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Condition of Spanish South America.
by an honorable capitulation.—City of Cordova, for navigation, according to the orders of the Em24th of August, 1821.
peror. AUGUSTIN DE ITURBIDE. Art. 8. The Secretary of Despatch of War JUAN O'DONOJU.
and Marine, and that of the Treasury, in what A faithful copy of the original:
concerns those branches, shall send to him for his JOSE DOMINGUEZ.
information the imperial orders which have been A faithful copy of the original which remains sent by the ministers relative to them.
Art. 9. Preserving the état major of the army, in this commandancy general:
under the plan which is approved, according to JOSE J. DE HERRERA,
the proposition of the generalissmo himself, he THOMAS ILLANEZ.
shall name two generals, who, as chiefs of it, may
communicate the orders which they give; and Decree of the Regency of Mexico.
may also pursue, in their name, the correspondThe Regency of the Empire has been pleased to the expedition of business.
ence with the Secretaries of State, for facilitating address to me ihe following decree: The Regency of the Empire, provisional Gov. formed, he shall appoint one of the generals men
Art. 10. When the état major of marine is ernor in absence of the Emperor, to all who shall |tioned in the former article, or shall appoint a third, see or hear these presents: Know ye, that the Sov- if the multiplicity of business require it, for the ereign Junta of Provisional Government has de- discharge of the duties, and attaining the ends creed as follows:
mentioned. “In consequence of the desire expressed in the
Art. 11. He shall have the title of Highness ; official letter of the 23d of October last, by his but, in official letters which may be addressed 10 Excellency D. Augustin de Iturbide, that this Sov- him, the aforesaid signature shall be omitted, to ereign Junta would be pleased to determine the powers and duties belonging to him as Admiral preserve this.distinction for the Regency.
Art. 12. His guard shall be composed of two Generalissimo, for the laudable purpose of pot exceeding in the former, nor coming short in the lat- companies of infantry, with a banner, which shall ter, His Majesty has thought fit to declare that the present arms and beat a march. This guard shall prerogatives, powers, and honors, designated in the
only do honors to the persons of the imperialfamily. fifteen following articles, belong exclusively to him. fore four body guards, and behind an escort of
ART. 13. When he goes out, there shall go beARTICLE 1. He shall have command of the forces by sea and land, comprehending in bis gov
twenty men, commanded by their officer.
ART. 14. In the court and residence of the ernment the economical and administrative, according to the laws; consequently, all propositions respondent honors.
Emperor, the posts of the place shall do him corof office, in both branches, shall pass through his respondent honors. band, of officers and chiefs, from those of brigadier, from, the fortresses, and garrisons, the troops shall
Art. 15. On his entrance into, and departure inclusive, downwards, in the land army, and the be drawn up, and the artillery shall salute him equivalents in the other branches. He shall pro- with twenty-one guns, he having in every thing, pose also for the governments of garrisons, commanders of provinces, captains general, and shali by sea and land, supreme military honors. countersign the despatches of all these offices, re- its execution; and that it be printed, published,
The Regency shall take the charge of disposing ceiving them from the Emperor, and passing them and circulated. to the Secretary of War for their progress.
Mexico, 14th November, 1821, (first of the inART. 2. He shall direct the instruction of military colleges, and of corps of all the armories of dependence of this
J. M. G. Y ALCOZER, President. the army and marine.
A. DE GAMAY Y CORDOVA, ART. 3. The inspection of the manufactures of
JOSE R. SUAREZ PEREDA, gunpowder, arms, munitions, and clothing, shall
J. M. E. Y VALDIOIELSO, be his province, with every thing else which re
Vocal Secretaries. lates to those branches. Also, he shall have charge of all that relates to arsenals, artillerists, manu
To the Regency of the Empire. factures, &c. belonging to the marine.
Therefore, we command all tribunals, justices, ART. 4. He shall watch over the disbursement chiefs, governors, and other authorities, as well of the military treasury for sea and land, and the civil as military and ecclesiastic, of whatever class just distribution of the funds destined for those and dignity, that they keep, and cause to be kept, branches.
fulfilled, and executed, the present decree, in all Art. 5. He shall attend to the distribution and its parts. Ye shall attend io its execution, and movements of the land and sea forces, according to provide for its being printed, published, and circuthe orders of the Emperor which he may receive lated.-In Mexico, the 14th of November, 1821. for that purpose,
AUG. DE ITURBIDE, Pres. ART. 6. He shall be the protector of commerce,
M. DE LA BARCENA, navigation, police, and the works of the ports, as
ISIDRO YANEZ, well as of the fortifications of the fortresses of the
M. VELASQUEZ DE LEON, empire, with the powers of admiral.
ANTONIO, Bishop of Puebla. ÅRT. 7. He shall grant passports and licenses
A. D. JOSE DOMINGUEZ.
Condition of Spanish South America. By order of the Regency of the Empire, I com- offspring, which has now become capable of receivmunicate this to you for your information. ing other aliment than milk; if the chick whose God preserve you many years.
wings have grown flies alone, and no longer surJOSE DOMINGUEZ. fers itself to be conducted by the bird which forMexico, November 15, 1821.
merly transported it; if the pubescent virgin con
sents to the nuptials which compel her to abandon Manifesto of the Provisional Board of Government to family; is it not just that America, having ac
the paternal dwelling, in order to form a new the People of the Empire.
quired the strength which justifies it, should emanAfter the long night of three ages in which cipate herself? America has lain plunged in darkness, the aurora It has been long since she arrived at her youth; of her felicity at last burst forth; that day dawned but it has also been long since assent was refused for which she had sighed, and which she desires to her emancipation; for, before that was accommay be perpetual. This consummation would plished, she had attained the age of virility, which never have been obtained if it had not been found- justifies it still more. The qualifications which ed in justice, or if justice herself were not to be demonstrate that age are to be found in her, both the base of the Government which is to consoli- the moral ones of refinement and intelligence, and date it. But the Junta has the satisfaction to an- the physical ones of arms and population. The nounce that both considerations are combined in increase of their families alone prevented Abraham the emancipation which we have accomplished. and Lot from dwelling in common, and they took
Nature has marked out the territories of nations different routes in order to live separate. by rivers, mountains, and other boundaries, which Why, then, deny to America the justice which establish their limits. How many States are di- may assist her in emancipating herself, supposing vided by the Po and the Rhine, as the Alps and this to be her situation and circumstances ? Must the Pyrenees divide France from Italy and from she not listen to the voice of nature, which speaks Spain. From this last, immense seas and a vast to her even through her insensible organs? May distance divide America—distances which not only she not burst, like the plant, the teguments wbich make them different as kingdoms, but establish covered her when young? Must she be forever in them as belonging to two different worlds. Policy pupilage, though at the age of puberty ? and must must necessarily conform to the order of nature; and she remain a child of the family even when she is as it would be monstrous to put in the same space both able and willing to shake off the paternal au. the contrary elements of fire and water, it is equally thority? But even this is not all: nalure tells her so to unite in one province people who are distinct still more, especially through the organ of reason. and distant, especially if that difference and dis Whenever the bird can force the door of its cage, tance extend to the extremity of the two worlds. or any other animal break the ligaments which Since, then, it embraces all the contrarieties which confine it, they do not hesitate a moment in doing climate can originate, two vast globes and oppo- so, for reason teaches them to seek their own site movements cannot revolve without embarrass- happiness. This is what justifies still more the ment upon one axis, but each requires its own. independence of America. She has been able In the same manner, two empires of distinct and to burst her fetters in order to acquire her libopposite qualities require two Governments, with erty, and to escape from the yoke which impeout being susceptible of being united in one, which ded her prosperity, and placed her labor, industry, is never sufficient to govern both well.
commerce, and all her movements, within such If occasionally, the order of nature is violated, bounds and restraints as might enfeeble them, in in departing from the boundaries she fixes, it must order to make preponderant ihe importance of the happen, as with fire enclosed in the mines, that an mother country, or rather in order that the sole explosion will finally take place. The two Spains, and absolute power might be vested in the latter. Old and New, or, which is the same thing, Castilé Between the power and performance in this case, and Mexico, which have hitherto borne those and with respect to such high and interesting obnames, belong to distinct regions of the earth, to jects as are dictated by nature and demonstrated different portions of the globe, to opposite zones of by reason, there oughi to be no space whatever, the sphere—differences which at once evince the fór they immediately touch each other. justice of their separation. If they have been united, The Provisional Board of Government, installed as Esau and Jacob in the womb of Rebecca, and for these purposes, in consequence of their attainhave long remained so, this alone, giving to the ment and the occupation of the capital, has do latter her growth, has rendered it necessary that other view than them. It has been assembled in they should separate, as these twins did, first in order to found, perfect, and perpetuate them. The the maternal bosom, and afterwards in their de- fundamental principles of government wbich they scendants.
have adopted appertain to the first; the mode of The growth of nations constitutes, successively, procedure upon which they have resolved to the their youth and virility-ages which demand their second; the lies and ligaments which they have separation. It is very natural that when a nation proposed to themselves to the third ; and they exhas arrived at these ages, she should refuse to de- pose it all to the people, in order that they may pend upon one whose assistance she no longer judge of the sincerity and propriety of their inienneeds, in order to act for herself. If even among tions and conduct. brutes, the teats of the dam are forsaken by the The foundations should correspond to the edi
Condition of Spanish South America.
fice, and are what give it its principal strength. to relate what all and each of its individuals have The principles of government which have been performed--the actions which have signalized adopted conformably to the plan of Iguala and many of the soldiers and chiefs, especially the the treaty of Cordova are those received by the first, who animated the rest? What reward can most illustrious nations. A representative in pre- we give them, or what can recompense their beneference to an absolute government, a limited monefits? as Tobias the youth demanded of his father, archy, and a constitutional system with which we speaking of his benefactor. We have no other are already acquainted, are the fundamental max- choice, inasmuch as reward is impossible, but to ims, the angular stone of our edifice. There is manifest to them our gratitude; to which end nothing to apprehend from the ideas opposed to many steps have been taken, and others will conthese, nor from those which will not bear the tinue to be taken. light of day. Those which animate us are purely Finally, the bonds which the Junta has proliberal. Until the meeting of the Cortes, the posed to itself, in order to insure and prolong our Spanish constitution and laws will be observed, independence, are, besides the union of the inhabiso far as they are not inapplicable to the peculiar tants of the empire, which constitutes one of the situation of the country.
guarantees, an alliance, federation, and commerce The plan of operations or mode of proceeding with other nations. The Spanish nation, to whom of the Junta has been to appoint a Regency to we owe our origin, and to whom we are attached exercise the executive power, reserving to itself by the closest ties, ought to be the first and most the legislative power for such purposes as cannot privileged in our consideration. We do not conbe delayed until the meeting of the Cortes, to tent ourselves with the mere family connexion whom this branch of the Government appertains. which results from calling one of their princes of Had the Janta assumed this power in its whole the royal blood to our empire. We aspire to extent, it would have usurped it from the people; more; we desire to unite ourselves in a fraternity but if it were not to exercise it provisionally in which may turn to the advantage of the whole cases of urgency, the Governmeni would remain nation, and let it know that our political independefective; the necessities of the moment could not dence, to which we have been compelled by the be provided for, nor the thousand junctures which causes set forth, does not loosen the bonds which may present themselves be met.
unite us, nor cool our affections, which ought to To obviate both the one and the other, they be the more sincere, in order to destroy all resenthave already prescribed to themselves a rule not ment. to sanction any thing, even provisionally, unless We desire, then, that our fraternity may be its nature is such that it will not admit of being made known to the whole world; that European delayed until the meeting of the Cortes, to whom Spaniards, in virtue of that title alone, may domievery thing else is referred. The wisdom of their ciliate themselves in our country, subjecting themmeasures, which involves the perfection of the selves to its laws, and under the inspection of our liberty and happiness of the people, depends upon Government; that our ports may be opened to the choice which they may make of proper rep- them for the purposes of trade in such a manner resentatives. The province of this board is to as may be arranged by our laws, and that a preinform them on the subject, in order that, all ference may be given to them as far as possible passions being laid aside, and intrigue and party above other nations; that there may be established spirit banished, they may have no other end in between them and us, if practicable and agreeable view than the welfare of the country. For this to them, a good reciprocal understanding, reguthe Junta is now laboring, and to take such meas-lated by definitive treaties; and that in every ures that the Congress may be assembled in as thing there may appear the most cordial amity. short time as possible.
With regard to foreign nations, we shall preserve In the mean time, the public debt, so called, has harmony with all, commercial relations and others, been acknowledged, and ordered to be paid as as may be expedient. soon as affairs are in a condition to do so; at the The Junta congratulates itself that the people same time, a stop has been put to the arbitrary of the Empire will perceive, in what has been' contributions with which the inhabitants were set forth, at least their wishes for a successful reoppressed without any advantage to the treasury: sult, which they expect from the patriotism and The first fact is announced for the satisfaction of intelligence of the inhabitants, who may suggest the creditors, the second for that of the public, and to it whatever they deem conducive to a better both as an evidence of the proceedings of the government, which the Junta will hold in due Government. Would it were possible for the lat- consideration. ter to pay another debt much greater, and of
ANTONIO, BISHOP OF PUEBLA, a superior kind, of which it confesses itself a
President. debtor. Such is that of the deserving army,
J. J. E. DE LOS MONTEROS, which, animated by the purest patriotism, and
J. R. SUAREZ PEREDA. braving dangers and difficulties at the expense of Mexico, Oct. 13, 1821. inexpressible sacrifices, have consummated the arduous undertaking which Heaven was pleased to protect and crown with success. But there is To the Senate of the United States : no tongue to express what it deserves, no hand to I transmit to the Senate, agreeably to their resoremunerate its services. Who is there competent Ilution of yesterday, a report from the Secretary of
Condition of Spanish South America.
State, with copies of the papers requested by that the inhabitants. In Chili, an individual suppresses resolution, in relation to the recognition of the the sentiments of the inhabitants, and his violence South American provinces.
presa ges a sudden change. On the coast of Firma, JAMES MONROE. also, the Spanish banners wave, and the insurgent WASHINGTON, April 26, 1822.
Generals are occupied in quarrelling with their own compatriots, who prefer taking the part of a
free Power to that of being the slave of an advenDEPARTMENT OF STATE, April 25, 1822.
turer. In Mexico, too, there is no Government; The Secretary of State, to whom has been re- and the result of the questions which the chiefs ferred a resolution of the Senate of this day, re- commanding there have put to Spain is not known. questing the President to communicate to the Where, then, are those Governments which ought Senate any information he may have, proper to to be recognised ? where the pledges of their stabe disclosed, from our Minister at Madrid, or from bility ? where the proof that those provinces will the Spanish Minister resident in this country, con not return to a union with Spain, when so many cerning the views of Spain relative to the recog- of their inhabitants desire it? and, in fioe, where nition of the independence of the South American the right of the United States to sanction and decolonies, and of the dictamen of the Spanish Cortes, clare legitimate a rebellion without cause, and the has the honor to submit to the President copies of event of which is not even decided ? the papers particularly referred to.
I do not think it necessary to prove that, if the JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. state of Spanish America were such as it is repre
sented in the Message; that if the existence of its Don Joaquin de Anduaga to the Secretary of State.
Governments were certain and established; that
if the impossibility of its reunion with Spain Washington, March 9, 1822.
were so indisputable; and that if the justice of Sir: In the National Intelligencer of this day, its recognition were so evident, the Powers of I have seen the Message sent by the President to Europe, interested in gaining the friendship of the House of Representatives, in which he proposes countries so important for their commerce, would the recognition by the United States of the insur- have been negligent in fulfilling it. But, seeing gent Governments of Spanish America. How how distant the prospect is of even this result, and great my surprise was, may be easily judged by faithful to the ties which unite them with Spain, any one acquainted'with the conduct of Spain to- they await the issue of the contest, and abstain wards this Republic, and who knows the immense from doing a gratuitous injury to a friendly Gorsacrifices which she has made to preserve her ernment, the advantages of which are doubtful, friendship. In fact, who could think that, in re- and the 'odium certain. Such will be that which turn for the cession of her most important provinces Spain will receive from the United States, in case in this hemisphere; for the forgetting of the plun- the recognition proposed in the Message should der of her commerce by American citizens; for take effect; and posterity will be no less liable to the privileges granted to their navy; and for as wonder that the Power which has received the great proofs of friendship as one nation can give most proofs of the friendship of Spain should be another, this Executive would propose that the the one delighted with being the first to take a insurrection of the ultramarine possessions of Spain step which could have only been expected from should be recognised ? And, moreover, will not another that had been injured. his astonishment be augmented to see that this Although I could enlarge upon this disagreeable Power is desirous to give the destructive example subject, I think it useless to do so, because the of sanctioning the rebellion of provinces which sentiments which the Message ought to excite in have received no offence from the mother country the breast of every Spaniard can be no secret to to those whom she has granted a participation of you. Those which the King of Spain will expe a free constitution, and to whom she has extended rience at receiving a notification so unexpected all the rights and prerogatives of Spanish citizens? will be doubtless very disagreeable; and at the In vain will a parallel be attempted to be drawn same time that I hasten to communicate it to His between the emancipation of this Republic and Majesty, I think it my duty to protest, as I do that which the Spanish rebels attempt ; and his solemnly protest, against the recognition of the tory is sufficient to prove that, if a harassed and Governments mentioned, of the insurgent Spanish perseculed province has a right to break its chains, provinces of America, by the United Staies, de others, loaded with benefits, elevated to the high claring that it can in no way now, or at any time, rank of freemen, ought only to bless and embrace lessen or invalidate in the least the right of Spain more closely the protecting country which has be- to the said provinces, or to employ whatever means stowed such favors upon them.
may be in her power to reunite them to the rest of But even admitting that morality ought to yield her dominions. to policy: what is the present state of Spanish I pray you, sir, to be pleased to lay this protest America, and what are its Governments, to entitle before the President, and I flatter myself that conthem to recognition ? Buenos Ayres is sunk in vinced of the solid reasons which have dictated it, the most complete anarchy, and each day sees new he will suspend the measure which he has proposed despots produced, who disappear the next. Peru, to Congress, and that he will give to His Cathoconquered by a rebel army, has near the gates of lic Majesty this proof of his friendship and of his its capital another Spanish army, aided by part of justice.
Condition of Spanish South America.
I remain, with the most distinguished considera- may yet be disposed or enabled to use, with the tion, praying God to guard your life many years, view of reuniting those provinces to the rest of your most obedient humble servant,
her dominions. It is the mere acknowledgment JOAQUIN DE ANDUAGA.
of existing facts, with the view to the regular esJohn Q. Adams, Sec. of State.
tablishment with the nations newly formed of
those relations, political and commercial, which The Secretary of State to the Minister from Spain.
it is the moral obligation of civilized and chris
tian nations to entertain reciprocally with one DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
another. Washington, April 6, 1822.
It will not be necessary to discuss with you a Sir: Your letter of the 9th of March was, im- detail of facts upon which your information apmediately after I had the bonor of receiving it, pears to be materially different from that which laid before the President of the United States, by has been communicated to this Government, and whom it has been deliberately considered, and by is of public notoriety, nor the propriety of the dewhose direction I am, in replying to it, to assure nominations which you have attributed to the inyou of the earnestness and sincerity with which habitants of the South American provinces. It is ihis Government desires to entertain and to culti- not doubted that other and more correct views of vate the most friendly relations with that of Spain. the whole subject will very shortly be taken by
This disposition has been manifested not only your Government, and that it, as well as the other by the uniform course of the United States in their European Governments, will show that deference direct political and commercial intercourse with to the example of the United States which you Spain, but by the friendly interest which they urge it as the duty or the policy of the United bave felt in the welfare of the Spanish nation, States to show to theirs. The effect of the example and by the cordial sympathy, with which they of one independent nation upon the councils and have witnessed their spirit and energy exerted in measures of another can be just only so far as it is maintaining their independence of all foreign con- voluntary; and as the United States desire that trol and their right of self-government.
their example should be followed, so it is their inIn every question relating to the independence tention to follow that of others upon no other of a nation, iwo principles are involved : one of principle. They confidently rely that the time is right, and the other of fact; the former exclusively at hand when all the Governments of Europe depending upon the determination of the nation friendly to Spain, and Spain herself, will not only itself, and the latter resulting from the successful concur in the acknowledgment of the independexecution of that determination. This right has ence of the American nations, but in the sentiment been recently exercised, as well by the Spanish that nothing will tend more effectually to the welnation in Europe, as by several of those countries fare and happiness of Spain than the universal in the American hemisphere which had for two concurrence in that recognition. or three centuries been connected as colonies with I pray, you, sir, to receive the assurance of my Spain. In the conflicts which have attended these distinguished consideration. revolutions, the United States have carefully ab
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. stained from taking any part respecting the right Don J. DE ANDUAGA, Envoy, fc. of the nations concerned in them to maintain or newly organize their own political constitutions, Don Joaquin de Anduaga to the Secretary of State. and observing, wherever it was a contest by arms, the most impartial neutrality. But the civil warin
PHILADELPHIA, April 11, 1822. which Spain was for some years involved with the Sir: I have had the honor of receiving your inhabitants of her colonies in America has, in sub- note of the 6th instant, in which you were pleased stance, ceased to exist. Treaties equivalent to an to inform me that this Government has recognised ackoowledgment of independence have been con- the independence of the insurgent provinces of cluded by the cominanders and viceroys of Spain Spanish America. I despatched immediately to herself with the republic of Colombia, with Mex- Spain one of the secretaries of this legation to ico, and with Peru; while, in the provinces of carry to His Catholic Majesty news as important La Plata and in Chili, no Spanish force has for as unexpected; and, until I receive his royal orseveral years existed to dispuie the independence ders upon the subject, I have only to refer to my which the inhabitants of those countries had de- protest of the 9th of March last, still insisting upon clared.
its contents as if its substance were repeated in the Under these circumstances, the Government of present note. the United States, far from consulting the dictates With the greatest respect, I renew the assurof a policy questionable in its morality, has yielded | ance of my distinguished consideration. to an obligation of duty of the highest order, by
JOAQUIN DE ANDUAGA. recognising as independent states nations which, after deliberately asserting their right to that cha: Extract of a letter from Mr. Forsyth to the Secretary racter, had maintained and established it against all the resistance which had been or could be
of State, dated brought to oppose it. This recognition is neither
MADRID, February 14, 1822. intended to invalidate any right of Spain, nor to I have the honor to enclose to you a hurried affect the employment of any means which she translation of the last dictamen of the commission