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1 Pieased: that is, “If thou art a goddess, I cannot resist thy power; but if only a mortal creatare, God surely cannot lest or incline you to grieve or give pain to a poor creature that loves you."--Tytler 2 Inlaid like fret-work. 8 A sort of precious stone. 4 Shining $ Spangles.
6 "Made in the form of a love-knot or garland."— Tytler. ? A kind of lily. It is conjectured that the royal poet may hero allude covertly to the name of his mistress, which in the diminutive, was Janet or Jonet.-- Thomson's Edition of King's Quhair. Ayr,1824. * The repetition of this word is apparently a mistake of the original transcriber.
Qu. Is this an error for sair email, i. e. enamel ? 10 Gold-work. 11 Fire, flame. 12 Before.
13 A little.
And when she walked had a little thraw
Under the sweete greene boughis bent,
She turned has, and furth hier wayis went;
But tho began mine aches and torment,
WILLIAM CAXTON. 1413–1491.
O Albion! still thy gratitude confess
Lord I taught by thee, when Cartox bade
His silent words for ever speak:
The name of William Caxton will ever be held in grateful remembrance by the world of letters, for he it was who introduced the art of printing into England. He was born in the county of Kent in the year 1413, and at the age of fifteen was put as an apprentice to a merchant of London. In con. sideration of his integrity and good behavior, bis master bequeathed him a small sum of money as a capital with which to trade. He was soon chosen by the Mercer's Company to be their agent in Holland and Flanders, in which countries he spent about twenty-three years. While there, the new invention of the art of printing2 was everywhere spoken of; and Caxton, at a great expense of tinie and labor, and with an industry to which all obstacles will ever give way, made himself coinplete master of it, as then known. He first employed bimseil m translating from French into Englislı, T'he Reruyell' of the Hisories of Troye, which was published at Cologne, 1471, and is the first look ever printed in the English language. The next year Caxton returned to Englanıl, anil in 1474 put forth The Game of Chess, ren arkable as being the first book ever printed in England. It was entitled, The Game and Playe of the Chesse: Transluted out of the French, and imprunted by William Cactoi. Fyayshed the last day of Marche, the yer of our Lord God, a thousand foure hundred, Irrij.
1 " It would, perhaps, be dificult to select even from Chaucer's most finished works a long specimen of descriptive poetry so uniformly elegant as this: indeed some of the verses are so highly finished, that they would not dishgure the compositions of Dryden, Pope, or Gray."--Elis.
2 It is not a little singular that the history of printing, that art which commemorates all other inventions, and which hands down to posterity every important event, is 80 enveloped in mystery that the ablest minds in Europe have had long and acrimonious disputations respecting the question to what place and to what person the invention is rightfully due. There is not space here to give even an outline of these controversies; I can merely give the result. The two cities which claim the discovery arc Haarlem or Hacrlem, a city of North Holland, and Mentz, in Germany on the Rhine The dispute, however, as Mr. Tiniperley properly observes, has turned rather on words than facta arising from the different definitions of the word PRINTING. If the honor is to be awarded from the discovery of the principle, it is unquestionably due to Lawrence Coster, of Haarlem, who first found out the method of impressing characters on paper, by means of blocks of carved wood, about 1430 If movable types be considered the criterion, as it seems to me they must, the merit of the invention is due to John Guttenburg, of Mentz, who used them about 1440: while Schoeller, in conjunction with Faust. was the first who founded types of metal.
From all the arguments and opinions, therefore, which have been adduced in this iniportant con. troversy. the following conclusion may be satisfactorily drawn. TO JOHN GUTTENBURG, of Meniz is due the appellation of Father OF PRINTING; to PETER SCHOEFFER that of FATHER OF LETTER-POUY DING; and to JOHN PAUST that of ENERGETIC PATrox, by whose pecuniary aid the wonderful discovery was brought rapidly to perfection
Caxton was a man who united great modesty and simplicity of character to indefatigable industry. He styled himself u simple William Caxton." He printed, in all, about sixty-four different works, a great number of which he translated as well as printed; and those which he did not translate, he often revised and altered; so that, in point of language, they inay be considered as his own. He continued to prepare works for the press to the very close uf his life; and though of no brilliancy of talent, he exemplifies, in a remarkable degree, how much good one man may do, of even moderate powers, provided he industriously and faithfully employs all that has been given to him with an eye single to one great object.?
Among other works 3 printed by Caxton were the Chronicles of England, which contained indeed some true history, but much more of romantic jablo. As a specimen of the latter, the following may be given upon the
ORIGIN OF THE NAME OF ALBION.
Befure that I will speak of Brute," it shall be shewed how the land of England was first named Albion, and by what enchesons it was so named.
Of the noble land of Syria, there was a royal king and mighty, and a man of great renown, that was called Dioclesian, that well and worthily him governed and ruled thro' his noble chivalry ; so that he conquered all the lands about hiin; so that almost all iho kings of the world to him were attendant. It befel thus that this Dioclesian spoused a gentle damsel that was wonder fair, that was his uncle's daughter, Labana. And she loved him as reason would ; so that he had by her thirty-three daughters; of the which the eldest was called Albine. And these damsuls, wher they came unto age, became so fair that it was wonder. Whereot Dioclesian anon let make a summoning, and commanded by his letters, that all the kings that held of him, should come at a cer. tain day, as in his letters were contained, to make a feast ruyal. At which day, thither they came, and brought with them admirals, princes, and dukes, and noble chivalry. The feast was royally arrayed; and there they lived in joy and mirth enough, that it was wonder to wyte. And it befel thus, thut Dioclesian thought to marry his daughters among all those kings that were of that solemnity. And so they spake and did, that Albine, his eldest daughter, and all her sisters, richly were married unto thirty-three kings, that were lords of great honour and of power, at this solemnity. And when the solemnity was done, every king took his wife, and led them into their own country, and there made them queens.
1 Compil.tion-selection. 2 Read --"Life of Caxton," published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 8 Por a full list of his works, see Ames's "Typographical Antiqui ties," or * Timperley's History of Printing," page 155. This Brute was she grandson of Eneas
6 Cbanco and the old chronicles derived the descent of the Britons from the Trojans.
The story then goes on to relate how these thirty-three wives conspired to kill their husbands, all on the same night, and “anon, as their lords were asleep, they cut all their husbands' throats; and so they slew them all."
When that Dioclesian, their father, heard of this thing, he be. came furiously wroth against his daughters, and anon would them all have brente." But all the barons and lords of Syria courseled not so for to do such straitness to his own daughters ; but only should void the land of them for evermore; so that they never should come again ; and so he did.
And Dioclesian, that was their father, anon commanded them to go into a ship, and delivered to them victuals for half a year. And when this was done, all the sisters went into the ship, and sailed forth in the sea, and took all their friends to A polin, that was their God. And so long they sailed in the sea, till at the last they came and arrived in an isle, that was all wilderness. And when dame Albine was come to that land, and all her sisters, this Albine went first forth out of the ship, and said to her other sis. ters: For as much, (said she,) as I am the eldest sister of all this company,
and first this land nath taken; and for as much as my name is Albine, I will that this land be called Albion, after mine
And anon, all her sisters granted to her with a good will.
WILLIAM DUNBAR. 1465-1530.
WILLIAM Dunbar is pronounced by Ellis,4 to be “ the greatest poet Scotand has produced.” His writings, however, with scarcely an exception, remained in the obscurity of manuscript, till tbe beginning of the last century; but his fame since then has been continually rising. His chief poems are The Thistle And The Rose, The Dance, and The Golden TERGE. The Thistle and the Rose was occasioned by the marriage of James IV. of Scotland with Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England, an event in which the whole future political state of both nations was vitally interested, and which ultimately produced the union of the two crowns and
Specimens of the Early English Poets," vol. I. p. 377: but should he not have excepted Burns and Sir Walter Scott
kingdoms, in the person of James VI. of Scotland, and I. of England, 1603— 1625. This poem opens with the following stanzas, remarkable for their descriptive and picturesque beauties:
Quhen! Merche wes with variand windis past,
Quhil al the house illumynit of her lemys. 12 Tas Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins through Hell has much merit. On the eve of Leni, a day of general confession, the poet, in a dream, sees a display of beaven and hell. Mahomet, 13 or the devil, commands a dance to be performed by a select party of fiends, and immediately the Seven Deadly Sins appear. The following is a description of Envi:
Next in the dance followit Invi,
Hid malyce and dispyte;
With feynit wordis quhyte.
To ley 19 that had delyte.
Of tham can nevir be quyte !** 23 As a specimen of one of his minor poems take the following, containing much wholesome advice
1 When he has the force of ro. 9 Taken leave. 8 Mother. 4 Whose. 6 Looked. 6 Holled. 1 With gocd will. 8 Lovers. 9 Slumbering 10 Attire. 11 Forged, made. 12 Brightness
13 Tbe Christians, in the crusades, were accustomed to hear the Saracens swear by their Prophet Mahomet, who then became, in Europe, another name for the Devil.
14 Enmity. 16 Hatred. 16 Trembled. 17 Dissembling gallant. 18 Backbiters. 19 Lie. » Rounders whispers. To mind in the ear, or simply to round, was to waisper to the enr. Pasities