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ready for him.' Sir Robert Peel was made ample he holds forth to all honest aspirants, we acquainted with the plot, and adroitly introduced must refer our readers to a volume which will be the subject of the controversy after dinner. The widely read and often consulted. result was, that in the argument which followed, the man of science was overcome by the man of

A BEAUTIFUL PICTURE. law; and Sir William Follett had at all points the The man who stands upon his own soil, who mastery over Dr. Buckland.- What do you feels that by the laws of the land in which he say, Mr. Stephenson ?' asked Sir Robert laugh- lives-by the laws of civilized nations—he is ing. Why,' said he, ‘I will only say this, that the rightful and exclusive owner of the land of all the powers above and under the earth, which he tills, is, by the constitution of our nathere seems to me to be no power so great as the ture, under á wholesome influence not easily gift of the gab.' One day, at dinner, during imbibed from any other source. He feels the same visit, a scientific lady asked him the other things being equal-more strongly than question, · Mr. Stephenson, what do you consider another, the character of a man as a lord of an the most powerful force in nature ?'—-Oh!said animated world. Of this great and wonderful he, in a gallant spirit, “I will soon answer that sphere, which, fashioned by the hand of God, question : it is the eye of a woman for the man and upheld by his power, is rolling through the who loves her; for if a woman look with affection heavens, a part is his—his from the centre to on a young man, and he should go to the utter- the sky. It is a space on which the generation most ends of the earth, the recollection of that before moved in its round of duties, and he feels look will bring him back : there is no other force himself connected by a visible link with those in nature, that could do that. One Sunday, who follow him, and to whom he is to transmit when the party had just returned from church, a home. Perhaps his farm has come down to they were standing together on the terrace near him from his fathers. They have gone to their the hall, and observed in the distance a railway / last home; but he can trace their footsteps over train flashing along, throwing behind it a long the scenes of his daily labors. The roof which line of white steam.—Now, Buckland,' said shelters him was reared by those to whom he Mr. Stephenson, 'I have a poser for you. Can owes his being. Some interesting domestic trayou tell me what is the power that is driving that dition is connected with every enclosure. The train ?'—'Well,' said the other, “I suppose it is favorite fruit tree was planted by his father's one of your big engines.'— But what drives the hand. He sported in boyhood beside the brook engine ?'—Oh, very likely a canny Newcastle which winds through the meadow. Through driver.'—What do you say to the light of the the field lies the path to the village school of sun?'— How can that be?' asked the doctor.-earlier days. He still hears from the window • It is nothing else,' said the engineer: it is the voice of the Sabbath bell which called his light bottled up in the earth for tens of thousands father to the house of God; and near at hand is of years,-light, absorbed by plants and vege- the spot where his parents laid down to rest, tables, being necessary for the condensation of and where, when his time has come, he shall be carbon during the process of their growth, if it laid by his children. These are the feelings of be not carbon in another form,—and now, after the owners of the soil. Words cannot paint being buried in the earth for long ages in fields them-gold cannot buy them; they flow out of of coal, that latent light is again brought forth the deepest fountains of the heart; they are the and liberated, made to work, as in that locomo- life-springs of a fresh, healthy and generous tive, for great human purposes.' The idea was national character.- Everett. certainly a most striking and original one: like a flash of light, it illuminated in an instant an entire field of science.

TRUE GREATNESS. Three years subsequently, after very gradual Chief Justice Marshall was in the habit of decay, this “Nature's gentleman” was attacked going to market himself and carrying home his by intermittent fever, of which he died, in the purchases. Frequently he would be seen returnsixty-seventh year of his age. We are sure that ing at sunrise, with poultry in one hand and we shall only increase our readers' respect and vegetables in the other. On one occasion a satisfaction when we add that, to poor Robert fashionable young man, who had recently reGray, of Newburn, who acted as his bridesman moved to Richmond, was swearing violently bewhen he married his first love, pretty Fanny cause he could get nobody to carry home his turHenderson, “he left a pension for life, which key. continues to be paid him.”

Marshall stepped up, and asking where he What Stephenson achieved, and much of lived, said : what will hereafter be achieved through his in- “ That is on my way; I will take it for you.” vention of the locomotive, is fully treated in the When they came to his house the young man biography. For these, and for an excellent sum- said : mary on the character of the man, and the ex- " What shall I pay you ?'


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“O, nothing,” said the Chief Justice; "it cargo, and cleared for Norfolk, Virginia, and on was on my way, and po trouble."

his arrival there entered at the custom-house, “Who is that polite old gentleman who brought and deposited his papers. After Capt. Cuffe home my turkey for me?” inquired the young had setiled his out-bound voyage and taken in man of a by-stander.

a cargo, he went to the custom-house for a clear“That,” replied he, “is John Marshall, Chief ance, and to get his papers; but the collector of Justice of the United States."

the port would neither clear him out, nor give “Why did he bring bome my turkey ?him his papers, and abused him with the most

“ To give you a severe reprimand, and to teach shameful language. Capt. Cuffe had no other you to mind your own business," was the reply. redress than to go to Washington; and, after

True greatness never feels above doing any getting the necessary proof as to who he was, thing that is useful; but, especially, the truly where from, &c., repaired thither. Capt. Cuffe great man will never feel above helping himself. was a Quaker, and used their plain language, His own independence of character depends on and on being introduced to President Madison, his being able to help himself. Dr. Franklin, he said : James, I have been put to much when he first established himself in business in trouble, and have been abused,' and then proPhiladelphia, wheeled home the paper which he ceeded to tell the President his story, giving such had purchased for his priuting office, on a wheel proof as was needed in his case; and added, "I barrow, with his own hands.

have come here for thy protection, and have to
ask thee to order thy Collector for the port of

Norfolk to clear me out for New Bedford, Mas-

sachusetts.' The true mother in the midst of her children, “President Madison, after hearing Captain is sowing, as in vases of earth, the seeds of plants Cuffe's case, promptly ordered the Collector of that shall some time give Heaven the fragrance Norfolk to clear Capt. Cuffe, with his black crew, of their blossoms, and whose fruit be a rosary of for the above-named port. After Capt. Cuffe angelic deeds, tủe noblest offering that she can returned to Norfolk, he heard no more abuse make through the ever-ascending and ever-ex- from the Collector, but received his papers and panding souls of her children to her Maker.- his clearance; and although the Collector beEvery word that she utters goes from heart to lieved black men had no rights that white men heart with a power of which she little dreams. were bound to respect, yet he was bound in this Solemn is the thought, but not more solemn to instance to respect the right of Capt. Cuffe. the Christian mother than the thought that “ Thus, President Madison regarded Captain every word that falls from her lips, every ex: Cuffe as a citizen of the United States, and conpression of her countenance, even in the shel- sidered that he had rights which the President tered walk and retirement, may leave an indel- of the United States of America was bound to ible impression upon the young souls around protect and respect.”—New Bedford Standard. her, and form as it were the underlying strain of that education which peoples heaven with that

LITTLE THINGS. celestial being, and gives to the white brow of

She said " That few were too young, and none too humble, to the angel next to the grace of God its crown of benefit their fellow creatures in some way." glory.

Do something for each other

Though small the help may be ;

There's comfort oft in little thingsPAUL CUFFE AND PRESIDENT MADISOX.

Far more than others see!

It takes the sorrow from the eye, Many of our readers will remember Paul Cuffe,

It leaves the world less bare, who formerly transacted business in this city,

If but a friendly hand come nigh some account of whom was given in this paper

When friendly hands are rare!

Then cheer the heart which toils each hour, a year or two ago. He was a colored man, but

Yet finds it hard to live ; possessed much ability for conducting business, And though but little's in our power and was highly respected. A correspondent of That little let us give. the Fall River News gives the following incident, We know not what the humblest hand, which occurred at a time when a white President

If earnest, may achieve; was not ashamed nor afraid to acknowledge and

How many a sad anxiety enforce the rights of his colored fellow men :

A trifle may relieve ;

We reck not how the aged poor “ Paul was a man of rare ability for a black

Drag on from day to day ; man; was very active and persevering, of stern When e'en the little that they need integrity, and was respected by all who knew

Costs more than they can pay ! him. He had accumulated some $10,000 or

Then cheer the heart that toils each hour,

Yet finds it hard to live;$50,000, a part of which was invested in a vessel,

And though but little's in our power of which he was commander. The vessel was

That little let us give. manned by a black crew. Capt. Cuffe took in a


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OH! WILD BEATS THE HEART. thus constructing lateral cesspoole, the contents
Oh ! wild beats the heart in the dawning of life, of which permeate the ground and filter into the
When pleasure's gay charms to youth are unfurled, wells. In making these excavations, moreover,
When shining and fair, unsullied by strife,

they invariably transfer the earth to the main
Before us all bright seems the view of the world.

sewers, and form obstructions to the flow. The Oh! then the young spirit with rapture swells high, accumulations of their paw-work have regularly Surrounded with novelty, glitter, and glare,

to be removed in small trucks constructed for And throbs with delight as the pageant glides by,

the So blooming and lovely, unfading and fair.

purpose, and if this precaution were not taken

they would in a few years entirely destroy the
But ah! when the lamp of experience beams
On the heart and the mind as we journey along,

vast system of subterranean culverts which bave
The veil is uplifted, and broken the dreams,

been laboriously constructed at the expense of
And the neist is removed, that deceived us so long. millions. The pipe drains with smooth barrels,
The scene is the same, but how altered the view! which the rat's tooth cannot touch, alone baffle
How fading and false is the aspect it wears

him ; indeed, the rapid flow of water in their
When the gilding is gone, and naked and true, narrow channel prevents his even retaining his
What was magic before, now reality bears !

footing in them. In revenge for thus being
For now, the staid eye of manhood is turned circumvented, he has in many cases entirely
On the world and its customs, its maxims and laws, ruined the newly laid channel of pipes by bur-
And he sees, by the light of true wisdom illumed,
The bane of its pleasures, the sting of its joys.

rowing under them, and causing them to dip

and open at the joints.
The sun of religion, now shining serene,

In F'rance the sewer authorities hold an
Has dis pelled the false mirage that dazzled his youth,
And the m,sts that deceived him melt at the beam,

annual hunting match, on which occasion there
And the convert bows down at the altar of iruth. is a grand capture of rats; these animals are not
Next the sunset of age comes peacefully on,

destined to afford sport to the “ fancy" under
Still bright with reflections caught from the past;

the tender manipulations of a dog “ Billy;" on
The conflicts and struggles of mid-day are gone, the contrary, our neighbors have too much re-
And the evening of life will be tranquil at last. spect for the integrity of its hide. We are in-
The soul has been tried, and weaned from the world; formed that they have established a company in
Has leaned on the staff, and has bowed to the rod ; Paris, upon the Hudson's Bay principle, to buy
And now ransomed and saved, to her view is unfurled. up all the rats of the country for the sake of
That city whose maker and builder is God.

their skin. The soft nap of tlie fur when dressed

is of the most beautiful texture, far exceeding From the Quarterly Review

in delicacy that of the beaver, and the hatters
A Treatise on the Nature, Fecundity, and De- consequently use it as a substitute. The hide

vastating Character of the Rat, and its cruel is employed to make the thumbs of the best
Cost to the Nution, with the best Means for its gloves, the elasticity and closeness of its texture
Extermination. By Uncle James.

rendering it preferable to kid.
[Continued from page 393.]

Parent Duchâtelet collected several particu-
The favorite stronghold of the rat is that por- lars of the rats which in his day frequented the
tion of the house drain which opens at right knacker's yards at Montfaucon. Attracted by the
angles into the main sewer. Here he sits like abundance of animal food, they increased so
a sentinel

, and in security watches with his keen enormously that the surrounding inhabitants,
but astonished eyes the extraordinary apparition hearing that the government intended to remove
running with a light. It is a remarkable fact these establishments, were seized with appre-
that most untrapped house drains are inhabited hension lest the vermin, when deprived of their
by their own particular rats, and wo be to the lariler, should spread through the weighborhood,
intruder who ventures to interfere with those in and, like a flight of locusts, swallow up every
possession. The rat as well as the cat may thus thing. The alarmists may even have feared
'be classed among the domestic animals of the lest they should meet with a similar fate to that
household, who acts as a kind of preventive puss of the Archbishop of Mayence, who, if old
in keeping out the whole underground community chronicles are to be believed, retired to a tower
of verniin, which otherwise would have the run in one of the isles of the Rhine to escape being
of our basements.

devoured by a host of these creatures whose
These vermin congregate thickest in the neigh- appetites were set upon him, and who, pertina-
borhood of slaughter-houses, or, in other words, ciously pursuing him to his retreat, succeeded in
where food is most plentiful. They are fre- eating bim up at last. The Report of the Com-
quently found sitting in clusters on the ledge mission instituted to inquire into the circum-
formed by the invert of the sewers. As the stances of the Montfaucon case showed that the
scavengers of drains, they undoubtedly do good apprehensions of serious damage were by no
service, but it is a poor set-off for the mischief means unfounded.
they perpetrate in destroying the brick-work of

“If the carcases of dead horses be thrown
the sewers—burrowing in every direction, and I during the day in a corner, the next morning

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and egress

they will be found stripped of their flesh. An kindred circumstance was witnessed in 1757 by old proprieter of one the slaughter-houses had a Mr. Purdew, a surgeon's mate on board the Lancertain space of ground entirely surrounded by caster. Lying awake one evening in his berth, walls, with holes only large enough for the in- he saw a rat enter, look cautiously round, and gress

of rats.

Within this inclosure retire. He soon returned leading a second rat, he left the carcases of two or three horses ; and who appeared to be blind, by the ear. A third when night came, he went quietly with his rat joined them shortly afterwards, and assisted workmen, stopped up the holes, and then entered the original conductor in picking up fragments into the inclosure, with a stick in one hand, and of biscuit, and placing them before their infirm a lighted torch in the other. The animals parent, as the old blind patriarch was supposed covered the ground so thickly that a blow struck | to be. It is only when tormented by hunger anywhere did execution. By repeating the pro- that they appear to lose their fellow-feeling, and cess after iutervals of a few days, he killed to prey upon one another. 16,050 rats in the space of one month, and 2650 The sagacity of the rat in the pursuit of food in a single night. They have burrowed under is so great, that we almost wonder at the small all the walls and buildings in the neighborhood, amount of the cerebral development. Indeed and it is only by such precautions as putting he is so cunning, and works occasionally with broken glass bottles round the foundation of a such human ingenuity, that accounts which are house attached to the establishment that the perfectly correct are sometimes received as mere proprietor is able to preserve it. All the neigh- fables. Incredible as the story may appear of boring fields are excavated by them; and it is their removing hens' eggs by one fellow lying not unusual for the earth to give way and leave on his back and grasping tightly his ovoid burthese subterraneous works exposed. In severe den with his forepaws, whilst his comrades drag frost, when it becomes impossible to cut up the him away by the tail, we have no reason to disbodies of the horses, and when the fragments of believe it, knowing as we do that they will carry flesh are almost too hard for the rats to feed upon, eggs from the bottom to the top of a house, lift they enter the body and devour the Aesh from ing them from stair to stair, the first rat pushing the inside, so that when the thaw comes the them up on its hind and the second lifting them workmen find nothing below the skin but a with its fore legs. They will extract the cotton skeleton, better cleared of its flesh than if it had from a flask of Florence oil, dipping in their been done by the most skilful operator. Their long tails, and repeating the maneuvre until ferocity, as well as their voracity, surpasses any they have consumed every drop. We have thing that can be imagined. M. Majendie found lumps of sugar in deep drawers at a displaced a dozen rats in a box in order to try some tance of thirty feet from the place where the experiments; when he reached home and opened petty-larceny was committed ; and a friend saw the box, there were but three remaining; these a rat mount a table on which a drum of figs was had devoured the rest, and had only left their placed, and straightway tip it over, scattering bones and tails."

its contents on the floor beneath, where a score We have been informed that these rats regu- of his expectant brethren sat watching for the larly marched in troops in search of water in windfall." His instinct is no less shown in the the dusk of the evening, and that they have selection of suitable food. He attacks the poroften been met in single file, stealing beside the tion of the elephant's tusks that abound with walls that lined the road to their drinking place. animal oil, in preference to that which contaios As the pavement in Paris overhangs the gutters, phosphate of lime, and the rat-gnawn ivory is the rats take advantage of this covered way to selected by the turner as fitted for billiard balls creep in safety from street to street. Their and other articles where the qualities of elasticity migratory habits are well known, and every and transparency are required. Thus the toothneighborhood has its tale of their travels. Mr. print of this little animal serves as a distinguishJesse relates an anecdote, communicated to himning mark of excellence in a precious material by a Sussex clergyman, which tends to prove devoted to the decorative arts. The rat does that the old English rat at least shows a con- not confine himself to inert substances ; when he sideration and care for its elders on the march is hard pressed for food he will attack any thing which is worthy of human philanthropy. “Walk- weaker than himself. Frogs, Goldsmith says, ing out in some meadows one evening, he ob- had been introduced into Ireland some considerserved a great number of rats migrating from able time before the brown rat, and had multi. one place to another. He stood perfectly still, plied abundantly, but they were pursued in their and the whole assemblage passed close to him. marshes by this indefatigable hunter and eaten His astonishment, however, was great when he clean from off the Emerald Isle. He does not saw amongst the number an old blind rat, which scruple to assault domestic poultry ; though held a piece of stick at one end in its mouth, rat which attempted to capture the chicken of while another had hold of the other end of it, game fowl, was killed by the mother with beak and thus conducted his blind companion.” A and spur in the course of twelve minutes. Thu


1857 9 d's


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hen seized it by the neck, shook it violently, in wheat-stacks which have been placed upon put out an eye, and plainly showed that the fowl the most cunningly-contrived stands. The fact in a conflict would be the more powerful of the is, these animals are tossed up with the sheaves two, if he was only equally daring. The num to the rick, wbere they increase and multiply at ber of young ducks which the rats destroyed in their leisure, and frequently to such an extent the Zoological Gardens rendered it necessary to that a rick seeming fair on the outside, is little surround the pools with a wire rat-fencing, better than a huge rat-pie. which halfway up las a pipe of wire-work, the The propensity of the rat to gnaw must not the circle of which is not complete by several be attributed altogether to a reckless determinainches in the under part, and the rat, unable to tion to overcome impediments. The nevercrawl along the concave roof which stops his on. ceasing action of his teeth is not a pastime, but ward path, is compelled to return discomfited. a necessity of his existence. The writer of an

The rats have been for a long time the pests interesting paper on rats in “Bentley's Miscelof these Gardens, attracted by the presence of lany" has explained so clearly the dentistry of large quantities of food. The grating under one the tribe, that we extract his account. of the tigers' dens is eaten through by this

(To be continued.) nimble-toothed burglar, who makes as light of copper-wire as of leaden pipes. Immediately

For Friends' Intelligencer. upon the construction of the new monkey-house, they took possession and ate through the floors Review of the Weather, &c., for Eighth in every direction to get at poor Jacko's bread.

month. Vigorous measures were taken to exclude them; Rain during some portion of the 24 hours, 19 d’s the floors were filled with concrete, and the open do. roof was ceiled; but they quietly penetrated

the whole or nearly the whole

day, through the plaster of the latter, as may be seen Cloudy without storms, by the holes to this day. They burrowed in the Ordinary clear, . . . old enclosure of the wombat till the ground was Average mean temperature of the month, 72.850 73.250

Highest quite rotten; and they still march about the den

do. occurring during any day of month,

90 d's 91 d's of the rhinoceros, and scamper over his impreg. Lowest do. do.

536 56 " dable hide. It is only by constantly hunting Amount of rain falling during the mo. 6 in 7.59in them with terriers that they can be kept down, Deaths in the city of Philada.


1691' 1510 and as many as a hundred iu a fortnight are The average mean temperature for the past often dispatched, their carcases being handed 68 years has been 72.62 deg. ; the lowest (in over to the vultures and eagles. Many of them 1816) 66 deg., and the highest (in 1851), 77.50 seek in the day time a securer retreat. They deg. have frequently been seen at evening swimming

Summer Temperature. in companies across the canal to forage in the Gardens through the night, and in the morning

The average of the Temperatures for the Sumthey returned to their permanent quarters by mer months for the past sixty-eight years has the same route.

been 73.23 deg. ; that for the Summer just The proprietors of the bonded-wheat ware- closed 72.50 deg., and for last year (1856), houses on the banks of the Thames are forced to 75.66 deg. While the highest occurring during take the utmost precautions against the entrance the entire period of 68 years occurred in the of these depredators; otherwise they would troop years 1828 and 1838, 77.66 deg., and the lowest in myriads from the sewers and water-side premi- in 1816, only 66 degrees ! ses, and, as they are undoubtedly in the habit It will be seen by the above, that the Summer of communicating among their friends the where temperature of 1857 was about three degrees abouts of any extraordinary supplies, they would lower than that of last year although only about, go on increasing day by day as the report of the three-quarters of a degree less than the average good news spread through rat-land.' To repel for the past sixty-eight years. their attentions, the wooden floors, and the under

When we experience (if ever we should) such parts of the doors of the granaries, are lined with a Summer as 1816, with the temperature for sheet-iron, and the foundations are sometimes the three Summer months ranging 61, 66 and set in concrete mixed with glass-matters too 68 degrees respectively, forming an average of hard for even their teeth to discuss.

only sixty-six degrees for the season, we may then Country rats in the summer take to the fields, talk about having a cool Summer! and create enormous havoc among the standing The continued healthfulness of our city, with corn. They nibble off the ears of wheat, and 181 deaths less than last year, (the month of each carry them to their runs and burrows, where year registering five entire weeks,) is certainly a large stores have been found hoarded up with all subject for congratulation and thankfulness. the forethought of the dormouse. Farmers are

J. M. E. often puzzled to account for the presence of rats Phila., 9th month, 1857.

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