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same arrangement is often adopted in the ware- | most workmanlike manner. They will mount houses of seaports, the ship's company generally vines and feed on the grapes; and a friend inlocating themselves as near the water as possible, forms us that on one occasion he saw a waterand the landsmen in the more inland portion of rat go up a ladder which was resting against a the building.

plum-tree, and attack the fruit. If a garden is When rats have once found their way into a near the haunts of water-rats, it is necessary to ship they are secure as long as the cargo is on watch narrowly for the holes underneath the board, provided they can command the great walls, for they will burrow under the foundation necesssary-water. If this is well guarded, with all the vigor of sappers and miners. Such they will resort to extraordinary expedients to is the cunning with which they drive their procure it. In a rainy night they will come on shafts that they will ascend beneath a stack of deck to drink, and will even ascend the rigging wood, a heap of stones, or any other object to sip the moisture which lies in the folds of the which will conceal the passage by which they sails. When reduced to extremities they will obtain an entrance. attack the spirit-casks, and get so drunk that The water-rat is, however, a rare animal comthey are unable to walk home. The land-rat pared with its first-cousin, the common brown will

, in like manner, gnaw the metal tubes which or Norway rat, which is likewise, as Lord Bacon in public-houses lead from the spirit-store to the says of the ant, “a shrewd thing in a garden.” tap, and is as convivial on these occasions as his They select, according to Cobbett, the prime of nautical relation. The entire race bave a quick the dessert-melons, strawberries, grapes, and ear for running liquid, and they constantly eat wall-fruit; and though they do but taste of each, into leaden pipes, and much to their astonish- it is not, as he remarks, very pleasant to eat inent receive a douche-bath in consequence. It after them. Not many years since they existed is without doubt the difficulty of obtaining water in millions in the drains and sewers of the mewhich causes them in many cases to desert tbe tropolis. Several causes have been in operation ship the moment she touches the shore. On to diminish their numbers, and in some quarters such occasions they get, if possible, dry-footed of the town almost wholly to extinguish them. to land, which they generally accomplish by In the first place, the method of flushing the passing in Indian file along the mooring-rope, sewers lately adopted is exceedingly fatal to them. though, if no other passage is provided for them, When the sluices are opened, go they must with they will not hesitate to swim. In the same the rush of waters, and they may be seen shot manner they board ships from the shore, and so out by hundreds from the mouths of the culwell are their invading habits known to sailors, verts into the Thames. The fact that rats are that it is common upon coming into port to fill worth three shillings a dozen for sporting purup the bawser holes, or else to run the mooring. 'poses proves, however, the most certain means cable through a broom, the projecting twigs of of their destruction, for it insures their ceasewhich effectually stop the ingress of these less pursuit by the great hunter, man. The nautical quadrupeds. Their occupancy of the underground city of sewers becomes one vast swalier bird-breeding islands invariably ends in hunting ground, in which men regularly gain a their driving away the feathered inhabitants, livelihood by capturing them. Before entering for they plunder the nests of their eggs, and de- the subterraneous world the associates generally vour the young. The puffins have in this way plan what routes they will take, and at what been compelled to relinquish Puffin's Island, off point they will meet, possibly with the idea of the coast of Caernarvon.

driving their prey towards a central spot. They The ship-rat must not be confounded with the go in couples, each man carrying a lighted water-rat, which is an entirely different species. candle with a tin reflector, a bag, a sieve, and a The latter partakes of the habits of the beaver, spade; the spade and sieve being used for exand is somewhat like him in appearance. He amining any deposit which promises to contain possesses the same bluff head and long fur, in some article of value. The moment the rat sees which are buried his diminutive ears. He the light he runs along the sides of the drain dwells in holes, in the banks of rivers, which just above the line of the sewage water; the he constructs with a land and water entrance to men follow, and speedily overtake the winded provide against destruction by the sudden rising animal, which no sooner finds his pursuers gainof the stream. This animal lives entirely upon ing upon him than he sets up a shrill squeak, in vegetable food, which he will now and then seek the midst of which he is seized with the bare at some distance inland, and we suspect that to hand behind the ears, and deposited in the bag. bim may be traced many of the devastations in In this manner a dozen will sometimes be capturthe fruit and vegetable gardens for which the ed in as many minutes. When driven to bay poor sparrows get the blame. We have seen at the end of a blind sewer, they will often fly water-rats cross a wide meadow, climb the stalks at the boots of their pursuers in the most deof the dwarf beans, and, after detaching the termined manner. pods with their teeth, shell their contents in the

(To be continued.)


The branches of a liberal English education are FLOUR AND MEAL.—The Flour market continues thoroughly taught by the most approved methods of depressed There is but little inquiry, either for ex- teaching founded on experience. port or home consumption, and only a few hundred

Also the elements of the Latin and French languages. bbls. are daily sold at $6 37 a $6 50 per bbl. for fresh Terms, $70 per session. ground from new wheat, and $6 37 for old. Sales to

Those wishing to enter will please make early apretailers and bakers for fresh ground and fancy brands, plication. from $7 50 up to $900. Rye Flour is now selling at

For full particulars address the Principal for a cir$40 50 a $4 62 per bbl., and Corn Meal held at $4 00 cular. per barrel.

ALLEN FLITCRAFT, GRAIN.–The receipts of Wheat have materially

Eldridge Hill, Salem County N. J. increased, and the market is inactive. Good red is 8 mo. 29, 1857-8 w. held at $1 45 a $147, and $1 50 a $1 55 for good white. is dull at cts. Corn continues in WYNEDD SCHOOL FOR

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86 cts. in store and in the cars. Oats continue dull; this School will commence on 2d day the 9th of llth new Southern is selling at from 35 a 36 cents per month, 1857, and continue Twenty weeks. Terms bushel.

$70 per session. Those desirous of entering will

please make early application. For circulars giving THE NEW LIBRARY ROOM.

further information, address either of the undersigned. FRIENDS' LIBRARY, which has been closed for some

DANIEL FOULKE, Principal. weeks past to give an opportunity for re-arrangement

HUGH FOULKE, Jr., Teacher. in the new location assigned it, will be opened again Spring House P. 0. Montgomery County, Pa. for visitors, in the third story of the centre of the new 8 mo. 22, 1857-8 w. Meeting House, on Race Street, on Seventh day afternoon and evening, the Fifth of Ninth month, and on

RIENDS' SCHOOLS, (on Meeting House premises, each succeeding Seventh day as heretofore.

Fourth and Green streets.)--Green Sireet GramNo expense or lator has been spared in the fitting mar School for Girls will re-open on Second day, 31st up of this large and commodious room, and as the col- inst. There will be but one session per day. It is lection of books is select and extensive, it is deemed designed to introduce higher branches of study than well worthy the attention of Friends. J. M. E. have hitherto been taught, thus making it a finishing

school for those who wish to avail themselves of the


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take charge of the School under the care of During the winter familiar lectures will be given on Alloway's Creek Preparative Meeting of Friends. Philosophy, Chemistry, Physiology, &c., illustrated Application can be made to

by appropriate apparatus; and in every particular an THOMAS SHOURDS, or effort will be made to meet the wants of those en

RACHEL HANCOCK. trusted to my care. Hancock's Bridge, Salem County, N. J.

S. HAYAURST, Teacher. 8th mo. 25th, 1857.--4 t.

Green Street Grammar School for Boys will re-open TREEN LAWN SEMINARY is situated near

on Second day 31st inst., under the care of the under1 Union-Ville, Chester County, Pa., nine miles signed. The higher branches of Mathematics, also south west of West Chester, and sixteen north west i more elementary studies will be embraced in the course from Wilmington; daily stages to and from the latter, of instruction in this school ; and an effort will be and tri-weekly from the former place. The winter made to render it worthy of patronage. term will commence on the 2d of 11th mo. next, aud

ANNA MORRIS, Teacher. continue twenty weeks. The course of instruction The Primary School for Boys and Girls will also embraces all the usual branches, comprising a thorough re-open under the care of Ann Bailey. Vacancies as English Education, Drawing included. Terms: $57, they occur, will be filled by “ Friends?” children, in including Board, Washing, Tuition, use of Books, the order of application. Pens, Ink and Lights. The French, Latin and Greek References,--David Ellis, No. 617, Franklin St. Languages taught at $5 each, extra, by experienced above Green. Jane Johnson, No. 533 N. Fourth St. and competent teachers, one a native of New Hamp- Phila. 8th mo. 13th, 1857. shire, and a graduate of a popular College in that State, whose qualifications have gained her a place

"RANKFORD SELECT SEMINARY.This inamongst the highest rank of teachers. The house is stitution, having been in successful operation for Jarge, and in every way calculated to secure health the last twenty years, will now receive six or eight and comfort to thirty-five or forty pupils.

female pupils as boarders in the family. Age under For Circulars, address

thirteen years preferred. EDITH B. CHALFANT, Principal.

Careful attention will be paid to health, morals, &c., Union-Ville, P. O., Chester County, Pa.

and they will be required to attend Friends' Meeting 9th mo. 5th, 1857.8 t.

on First days, accompanied by one of their teachers,

also mid week meetings if desired by parents or guarONDON GROVE BOARDING SCHOOL FOR dians. Terms moderate. YOUNG MEN AND BOYS. It is intended to

LETITIA MURPHY Principal. commence the next Session of this Institution on the

SARAHC, WALKER Assistant. 2d of 1116 mo., 1857. Terms : $65 for twenty weeks.

No. 158 Frankford St. Frankford, Pa. For reference and further particulars, inquire for cir

REFERENCES. culars of

BENJ. SWAYNE, Principal. John Child, 510 Arch Street. London Grove, P. O., Chester County, Pa.

Thomas T. Child, 452 N. 2d Street below Poplar. LDRIDGE HILL The

Julia Yerkes, 909 N. 4th Street above Poplar.

Wm. C. Murphy, 43 $. 4th Street above Chestnut. and boys) of this Institution, will open on the 9th of

Charles Murphy, 820 N. 12th Street below Parrish. 11th mo., and continue 20 weeks.

Merrihew & Thompson, Prs., Lodge St., North side Penna. Rank



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E winter session for

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&c., (page 18 of the Journal, page 345 of Friends' them, that heavenly and watery cloud overIntelligencer,) the people called Quakers were shadowing my mind, brake into a sweet aboundsuddenly, and with some surprise, brought to my ing shower of celestial rain, and the greatest part mind; and so strongly impressed on my remem- of the meeting was broken together, dissolved brance, that thenceforward I had a secret incli- and comforted in the same divine and holy presnation to enquire further concerning them, their ence and influence of the true, holy, and heavenly way and principles.

Lord; which was divers times repeated before It was some time in the Fifth month, in the the meeting ended. And in the same way, by year 1691, when an opportunity was presented. (the same divine and holy power I had been often The occasion of it was some concerns that I had favored before when alone; and when no eye, in the west parts of Cumberland, when, lodging but that of heaven, beheld, or any knew, but the at an inn kept by one of that profession, on a Lord himself; who, in infinite mercy, had been seventh-day night, and inquiring of him con- pleased to bestow so great a favor. cerning some points of their religion, I perceived And, as the many small springs and streams, no material difference between his sentiments descending into a proper place, and forming a and mine, in the particulars then asked after; river, become more deep and weighty; even so, · and he also perceived I was nearer them than be this meeting with a people gathered of the living (or perhaps any other) had thought, (for I had God, into a sense of the enjoyment of his divine formerly opposed the same man in some things,) and living presence, through that blessed and which

gave him occasion to inform me of their holy medium, the mind of Jesus Christ, the son ineeting, to be held the next day, at a country of God ard Saviour of the world, I felt an invillage called Broughton.

crease of the same joy of the salvation of God; And, as I had been desirous to be rightly in- and the more, by how much I now perceived I formed concerning that people, and to see them had been under the like mistake as the prophet as in truth they were, I was pleased with the op- of God of old ; but now otherwise informed, by portunity; and, the next morning, the Friend a sure evidence and token ; by the witness of the and I set forward toward the meeting. And he divine essential Truth, in which no living soul being zealous to have me further informed, and can err, or be mistaken, or deceived; being selfconvinced of the truth of their way, spake of evident and undeniable in all those who truly many things as we rode along, and with good know him. intent ; but my mind being composed, and its Our joy was mutual and full

, though in the attention directed towards God, who knew I 'eflux of many tears, as in cases of the deepest wanted only to see the Truth, and not be de- and most unfeigned love; for the Friends there, ceived, I could not take any distinct notice of being generally sensible I was affected, and tenwhat the friend said ; which he perceiving, after dered with them, by the influence of the divine some time, desisted, and said no more. And Truth they knew and made profession of, did then we rode some miles together in profound conclude, I had been at that time, and not besilence; in which my mind enjoyed a gentle rest fore, convinced, and come to the knowledge, or and consolation, from the divine and holy Pres- sense, of the way of Truth among them; and

their joy was as of Heaven, at the return of a And when we came to the meeting, being a penitent; and mine as the joy of salvation from little late, it was full gathered ; and I went God, in view of the work of the Lord, so far among the throng of the people on the forms, and carried on in the earth ; when I bad thought, not sat still among them in that inward condition long before, there had scarce been any true and and mental retirement. And though one of living faith, or knowledge of God in the world. their ministers, a stranger, began to speak to The meeting being ended, the peace of God, some points held by them, and declaim against which passeth all the understanding of the natural some things held by others, and denied by them; man, and is inexpressible by any language but particularly predestination, as asserted by the itself alone, remained, as a holy canopy over my Presbyterians; yet I took not much notice of it: mind, in a silence out of the reach of all words; for as I did not doubt but, like other sects, they and where no idea, but the Word himself, can be might have something to say, both for their own, conceived. But being invited, together with the and against the opinions of others; yet my con- ministering Friend, to the house of the ancient cern was much rather to know whether they were widow Hall, I went willingly with them ; but a people gathered under a sense of the enjoy- the sweet silence commanded in me by Michael, ment of the presence of God in their meetings; the Prince, Captain-General of the hosts in heaor, in other words, whether they worshipped the ven, still remaining, I had nothing to say to apg true and living God, in the life and nature of of them, till he was pleased to draw the curtain, Christ, the Son of God, the true and only Sa- and veil'his presence; and then I found my mind viour: and the Lord answered my desire accord. pure, and in a well bounded liberty of iunocent ing to the integrity of my heart.

conversation with them. For, not long after I had sat down among

(To be continued.)



For Friends' Intelligencer.

and heaven and immortality, as well as those SCALE OF NEED.

that tend downward and abroad to earthly things. Our need answers to our capacity. We might, Let him unfold them without fear. The vast indeed, construct a scale of existence on this supplies from the foreseeing Creator, are ready principle of need. The lower the creature, the in the treasury of his truth. Let him appropriless his need; for the more feeble his sensibili- ate them to his need. And the fish that cleaves ties, the narrower his powers, and the more tor- the liquid sea, the insect that revels in the cup pid his desires. The shell fish needs but to draw of a flower, the beast that browses in his pasture, in from the beating waves, or through a slender or the bird that darts through the yielding air, aperture in the muddy bottom of the sea, a little shall be no more at home or content with its lot, water, and then expel the same through those than he, while the lot he is content with shall stony valves, which are at once his defence and be as much superior to theirs, as “the heaven his dwelling. His finny, swimming superior, and the heaven of heavens” are above the earth. with a more versatile power, needs a somewhat richer nutriment. The insect, with its still finer organization, needs to fly in the air, and to feed GEORGE STEPHENSON, THE RAILWAY ENGINEER. on the sweets of flowers. The beast, of struc

[Continued from page 380.] ture more complex, and increased capabilities,

“The anticipations of the company as to pasneeds a still greater variety of support; the cra- senger traffic were in like manner more than vings of each kind of animal pature multiplying realised. At first, passengers were not thought exactly according to its additional susceptibilities of; and it was only while the works were in proof sensation, intelligence, and affection, from the gress that the starting of a passenger coach was creature that is satisfied with a green leaf, and, seriously considered. An old stage coach, called that consumed, creeps slowly and lazily to anoth the Queen Charlotte,' was purchased at a barer, to the fierce or kingly birds that cut the air of a gain, and mounted on a wooden frame. This hemisphere, and seek their prey on the far moun- was the entire passenger stock of the Stockton tain top, or “where the carcase is” in the lonely and Darlington line on the day of opening, and valley.

for some time afterwards. The number of perBut, from the most sagacious and strongest of sons then travelling between the two towns was the animal tribes, how vast the difference in ca- indeed very inconsiderable, and it was not known pacity of intellect and feeling, to man! And no whether these might be disposed to entrust their less vast, the difference of need. He draws persons on the iron road. Mr. Stephenson, from the earth, from the water and from the air, however, urged that the experiment of a stage to satisfy his appetitites and to satiate his curios- coach was worthy of a trial; and so the Queen ity; he ransacks every kingdom of nature for his Charlotte' was purchased and mounted. The comfort and aggrandizement, and is not content. name of the coach was to be altered, and Mr. His restless and changeful wishes are ever roam- Stephenson was asked what he thought they ing abroad for something new, something greater. should call her. “The Expurriment,' said he, He cannot stay attached to one place, “ like the in his strong Northumbrian tongue; and the limpet to the rock.He cannot stop with one coach was renamed “The Experiment accordsort of food, like the bee that lives among the ingly. She had also emblazoned on her panels blossomg. He does not, like the ruminating ani. the company's aruis, bearing the motto of mal, stand still and peaceful in his own reflec- Periculum privatum utilitas publica."" tions. Now, though he should leave his anchor. Out of all

this sprang the town of Middlesage on the ground, soar into the sky, and for his borough-on-Tees. We remember the time, in clumsy balloon, substitute the wings of a dove, 1825, when only one farm-house stood upon the could he even then “fly away and be at rest!" spot, around which has spread the future metro. He is uneasy, he is needy, he is craving and dis- polis of Cleveland, with a population already apcontented still. It is because his faculties are proaching to 20,000. so many and so great, because his desires are so Then came the renewal of the Manchester and ardent and so infinite, that his supplies must be Liverpool project. It was very unacceptable to manifold and buge.

canal proprietors, some of whom had been anIs there then no satisfaction for a man ? Are nually receiving, for half-a-century, the whole we alone in the universe, made to be thus unea- amount of their original investment! Stephensy and discontented, like Jewish children, wanting son was at the head of the survey, and he and what we cannot have and crying for what is be- bis men were treated as rogues and vagabonds yond our reach ? No; God has not made his no- by resident lords and gentlemen. Pamphlets blest creature for a wretched failure and a mis- and prophecies, both of the most alarming nature, erable want. Let him bring into light all his were scattered broadcast. They threatened every abilities and desires, they are not too many or evil as a consequence of railways, from a general too strong; those of the higher nature as well as conflagration to the cessation of laying eggs on the lower ; those that tend up to God himself the part of the hens. And then these interested


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soothsayers sought comfort by trying to feel con- That learned gentleman, Mr. Harrison, was very vinced that the whole thing was impracticable. hilarious indeed at the idea of Irish members When daily the practicability became more ap. Aying up to a division in carriages at the rate of parent, caval proprietors, so haughty previously, twelve miles an hour ;-and “Mr. Francis Giles, began to offer increased advantages of water car. C. E." affirmed that “no engineer in his senses riage to the Liverpool and Manchester merchants; would go through Chat Moss if he wanted to but it was

“too late.” In spite of tremendous make a road from Liverpool to Manchester. Mr. difficulties, the railroad took shape. Very well, Giles said the carriages would all go to the bottom, said the Quarterly Review, such a road is an and that it would be necessary to take this Moss absolute necessity; but “we scout the idea of a completely out at the bottom, in order to make a general railroad, as altogether impracticable..... solid road.” Other C. E.'s designated StephenThe gross exaggerations of the powers of the son as that unprofessional person; one styled his locomotive engine, or, to speak in plain English, plans as “very wild,” and even the learned

, the steam-carriage, may delude for a time, but counsel, Alderson, declared Stephenson's promust end in the mortification of those concerned.” ject, “the most absurd scheme that it ever Stephenson thought that there had been no entered the head of man to conceive.”_" I say exaggeration; and, though he was very much he never had a plan,” said Mr. Alderson; concerned, he was never in the slightest degree do not believe he is capable of making one." mortified. On the contrary, they were mortified More than one such battle as this Stephenson who saw, and would fain have denied him, his had to fight single-handed; but neither abuse, triumph :

por sarcasın, nor cajolery, nor piteous howling, “What [said the Reviewer) can be more pal- like that of Sir Isaac Coffin, could move him. pably absurd and ridiculous than the prospect Parliamentary permission was obtained at last, held out of locomotives travelling twice as fast as only at a cost of pearly £30,000, and all the stage coaches? We should as soon expect the “C. E.’s” bade “that un professional person” to people of Woolwich to suffer themselves to be go and do what was impossible. And, Io Pæan! fired off upon one of Congreve's ricochet rockets, he went and did it!—not without enormous difas trust themselves to the mercy of such a machine ficulty ; but after every disappointment and going at such a rate. We will back old Father querulous “What next?” his calm observation Thames against the Woolwich Railway for any was “We must persevere.” And now Chat Moss sum. We trust that Parliament will, in all rail- forms the very best part of the road between ways it may sanction, limit the speed to eight or Liverpool and Manchester, and it was accomnine miles an hour, which we entirely agree with plished at a cost of £28,000, whereas Mr. Giles, Mr. Sylvester is as great as can be ventured on C. E. had set down that the formation of a road with safety.”

there would cost £270,000. “He'll get

“ He'll get nothing Most of the practical and scientific men in the to run upon it,” was a common remark. — kingdom shared these opinions. George Ste- “ Certainly not at twelve miles an hour," was phenson smiled good-temperedly, and practically another." Perfectly impossible!” cried a third ; proved them to be unfounded. The very Parlia- “let him try it! Impossible!"-And as we all mentary Committee before whom he was ex- know, George Stephenson put the “ Rocket” on amined sneered at him as a lunatic when he the line, and drove her at the rate of thirty miles modestly maintained that he could drive a loco- an hour! Then the greatest sceptics began to motive at the rate of twelve miles an hour. conceive that a revolution of an extraordinary The world of science shook its solemn head; nature was about to take place, and while some and even gentle Religion, growing prejudiced, prophesied a wide extension of civilization, others turned upwards her blue eyes, and seemed to ask looked to their Bibles to see if, in this, the end forgiveness for the blasphemy of this presump- of the world were not foreshadowed ;- but these tuous mechanic.

latter might have found comfort if they had “One of the members of the Committee pressed opened at Isaiah, and found that good advice to the witness a little further. He put the follow- railway travellers, “ Whose strength is in sitting ing case :-Suppose, now, one of these engines still.” to be going along a railroad at the rate of nine or Who, then alive, has forgotten the glory and ten miles an hour, and that a cow were to stray the sorrow of the opening day, the 15th of Sepupon the line and get in the way of the engine; tember, 1830 ? The triumph of the “unprofeswould not that, think you, be a very awkward sional person” was complete. It was rather circumstance?'—“Yes,' replied the witness, with perfected than diminished by the fatal accident a twinkle in his eye, á verry awkward indeed — to Mr. Huskisson._" The Northumbrian' enfor the coo!!

gine conveyed the wounded body of the unforWhen he talked of getting over the difficulties tunate gentleman a distance of about fifteen miles of such an immense mass of pulp as Chat Moss, in twenty-five minutes, or at the rate of thirtythe opposing counsel pronounced his ignorance six miles an hour. This incredible speed burst inconceivable. So, to them, was his knowledge. I upon the world with all the effect of a new and




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