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cause. A rank vegetation, dependant on a hot cesses of life, but more particularly cold in some sun, and moist soil, could not but be early form, excites disease, recognised as of miasmatic noticed as a prolific one; and the idea of a origin, into action. Taking this view, it becomes peculiar exhalation from the earth, mingling an easy matter to account for the seeming anomawith, and poisoning the atmosphere, was but a lies mentioned; and we no longer wonder why in natural conclusion; and which continued obser- low and flat grounds, where the nightly radiation

; vation has gone far to establish, notwithstanding of heat from the earth's surface lowers the temthe most careful analyses has failed to detect it. perature of the contiguous atmosphere, with It must therefore exist in such a peculiar and resulting condensation of its moisture, that the attenuated form, as yet to be beyond the chilling effects from fogs and copious falling chemist's test. The Italians called it malaria, dews are experienced by the sufferer. Or why or bad air. At the present day it is often called the rainy season following the dry, in many miasma, a Greek work expressive of impurity, tropical countries, is so prolific in miasmatic or marsh miasma, indicating its source. disease; or in temperate latitudes, it should

Later observations go to show, however, that seem to be dissipated by rain storms, when the it is not confined to the marsh. In the rapid dry bracing westerly winds prevail so generally settlement of this country, by an agricultural afterwards ; at least in our country. population, it was but too evident, that, in the The diseases caused by malaria are mostly upturning of the virgin soil to the sun and air, peculiar in a distinguishing feature of alternate sickness often to an alarming extent followed. remissions, and exacerbations often very distinct. The vicinity of brick yards, and numerous Intermittent fever, or fever and ague, is by far cellar excavations, in the outskirts of our rapidly the most common form, and the most difficult growing cities, and the construction of our public entirely to get rid of. Bilious remittent fever works, in their traverse of the country, were and dysentery, if less common, are more fatal. likewise frequently attended by very unhealthy Bilious diarrahæa, and some forms of neuralgia, effects when far removed from any marsh. are traceable to the same source. Hence the term marsh miasma is evidently a

In the exhalation of malaria from so many misnomer; and yet so wedded do we become to sources, it becomes widely diffused, and most of the old ideas that the presence of moisture is us become subject to its influence, and measura. necessary to its production, that wherever mias- bly liable to an attack. It remains with me, matic fever prevails, the vicinity of some stag- therefore, to indicate the preventive; which, if nant pool is apt to be hunted up for a cause ; carried out, will go far to lessen this liability, potwithstanding the time of greatest sickness The following precautions are therefore recomis mostly during the driest season of the year, mended. when pools mostly disappear.

First and most important.--Asat this season of The Italians early investigated the subject; the year we are much effected by the sweltering and noticing in many instances its seemingly heats of the summer's sun, it should be our conanomalous morbid effects, in certain places of stant endeavor to avoid as much as in our their country, gave to it a character too fanciful power lies exposure to the chilly air of the to be recognised by a rigid philosophy. They night; never, therefore, sit out of an evening, taught that it attached itself to particles of float- whilst the dew is falling, or even saunter about ; ing moisture in the atmosphere ; lurked in or if necessarily exposed, put on your coat or ditches, and invaded often the lower rooms only shawl of woolen ; otherwise, the sudden check to of houses ; was arrested in its progress by trees, the perspiratory flow of the previous day, may and beaten to the earth by storms of rain ; with be followed the next by an attack of ague, or other properties often involving a good deal of the premonitory symptons of bilious remittent, inconsistency. These ideas were received, and or dysentery. This, precaution is very neeessary with too little examination promulgated by the in all low districts, or newly settled countries. learned of other nations, so that even in our I knew an instance of a large boarding school latest medical works we have but little more entirely exempt, by being thus particular, when than a reprint of Italian fancies.

chills and fever prevailed in every family around. In the progressive settlement of this country, If by any chance you should be exposed to the and intelligence of the age, an excellent chance damp and cool night air, let sufficient exercise was afforded for observation and inquiry; and be taken to keep off a chilly feeling; for be it from accumulated facts, we should consider it as known that when the chilly sensation is once a predisposing cause, and not exciting, as hereto- felt, the mischief is often then done. In a word, fore; that is, the human system is so far debili- adopt every precautionary measure which an tated in its vital functions, by this deleterious intelligent mind may suggest, to shield yourself agent in the atmosphere, that any of the exciting from sudden cold. causes of disease, as cold from sudden changes

Second.--Avoid excess of diet, indigestible of temperature, exposure to damp night air, food, be regular at meals, and temperate in excesses, and interference with the regular pro- drink; cold water in excess may be hurtful.

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TRUTHS.

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Third.-Be regular in your periods of nightly the trees offering the obstruction of their oppo. rest; and endeavor, in the prosecution of busi- sing surfaces to whatever motion the air may ness, that no inordinate exertion be called for have, thereby simply causing a greater velocity to produce exhaustion, for exhaustion increases through the spaces between them. the predisposition.

Winds produce cold in several ways. The act Fourth.—Quietude of mind, so far as it can be of blowing implies the descent upon, and motion attained to, when conjoined with the observance over the earth, of colder air, to occupy the room of the foregoing rules, will often go far to ward of that which it displaces. It also increases the off an attack of soine malignant disease, when in evaporation of moisture from the earth, and thus attendance on the sick. And

conveys away considerable heat. This increased Lastly.—If repeated attacks of sickness occur, evaporation, and the mixture of warm and cold a common circumstance in fever and ague; if air, usually produce a condensation of vapors in you can, leave the unhealthy district, for one the atmosphere; hence the formation of clouds, less abounding in malarial exhalations, as the and the consequent detention of the heat brought only chance of exemption.

by the rays of the sun. And whenever air in motion is cold than the earth, or any bodies

with which it comes in contact, a portion of their LESS KNOWN REASONS FOR WELL KNOWN

heat is imparted to the air.

“ All signs of rain fail in a dry time;" “wet The longer the beam of a plow, the less power begets more wet.” There is real philosophy in is required to draw the plow; because the beam these proverbs. In a dry time, comparatively is a lever, through which the power is exerted, little evaporation can take place from the parched and, by extending the beam, the long arm of the earth, and the atmosphere becomes but slowly lever is lengthened, and the leverage is thereby charged with moisture--the source of rain. In increased. The same is true of many other im- a wet time evaporation goes on rapidly from the plements and tools—such as spades, pitchforks, saturated earth, and soon overcharges the atmoswheelbarrows, planes, screwdrivers, augurs, gim- phere with moisture. lets, &c.

The cold moderates immediately preceding a The greater the diameter of the wheels of a fall of snow; because the vapor in the atmoscarriage, the less power it requires to overcome phere, in the act of congealing into snow, parts the inequalities of a road; both because the le- with many degrees of heat, whieh before were verage is increased by lengthening the spokes, latent, and which are at once imparted to the or radii of the wheels, which are the long arms surrounding atmosphere. of the levers, whereby the power is exerted, and The same is true in respect to the condensabecause the steepness or abruptness of the ob- tion of vapor in a rain ; but the amount of latent structions presented to the wheels is lessened by heat thereby made sensible, is much less than in the greater circumference of the wheels. But the act of freezing, and it is generally compenthere is a near limit to the size of the wheels, sated by the loss of heat in the evaporation beyond which no advantage is gained by in- taking place from the earth after the rain falls. creasing. For when the axles of the wheels be- During the fall both of rain and snow, the atcome higher than the point of draught on the mosphere usually becomes gradually colder; beanimal, a portion of the power exerted merely cause the source of heat derived from the sunadds to the weight, or pressure, of the carriage shine is, for the time, cut off, and therefore does upon the ground; and the portion thus lost in- not supply the loss by evaporation and radiation creases with the increased 'height of the axle from the earth. Rain and snow are also usually above the horizontal line of draught. Besides, accompanied by wind, a consumer of heat. the increasing weight of enlarged wheels soon It is less tiresome to walk than to stand still a more than counteracts the advantages gained by given length of time ; for in walking, each set increasing their diameter.

of muscles is resting half of the time, but when More carriages meet than overtake a pedes- standing still, the muscles are continually extrian, on a road; simply because the length of erted. The exertion of the muscles in the efroad offering the opportunity to meet, is the sum fort of walking, is not twice as great as in standof the distances passed over by the opposite trav- ing still; hence, the former is not equal to the ellers, while the length of road offering the op. double continuation of the latter. portunity to overtake, is only the difference of A considerable quantity of food, taken at one the distances passed over by the pedestrian and time, into the stomach, is more readily digested the drivers. The chances in the one case are than a very small quantity; because, in the forreckoned by the sum, and in the other case by mer case, the food coming into contact with the the difference of the speed of the walker and the entire inner surface of the stomach, excites the rider.

| action of the organ, and occasions the secretion The breezes in the groves, on a still day, are of gastric fluid ordinarily sufficient for digesting; explained by the trunks, branches, and leaves of but in the latter case, there is not enough food

They all are to my bosom dear,
They all God's messengers appear !
Preludes to songs that spirits hear!

Mute prophecies !
Faint types of a resplendent sphere

Beyond the skies !
The clouds—the mist-the sunny air-
All that is beautiful and fair,
Beneath, around, and every where,

Were sent in love, And some eternal truth declare

From heaven above!

in the stomach to excite its action.

This accounts for the fact often affording a matter of surprise, that persons are frequently made very ill by taking into the stomach a very small quan. tity of food, when it is remarked that the same persons have previously taken much larger quantities of the same kinds of food with impunity.

The fur or hair of an animal effectually protects it from cold, not so much by covering the body and shutting in the heat, as by preventing the circulation of air around it, so that the heat cannot be rapidly conveyed away. And the ar

rangement of hairs perpendicularly, or nearly so, · on the surface of the body, by the law of reflec

tion, permits the radiation of but very little heat from the body.

The human system, in its vital or muscular power, is very analogous to an electric machine. Dampness dispels the force of both, apparently in the same way. Hence the debilitating effect of bot weather, caused principally by excessive perspiration. The quantity of perspiration can be greatly lessened by refraining from unnecessary drinking. Any one can soon school himself to the requirement of several times less of liquid than he is usually accustomed to drink, by taking only a small quantity at once, and repeating it only as often as thirst is felt.— The Pen and the Lever.

EVENING HOUR.
This is the hour when memory wakes

Visions of joy that could not last;
This is the hour when fancy takes

A survey of the past !
She brings before the pensive mind

The hallowed scenes of earlier years, And friends who long have been consign'd

To silence and to tears!
The few we liked the one we loved -

A sacred band !-come stealing on;
And many a form far hence remov’d,

And many a pleasure gone ! Friendships that now in death are hush'd,

And young affection's broken chain;
And hopes that fate too quickly crush’d,

In memory live again!
Few watch the fading gleam of day,

But muse on hopes, as quickly flown,
Tint after tint they died away,

Till all at last were gone!
This is the hour when fancy wreathes

Her spells round joys that could not last ; This is the hour when memory breathes

A sigb to pleasures past.

NATURE.

By R. C. WATERSTON.

INFLUENCE OF CHARACTER.

I love thee Nature-love thee well-
In sunny nook and twilight dell,
Where birds and bees and blossoms dwell,

And leaves and flowers;
And winds in low sweet voices tell

Of happy hours.
I love thy clear and running streams,
Which mildly flash with silver gleams,
Or darkly lie, like shadow dreams,

To bless the sight;
While every wave with beauty teems

And smiles delight.
I love thy forest, deep and lone,
Where twilight shades are ever thrown,
And murmuring winds, with solemn tone,

Go slowly by,
Sending a peal like ocean moan,

Along the sky.
I love to watch at close of day,
The heavens in splendor melt away,
From radiant gold to silver grey,

As sinks the sun;
While stars upon their trackless way

Come one by one.

There is much in the following suggestions of Bishop Potter, of New York, as profitable for the meditation of parents as of teachers, to whom, as a class, they were specially addressed. We quote from an address delivered before the State Normal School at Albany:

" The teacher cannot impart to otbers what he does not possess himself. If he be coarse and clownish, he will not do much to refine and humanise bis pupils. If þe be void of feeling and sentiment, dead to the beauties of nature, and to the beauties of thought and language, there will be nothing suggestive in his glances at nature and life; no repetition of beautiful stories, or of beautiful scraps of simple poetry, to kindle the feeling and imagination of his pupils, and to teach them to recognise and admire what is admirable in sentiment and language.

“Speaking, then, of things which are over and above the elementary instruction you have to limpart, I would say to you emphatically, that

I love, I know not which the best,
The little wood bird in its nest,
The wave that mirrors in its breast

The landscape true,
Or the sweet flower by winds caressed,

And bathed in dew.

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just in proportion as you improve yourselves in

COMETS. all the respects to which I have now referred, In ancient times, the visits of comets were in just such proportion will you contribute to supposed to portend pestilence and war; and in the improvement of your pupils. Of all the the reign of Justinian, when two immense “bladaily lessons you can set before them, the best zing stars" appeared, the direful expectations and most valuable is the presence of a beautiful were abundantly fulfilled—not, however, that character. O, it is character--character in the those calamities, which desolated large portions parent, character in the teacher—which works of the Eastern Roman Empire, had any connecupon the young, drawing them into a resem- tion with the comets. The first alarmed manblance to itself, and doing more to improve kind in the month of September, A. D. 531, their minds, their hearts, and their manners, and was seen for twenty days in the western than can be effected by the most diligent in- quarter of the heavens, shooting its rays into the struction in mere book knowledge.

north. The second appeared A. D. 539, and

. “ Take the children and youth who are often increased to so large a size, that the head was collected together in a rural school, and not one in the east, and the tail reached the west. It of whom, perhaps, has ever enjoyed the privi. was visible' for forty days, the sun at the time lege of miliar communication with a person of exhibiting unusual paleness. Varro records a real refinement and cultivation; and what a

a tradition, that in the time of Ogyges, the wonder it must be to them, and what a blessing, father of Grecian antiquity, the planet Venus to find themselves daily looking upon, listeniug changed her color, size, figure, and course; a to, conversing with a teacher who seems a prodigy without example, either in past or sucsuperior being; a being invested with a won-ceeding ages. This refers to 1767 years before derful charm, from the gentleness and dignity Christ. Tremendous comets appeared in the of his or her manners; the elevation of his sen. west, two generations prior to the reign of timents ; the sweetness and gravity of his speech; Cyrus ; but one of the most splendid comets was and the wide range of his thoughts.

seen forty-four years before the birth of Christ. “They behold human character in a more en. After the death of Julius Cæsar, a “long-haired gaging form than ever before ; and while they star” was conspicuous to Rome and to the admire, they learn to imitate. They perceive nations, during the games that were exhibited that there is something more excellent than by young Octavian, in honor of Venus and his their coarse manners and slovenly speech; and uncle Julius Cæsar; and the vulgar believed they become chastened and refined under the that it conveyed the divine soul of the latter to daily example, almost without thinking of it. heaven. The superstition was universal among The teacher reasons with caution and discrimi- the ancients, that a comet, “ from its horrid hair nation in their presence; kivdles into admira- shakes pestilence and war!” But modern philosotion of some lofty trait of virtue; or expresses phy and research have successfully dispelled horror at some instance of meannesss, cruelty, such vain and idle apprehensions, in all civilized or depravity; or exercises patience and tender- nations. At the birth of the great Mithridates, ness toward some infirm and wayward pupil; or King of Pontus, two large comets appeared, points out something exquisitely beautiful in whose splendor is fabulously said to have equalled thought and sentiment and character; and as that of the sun. They were seen for seventythey look on and listen, they begin to feel more two days together, and occupied forty-five degrees, deeply what is noble and what is mean ; they or the fourth part of the visible heavens. Seneca, begin to perceive what it is to reason accurately. the Roman philosopher, who lived in the first

"The character and demeanor of the teacher century of the Christian era, wrote: “The time is a new revelation of goodness and wisdom, and will come, when the nature of comets and their they are glad to become disciples; their intellec- magnitude will be demonstrated, and the courses tual and moral nature catches a glow, is put into they take, so different from those of the planets; healthful exercise, and they gain more by a kind and posterity will wonder that the preceding ages of infection and transfusion from the one superior shouid have been ignorantin matters so plain and character than they could acquire from the easy to be known." Arago thought that not less greatest amount of mere cold and barren lessons. than seven thousand comets revolved in our sysAccurate and vigorous instruction there must tem. Comets sometimes pass unobserved by the of course be—without that, it is mere folly inhabitants of the earth, in consequence of the and impertinence to pretend to the higher in- part of the heavens in which they move being Huences of which I have been speaking. But then under daylight. During a total eclipse of the bigher the culture of the teacher, the bet- the sun, sixty years before Christ, a large comet, ter he will know how to make that instruction not previously seen, became visible near the pleasant and effective; and how to throw over body of the obscured luminary. Halley's comet, it and around it beautiful and touching lessons | A. D. 1456, covered a sixth part of the visible for the heart, the fancy, and the taste. heavens, and was likened to a Turkish scymitar.

Germantown Telegraph. That observed by Newton, A. D. 1680, had a

For Friends' Intelligencer.

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tail 123,000,000 of miles in length. A comet, A. D. 1744, had six tails, spread out like a fan, Review of the Weather, &c., for SEVENTH across a large space in the sky.-- Pennsylvania

month. Inquirer.

1856 1857 Rain during some portion of the 24 hours, 8 d's 15 d's do. the whole or nearly the whole day, ...

0 1 " WHAT A WOMAN CAN DO.

Cloudy without storms,
Ordinary clear, .

14 16 866

Mean temperature of the month, per As a wife and mother, woman can make the

Pennsylvania Hospital, ...: 79.680 75° fortune and happiness of her husband and chil. Amount of rain falling during do. 1.50in 3.91 in dren; and even if she did nothing else, surely

The average Mean Temperature of this month this would be sufficient destiny. By her thrift, for the past sixty-eight years is 75.56 degrees; prudence and tact, she can secure to her partner the highest ditto during that entire period (1793 and herself a competence in old age, no matter and 1838) was 81 degrees, and the lowest, (the how small their beginning, or how adverse a fate memorable 1816,) 68 degrees. occasionally be theirs. By her cheerfulness she

In reference to rain, although during the fore can restore her husband's spirit, shaken by the part of the month quite a number of days were anxieties of business. By her tender care she chronicled on which rain fell, we learn from the can often restore him to health, if disease has record at the Pennsylvania Hospital, that, up to seized upon his overtasked powers. By her the 22d inclusive, only 0.32 inches, (about one counsel and her love, she can win him from bad third of an inch) had fallen, while on the 23d, company, if temptation in an evil hour has led 1.56 inches fell. him astray. By her example, her precepts, and Hail, accompanied the rain on several occaher sex's insight into character, she can mould sions during the latter part of the month, while her children, however diverse their dispositions, in many sections of the United States, most into good and noble men and women. And by terrific and destructive hail storms have preleading in all things a true and beautiful life, vailed, blasting the fond hopes of the husbandshe can refine, elevate and spiritualize all who come within reach, so that with others of her

The writer has not examined bis own record, sex emulating and assisting her, she can do but has seen it stated that the 20th inst., conmore to regenerate the world than all the states- stituted the thirty-fifth successive Second day on men or reformers that ever legislated. She can which rain had fallen during some portion of the do as much, alas! perhaps even more, to de

twenty-four hours.

J. M. E. grade man, if she chooses to do it.

Phila., 8th mo. 8th, 1857. Who can estimate the evil that woman has the power to do? As a wife, she can ruin her husband by extravagance, folly, or want of affection. She can make a devil and an outcast of a man,

Names have all some meaning when first imwho might otherwise have become a good mem- posed; and when a place is inhabited for the first ber of society. She can bring bickerings, strife time by any people, they apply to it some term, and perpetual discord into what has been a in early times generally descriptive of its natural happy bome. She can change the innocent peculiarities, or something else on account of babes whom God has entrusted to her charge, which it is remarkable, from their own language. into vile men, and even viler women.

She can When we find, therefore, that the old names of lower the moral tone of society itself, and thus natural objects and localities in a country bepollute legislation at the spring head. She can, long, for the most part, to a particular language, in fine, become an instrument of evil instead of we may conclude with certainty that a people an angel of good. Instead of making flowers of speaking that language formerly occupied the truth, purity, beauty and spirituality spring up country. Of this the names they have so im

, in her footsteps, till the whole earth smiles with pressed are as sure a proof as if they had left a loveliness that is almost celestial, she can trans- distinct record of their existence in words engraform it to a black and blasted desert

, covered ven on the rocks. Such old names of places with the scorn of all evil passions, and swept by often long outlive both the people that bestowed the bitter blasts of everlasting death. This is them, and nearly all the material monuments of what a woman can do for the wrong as well as their occupancy. The language, as a vehicle of

Is her mission a little one? Has oral communication, may gradually be forgotten, she no “worthy work," as has become the cry and be heard no more where it was once in uni. of late? Man may have a hardier task to per- versal use; and the old topographical nomenclaform, a rougher path to travel, but he has none ture may still remain unchanged. Were the loftier or more influential than wongan’s. — Wo- Irish tongue, for instance, utterly to pass away man's Advocate.

and perish in Ireland, as the speech of any por

ORIGIN OF THE NAMES OF PLACES.

for the right.

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