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The documents examined include the Parliamentary Papers of 8th August, 1842, and 10th August, 1848; the Report of the Aborigines' Parliamentary Committee in 1837; the Journal of the Bishop of Montreal to Rupert's Land in 1844'; the Annual Reports and Notices of the Church Missionary and Wesleyan Societies; the Official Narrative of Commodore Wilkes, of the American navy’, from 1838 to 1842; the History of Oregon and California in 1844, by Mr. Robert Greenhow, translator and librarian to the United States Government*; a “ Journey beyond the Rocky Mountains in 1835–6 and 7,” by the Rev. S. Parker, A.M., on behalf of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions“; Statement of the Earl of Selkirk's Settlement in North America; Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of America from 1836 to 1839, by Messrs. Dease and T. Simpsono ; Hearne's Journeys to the Northern Ocean from 1769 to 1772?; Rae's Exploration of the Coasts of the Arctic Regiono ; Sir George Simpson's

1 Published by Seeley, Hatchard, and Nisbett. London. 1845.
2 Published by Wiley and Putnam. London. 1845.
3 Published by Murray. London. 1844.
4 Re-published by Chambers. Edinburgh. 1841.
5 Published by Murray. London. 1817.
6 Published by Bentley. London. 1837.
7 Strahan and Cadell in 1795.
8 Times and Morning Herald, 1st and 2nd November, 1847.

Overland Journey round the World in 1841–2° ; several official papers deposited at the Colonial Office, Board of Trade, and Admiralty ; the Royal Charter granted to the Hudson's Bay Company by King Charles II., 2nd May, 1670* ; the Royal Licences granted by King George IV., 5th December 1821, and by Queen Victoria, 30th May, 1838, for exclusive trade with the Indians of all the countries in North America to the north and west of the territory of the United States, Upper and Lower Canada, and the territories of the Hudson's Bay Company granted to them by the Royal Charter of 2nd May, 1670* ; the Deed Poll of the Company, which is a covenant between the chief factors and chief traders in America, and the stock holders in England; two letters from the Rev. Wm. Cockran and the Rev. J. Macallum, clergymen of the Church of England, on the state of the Red River settlement in July and August 1848*; and other documents to which reference is

made in this work.

I now beg to submit to your Lordship the important evidence afforded by the statements of these impartial authorities, many of them eye-witnesses of

9 Published by Colburn.


* See Appendix.

what they narrate. It is for your Lordship and the public to decide in what manner the Hudson's Bay Company has endeavoured to carry out the objects for which it was incorporated by Charles II. ; how far it has merited the additional Royal Licences granted in 1821 and in 1838, for an extension of the exclusive trade with the Indians over certain parts of North America ; and what reasonable prospect may be entertained of the effectual execution of the trust now being vested in this ancient Corporation, for the formation of a British Settlement in the Pacific Ocean, by our Most Gracious Sovereign.

I have the honour to subscribe myself,


Your obedient and faithful Servant,



N.B.—The extracts from the “ Journal of the Bishop of Montreal, in 1844,” at

pp. 22, 23, and 24; and two letters in the Appendix from the Rev J. Cockran, and the Rev. J. Macallum, clergymen of the church of England,—dated from the Red River, 26th July, and 3rd August, 1848,-give a faithful description of the present state of the Colony.


(From the Bishop of Montreal's Journal.)

[graphic][merged small]

The dots in the Map indicate the forts and principal stations of the Hudson's Bay Company.

P. 51.-Line 2, for three,' read · four years.'

P. 81.-It should have been stated that Mr. Chief Factor Ogden, on receiving intelli. gence of the massacre, started from Fort Vancouver with a party, and by his influence with the Cayouses, and presents to the amount of £.100, procured the liberation of 65 captives, who would otherwise in all probability have been put to death.

P. 94.–For fort Pett,' read 'fort Pitt.'
P. 107.For • five large volumes,' read four large volumes.'
P. 108.—There is a typographical error in the year 1848.'

For Governor of the Columbia,' read Governor of the new settlement on the • Willamette.' P. 148.-For. cargo of corn, read ' flour.'

For "has,' read · have shown.' There have been two important omissions :-FIRST,--No association or private individual possessed of means, or prepared with any guarantee for the accomplishment of the object, have proposed to colonize the Vancouver's Island. SECOND, -Vancouver's Island does not yield to the Hudson's Bay Company, a profit derivable from furs to the value of £.300 per

There is no motive, therefore, for keeping the island as a hunting station ; but there is every inducement to form an agricultural settlement, as they are now excluded from the fertile country south of the 49th parallel of latitude.






Part .



GEOGRAPHY.—The north-west territories of British America, exclusive of Canada, extend from the Pacific Ocean and Vancouver's Island along the parallel of the 49th degree of north latitude, near to the head of Lake Superior, and thence in a northeasterly direction to the coast of Labrador and the Atlantic. The Arctic Ocean forms the northern boundary. The whole region includes the meridians of 55 and 141 degrees of west longitude, excepting a strip of Russian territory on the Pacific Ocean, between 54o and 60° north latitude, following the sinuosities of the coast for ten leagues in breadth, as shown in the accompanying map by Arrowsmith.

Within these limits lies the tract of country granted by Charles II., on the 2nd of May, 1670, under royal charter, to Prince Rupert, the Duke of Albemarle, Earl of Craven, Lord Ashley, and others, who organized the Hudson's Bay Company. This tract by the original charter* was called · Rupert's Land ;' constituted one of His Majesty's colonies or plantations in America; and was defined as all the lands and territories upon the countries, coasts, and confines of the seas, bays, lakes, rivers, creeks, and sounds, in whatsoever latitude they shall be, that lie

* See Appendix,


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