms, the whole material worldabsence; while yet abundantly found on each giving motion and change to masses as well as side of it. The physical reasons are doubtless molecules, and evolved or altered itself by every the same which prevent this great marine mammal such motion and change—may have some con

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »