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principally half-breeds and Indians, have been established by the Hudson's Bay Company; but the success of the enterprise is yet doubtful. And, again, at page 397, the author says:— With regard to colonization it has been already said, that a very small proportion of the Hudson Bay Company's territories is capable of being rendered productive by cultivation.' Mr. Greenhow then alludes to the Red River settlement, and the unfortunate results of the first attempts to colonize it, and adds :
-The land may be considered fertile when compared with other parts of the continent situate far to the north; it is, however, deficient in wood, and notwithstanding all the advantages held out by the Hudson's Bay Company, there is no probability it will ever rise to importance in any way, and, least of all, as a check to incursions from the United States, which seems to be one of the principal objects proposed by its founders.'
Several of the Hudson's Bay Company's forts are situated in the country N.W. of the Red River. Fort Pelly is a compact, well-ordered post on the route from Fort Garry, on the Red River, to Fort Carlton. It is sheltered on the north by a range of woods, and has the Assiniboine River in front; the cold in December is terrific, sometimes—44°, equal to 76 degrees of frost.
Carlton Fort is situated on the south side of the Saskatchewan River, and is defended by high palisades, and a gallery surrounding the whole square, planted with wall pieces, into which, however, the Indians fired several times during the summer of 1835. Provisions were unusually scarce, when visited by Mr. T. Simpson in 1836, the great fires in autumn having driven the buffalo to a distance. The route to Fort La Crosse lay first through an open country consisting of low, round, grassy hills, interspersed with clumps of poplar, occasionally of pines, and with many small lakes to the boundary of the pine forest, in latitude 53° 30' north; thence hills, lakes, lakelets and brooks, to a hilly tract of fourteen miles in extent, which divides the waters that flow towards the Saskatchewan and Churchill Rivers. From Green Lake to Beaver River is swampy and wooded ; and
thence to Long Lake chain are pine woods. Fort La Crosse, in 107° 54' 30' west on the border of the lake, is neat and compact; the country around low and swampy. At the portage la Loche, north of Fort Crosse, the hills are a thousand feet in height, steep, and command a fine view of the Clear water river, and its picturesque valley ; thence to the confluence with the Athabasca River, whose broad bosom is studded with numerous islands that give it a lake-like appearance.
At Fort Chipewyan, latitude 58° 43' 38'' north, longitude 111° 18/ 3211 west, the surface consists of rocks and swamps, and the climate precludes all prospect of rearing farm produce ; even potatoes have to be brought down from Fish River; and when the coarse grass, cut in the swamps for the use of the few horses and oxen required for drawing fire-wood to the fort, fails, fish from the Athabasca river is the only provender obtainable for the cattle. Fort Edmonton is situated on the northern branch of the Saskatchewan River, in lat. 53° 45' N. long. 113° 10' W., visited by Sir G. Simpson in his progress from the Red River to the Columbia and Fort Vancouver. The fort is of an hexagonal form, well built, with high pickets and bastions, and battlemented gateways; it is on an almost perpendicular height commanding the river. The fort is painted inside and out with devices to suit the taste of the savages who frequent it. Over the gateways are a fantastic pair of vanes, and the ceilings and walls of the hall present gaudy colours and fantastic sculptures, which the Indians admire. The buildings are smeared with red earth; the savages are awed by so much finery, and respect what appears to them grand structures.
The settlement on the Red River, distant from Montreal, by the Ottawa River, about 1800 miles, in latitude 50° north, longitude 970 west, is elevated 800 feet above the sea, in a level country, contiguous to the wooded borders of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers, along which the settlement extends for fifty miles. The soil is comparatively fertile, and the climate salubrious, but summer frosts, generated by undrained marshes,
sometimes blast the hopes of the husbandman. The Hudson's Bay Company, by the introduction, at a great expense, of rams and other stock, have improved the breed of domestic animals, which are now abundant: wheat, barley, oats, maize, potatoes, and hops thrive; flax and hemp are poor and stunted. The river banks are cultivated for half a mile inland, but the back level country remains in its natural state, and furnishes a coarse hay for the settlers' stock during the long and severe winter, which lasts from November to April, or May, when Lake Winipeg is unfrozen, and the river navigation to Hudson's Bay commences, viâ Norway House entrepôt, at the northern extremity of the lake.
The population is in number about 6000, consisting of Europeans, half-breeds, and Indians. The two principal churches, the Protestant and Roman Catholic, the Gaol, the Hudson's Bay Company's chief buildings, the residence of the Roman Catholic Bishop, and the houses of some retired officers of the fur trade, are built of stone, which has to be brought from a distance; but the houses of the settlers are built of wood, whitewashed or painted externally.
' A great abundance of English goods is imported, both by the Hudson's Bay Company and by individuals, in the Company's annual ships to York Factory; and disposed of in the colony at moderate prices.'—(Mr. T. Simpson.) There are fifteen wind and three water-mills to grind the wheat, and prepare the malt of the settlers, The Hudson's Bay Company have long endeavoured by rewards and arguments to excite an exportation of tallow, hides, wool, &c. to England; but the bulky nature of the exports, the long and dangerous navigation to Hudson's Bay, and the habits of the half-bred race, who form the mass of the people, and generally prefer chasing the buffalo to agriculture or regular industry, have rendered their efforts ineffectual.
Lord Selkirk, with whom the Red River Settlement originated, first put forth his views on colonization, in 1802 ; his object being to prevent the Highlanders migrating to countries not under the
British flag. The Hudson's Bay Company, to promote the laudable object, made a large grant of land to his Lordship on the Red River, and gave him all the aid in their power, to enable him to form a Scotch Colony. Several settlers were sent out from Scotland, and in 1813, the settlers were about 100 in number, -in 1814, about 200; and in 1815, about 300. The hostility evinced by the North-West Company,—their determination to destroy the settlement-by fair or by foul means,-the murder of Governor Semple and more than twenty of the Colonists, on the 19th June, 1816; and the expulsion of many of the settlers, caused great distress, and for a time ruined the place. Lord Selkirk died in 1820, since which period no emigrants have been sent from Europe. Under the auspices of the Company, the population now consists of 6000, notwithstanding the migrations towards the Columbia and across the frontier. Generally speaking, the Canadians, who are Romanists, occupy the Assiniboine and upper section of the Red River; and the Europeans and Indians, who are mostly Protestants, the lower section of the Red River; there is therefore but little intermingling of sects. The Roman Catholic Bishop and three Priests receive a gratuity annually from the Hudson's Bay Company. The Protestants have two Clergymen; one is paid by the Hudson's Bay Company, and the other by the Church Missionary Society. There are six principal schools for the ordinary branches of plain education; the Roman Catholics have also seminaries for elementary instruction, and the bishop superintends a school of industry, where young females are taught to weave wool into cloth.
The · Red River Academy' is a large and flourishing establishment, kept by Mr. and Mrs. Macallum, for the sons and daughters of gentlemen in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. Land is granted to the settlers at 7s. 6d. per acre; there is no restriction but in the purchase or sale of furs and spirits, and there is only a slight import duty on all other commodities, the proceeds of which duty are received by the municipality of Assiniboia.
The Colony is governed by a corporation called the Council of
Assiniboia, which, in virtue of the Royal Charter of 1670, exercises judicial as well as legislative authority, under an able Recorder.
The currency is one of the best established in any colony. It consists, with the addition of silver and copper coin, of notes issued by the Hudson's Bay Company, which are payable at York factory by bills on the Company in England. This circulation is absolutely essential; gold or silver would soon be hoarded, melted, or lost; and a note issued by the Government of the place, receivable in payments, of acknowledged exchangeable value, devoid of fluctuation in exchanges, and convertible, without loss or risk, into cash in England, is an advantageous monetary circulation for any settlement, and not a grievance or subject of complaint. Commodities to the full value of the notes can always be obtained at New York, Montreal, &c.
The description given by the Bishop of Montreal of the actual state of the Red River Settlement, visited by his Lordship in 1844, is worthy of attention. His Lordship says:- The whole population of the Red River Settlement, according to a census with which I was obligingly furnished, is 5,143: of which number, 2,798 are Roman Catholics, and 2,345 are Protestants. No Protestant worship, except that of the Church of England, has ever been established among the people. The heads of families are 870; of whom 571 are Indians or half-breeds, natives of the territory; 152 Canadians; 61 Orkneymen; 49 Scotchmen; 22 Englishmen; 5 Irishmen, and 2 Swiss. Wales, Italy, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Poland, and the United States of America, have each contributed one to the list. There is also one Esquimaux Indian. There are 730 dwelling-houses, 1,219 barns or stables, 18 windmills, and 1 watermill. From the level character of the country, it may be conceived there is not much facility for the operations of the latter kind of construction. There are 182 horses, 749 mares, 107 bulls, 2,207 cows, 1,580 calves, 1,976 pigs, and 3,569 sheep. These particulars were taken in March 1843. The soil, which is alluvial, is beyond example rich and productive, and withal so easily worked, that, although it does not quite come up