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accelerating action angle of incidence atmosphere axis barrel beam body boiler boiling Bossut bottom Buat bucket canal channel circumstances cistern column of water common common logarithm condensation considerable cubic cylinder Daniel Bernoulli descending diminished diminution direction discharge elasticity employed engine equal exerted experiments filaments fluid force friction give greater head of water heat hole horizontal hydraulics impelled point impulse inches diameter inches of mercury inches per second increase inertia latent heat length load machine manner mean depth measure mechanical mercury Michelotti motion moving nearly necessary observed orifice particles performance perpendicular piston piston-rod plane plate pounds pressure principles produced proportion pump quantity of water raised resistance rising pipe river sensible heat shut side slope sluice spout square steam steam-engine stroke suction-pipe suppose surface temperature theory tion tube uniform upper valve vapour velocity vessel weight wheel whole working-barrel working-point
Էջ 119 - Secondly, in Engines that are to be worked wholly or partially by condensation of steam, the steam is to be condensed in vessels distinct from the...
Էջ 113 - Papin's digester, and formed a species of steam-engine by fixing upon it a syringe, one-third of an inch diameter, with a solid piston, and furnished also with a cock to admit the steam from the digester, or shut it off at pleasure, as well as to open a communication from the inside of the syringe to the open air, by which the steam contained in the syringe might escape. When the communication between the digester and syringe was opened, the steam entered the syringe, and by its action upon the piston...
Էջ 120 - ... vessel moves round, it is supplied with steam from the boiler, and that which has performed its office may either be discharged by means of condensers, or into the open air.
Էջ 113 - Ibs.) with which it was loaded. When this was raised as high as was thought proper, the communication with the digester was shut, and that with the atmosphere opened; the steam then made its escape, and the weight descended. The operations were repeated, and, though in this experiment the cock was, turned by hand, it was easy to see how it could be done by the machine itself, and to make it work with perfect regularity.
Էջ 119 - ... it in a case of wood, or any other materials that transmit heat slowly; secondly, by surrounding it with steam or other heated bodies; and, thirdly, by suffering neither water nor any other substance colder than the steam to enter or touch it during that time.
Էջ 120 - I intend in some cases to apply a degree of cold not capable of reducing the steam to water, but of contracting it considerably, so that the engines shall be worked by the alternate expansion and contraction of the steam. Lastly, Instead of using water to render the piston or other parts of the engines air and steam-tight, I employ oils, wax, resinous bodies, fat of animals, quicksilver, and other metals, in their fluid state.
Էջ 119 - ... crust over the thin plates, and prevent their conveying the heat sufficiently quick. The cylinders were also placed with their mouths upwards, and furnished with a working-beam, and other apparatus, as was usual in the ancient engines ; the inversion of the cylinder or rather of the piston-rod, in the model, being only an expedient to try more easily the new invention, and being subject to many objections in large engines. " In 1768 I applied for letters patent for my ' Methods of Lessening the...
Էջ 117 - I then preferred, and is the only one I afterwards continued to use. " In Newcomen's engine, the piston is kept tight by water, which could not be applicable in this new method ; as, if any of it entered into a partially exhausted and hot cylinder, it would boil and prevent the production of a vacuum, and would also cool the cylinder by its evaporation during the descent of the piston. I proposed to remedy this defect by employing wax, tallow, or other grease, to lubricate and keep the piston tight.
Էջ 118 - When it was judged that the air was expelled, .the steam-cock was shut, and the air-pump piston-rod was drawn up, which leaving the small pipes of the condenser in a state of vacuum, the steam entered them and was condensed. The piston of the cylinder immediately rose and lifted a weight of about 18 Ibs., which was hung to the lower end of the piston-rod.
Էջ 114 - A small engine was therefore constructed, with a cylinder six inches diameter and twelve inches stroke, made of wood, soaked in linseed oil, and baked to dryness. With this engine many experiments were made ; but it was soon found that the wooden cylinder was not likely to prove durable, and that the steam condensed in filling it still exceeded the proportion of that required for large engines according to the statements of Desaguliers. It was also found, that all attempts to produce a better exhaustion...