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age. Slaves 5,116
75,868 of whom an accurate Census has been made. 11,079 estimate of tribes of whom no Census has
Gt. Total 86,917 Indian population, from latitude 42° to lati
tude 51° north.' This Census is accompanied by the following remarks :
* The gentleman in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts on the north of the Columbia, have made very accurate estimates of the Indian population in the neighbourhood of their several stations; and we have every reason to believe, from our own observations, in the accuracy of these statements.
· The Indian tribes on the Columbia, and in the interior of the country, are a very migratory race, and it is very difficult to arrive at their exact numbers. We believe the above statements to be rather under their numerical strength.
* The accompanying amount of the population of the Indian tribes has been compiled with great care from the best authorities we could obtain, and from the trading lists lent us by the kindness of the gentlemen in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company.
The Indians of Puget's Sound and the Straits of De Fuca, also those farther to the north, appear to be more numerous than those of the interior, and cultivate large quantities of potatoes, &c. for their own use, and to barter with the vessels frequenting the coast.
They are not so cleanly as the Indians of the prairies, nor are they so brave or warlike. Many of the latter tribes are a very fine race of men, and possess large herds of cattle and immense numbers of horses. In the neighbourhood of Walla-Walla, individual Indians were pointed out to us who owned more than 1000 horses.
Slavery is common with all the tribes; and he who possesses most slaves and the largest number of horses, is considered the greatest chief.
"The Indians of the North are sometimes troublesome, but those of the Columbia are a quiet, inoffensive, but very superstitious race. To this last cause may be traced their quarrels with the white man and with one another.
They are well armed with rifles, muskets, &c., but, from policy, they are much stinted by the Hudson's Bay Company in ammunition.
The Indian tribes do not remain upon the same ground during the whole year.
In the summer they resort to the principal rivers and the sea coast, where they take and lay by large quantities of salmon, &c. for their winter consumption, retiring to the smaller rivers of the interior during the cold season.
' Neither the Roman Catholic nor Methodist Missionaries have done much towards reclaiming the Indian population, who are an idle, dissolute race, and very few of them can be induced to change their mode of life, or cultivate more than will absolutely keep them from starvation.
The total abolition of the sale of intoxicating liquors has done much for the good of the whole community, white population as well as Indian, and so long as this abstinence (which can
hardly be called voluntary) continues, the country will prosper. When this prohibition is withdrawn, and the intercourse with the world open, such is the character of the dissolute aud only partially reformed American and Canadian settlers, that erery evil must be anticipated, and the unfortunate Indian will be ihe first to suffer.
(Signed) HENRY WARRE,
M. VAVASSEUR, Lieutenant and Adjutant,
Lieutenant Royal Engineers.' It is due to the Company to state, that they have never had any direct or continued warfare with the Indians.
CHARACTER OF THE INDIAN POPULATION.—It is difficult to describe the character of the various tribes referred to in the preceding classifications; they have each some recognised difference, and are most of them in a constant state of warfare with each other. The Sarcees are said to be the boldest. All have horses and firearms, and horse-stealing is a favourite occupation with them. The Crees and Blackfeet have deadly feuds, and each combat with the Assiniboins ; small tribes are drawn into the contests of the larger, and the whole are never at peace. Ambuscades, surprises by day or night, and treacherous massacres of the old and young,
of women and the sick, constitute the moving interests of their lives. No hardships or inducements will make them settle and cultivate their land, and until they do so, it is almost hopeless to expect any Christian results from the humane efforts of the Hudson's Bay Company and the missionaries. The most degrading superstitions prevail; cunning is employed where force cannot be used in plunder; lying is systematic; woman is treated as a beast; and the wild Indian is, in many respects, more savage than the animals around him.
The Crees are the largest tribe or nation of Indians, and are divided into two branches, the Crees on the Saskatchewan, and the Swampies around the borders of Hudson's Bay, from Fort Churchill to East Main. Forty years ago, in consequence of their early obtainment of fire-arms, they carried their victories to the arctic circle and across the Rocky Mountains, and treated as slaves the
Chipewyans, Yellow Knives, Hares, Dogribs, Loucheaux, Nikanies, Dahotanies, and other tribes in the adjoining regions.
The measles and small pox have swept off many from 1810 to 1820, but they are now extending to the south in various bands, and again increasing in numbers.
The Salteaux, a branch of the Chippewyans, were formerly the most powerful tribe in the country, but measles and small pox have dwindled their numbers down to 3000 or 4000, and though scattered over a vast territory, which produces wild rice in abundance, they can scarcely keep body and soul together; they are too indolent and too proud to become, as they loftily express it, * troublers of the earth. Gambling is a prevailing passion, pecially with the New Caledonia savages. In some tribes, if a chief be ill, he causes one of his people to be shot, and if he recovers, it is attributed to the sacrifice. Sometimes a chief pretends to madness, and bites every one that falls in his way. In filth and sensuality the Indians, especially the more southern races, exceed probably any of the savages in other parts of the world. In some places on the north-west coast, says Sir George Simpson, they eat the dead bodies of their relatives.-(Vol. i., p. 207.)
A few years ago a large encampment of the Gros Ventres and Blackfeet was located on the Southern Saskatchewan to hunt the buffalo; the younger warriors, however, made an incursion into the country of the Assiniboines, but, on returning with the scalps and spoils of their enemies, they found revenge had been taken by the massacre of their defenceless wives and children, parents and sisters. So long as the Indians are in the power of the Europeans, they are perfectly good humoured, but, whenever they find they are the strongest, a different conduct is pursued ; and unless treated with firmness, they are sure to commence aggression. In the straits around Vancouver's Island, they have not hesitated to attack European boats, and near Nisqually they assassinated one of the Company's officers and five men, on their way from Fort Langley to Fort Vancouver. Not long since, seizing Europeans, to be ransomed for guns, gunpowder, blankets, &c., was considered to be fair game by
the Indians, and they are only now kept in awe throughout the whole country by the courage, mingled with policy, of the servants of the Company.
Hearne, in the work descriptive of his journey to the Northern Ocean, says—When any really distressed objects present themselves at the Company's factory, they are always relieved with victuals, clothes, medicines, and every other necessary, gratis; and, in return, they instruct every one of their countrymen how to behave in order to obtain the same charity. The Indians are great adepts at deception, never at a loss for a plausible story, have abundance of sighs, groans, and tears at command, feign to be lame, and even blind, to excite pity, and use so many false pretences to obtain charity, that it requires a great discrimination to ascertain real distress, and turn a deaf ear, otherwise the whole of the Company's goods might be given away, begging would become the most profitable trade, and the hunting for, and traffic in, furs, would cease. They are always disposed to steal anything they think will be serviceable, particularly iron hoops, spikes, carpenters' tools, &c., either for their own use, or for the purpose of trading with such of their countrymen as seldom visit the Company's stations.
The description given by Hearne, of the character of the Northern Indians, will serve for many other tribes. It may be truly said that they possess a considerable degree of deceit, and are very complete adepts in the art of flattery, which they never spare as long as they find that it conduces to their interest, but not a moment longer. They take care always to seem attached to a new Governor, and flatter his pride, by telling him that they look up to him as the father of their tribe, on whom they can safely place their dependence; and they never fail to depreciate the generosity of his predecessor, however extensive that might have been, however humane and disinterested his conduct; and if aspersing the old, and flattering the new Governor, has not the desired effect in a reasonable time, they represent him as the worst of characters, and tell him to his face that he is one of the most cruel of men; that he has no feeling for the distresses of their tribe, and that many have perished for