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from the Parliamentary returns, ex- rance repel the suggestions of knowhibiting the progress of serious crime ledge; theory, of experience; selfishin the principal counties, agricultural, ness, of philanthropy; cowardice, of pastoral, and manufacturing, of the resolution. Thus nothing whatever empire, during the last fifteen years. is done to remedy or avert the existWe are unwilling to load our pages ing evils : the districts not endangered with figures, and are well aware how unite as one man to resist any attempt distasteful they are to a large class of to form a general system for the allereaders; and if those results were as viation of misery or diminution of familiar to others as they are to our- crime in those that are, and the preselves, we should be too happy to ponderance of the unendangered distake them for granted, as they do first tricts in the legislature gives them the principles in the House of Commons, means of effectually doing so. The and proceed at once to the means of evils in the endangered districts are remedy. But the facts on this subject such, that it is universally felt they have been so often misrepresented by are beyond the reach of local remedy party or prejudice, and are in them- or alleviation. Thus, between the selves so generally unknown, that it two, nothing whatever is done to aris indispensable to lay a foundation in rest, or guard against, the existing or authentic information before proceed- impending evils. Meanwhile, destituing further in the inquiry. The great tion, profligacy, sensuality, and crime, est difficulty which those practically advance with unheard-of rapidity in acquainted with the subject experience the manufacturing districts, and the in such an investigation, is to make dangerous classes there massed togepeople believe their statements, even ther combine every three or four years wlien founded on the most extensive in some general strike or alarming practical knowledge, or the most ac- insurrection, which, while it lasts, curate statistical inquiry. There is excites universal terror, and is sucsuch a prodigious difference between ceeded, when suppressed, by the same the condition of mankind and the pro- deplorable system of supineness, selfgress of corruption in the agricultural isliness, and infatuation. or pastoral, and manufacturing or The table in the noto exhibits the densely peopled districts, that those number of commitments for serious accustomed to the former will not be- offences, with the population of each, lieve any statements made regarding of eight counties-pastoral, agricultuthe latter. They say they are in- ral, and manufacturing—in Great Bricredible or exaggerated ; that the tain during the year 1841.* We take persons who make them are têtes the returns for that year, both because montées; that their ideas are very it was the year in which the census vague, and their suggestions utterly was taken, and because the succeeding unworthy the consideration either of year, 1842, being the year of the men of sense or of government. With great outbreak in England, and violent such deplorable illusions does igno- strike in Scotland, the figures, both in
* Table showing the number of commitments for serious crimes, and population, in the year 1841, in the under-mentioned counties of Great Britain ;
that and the succeeding year, may be manufacturing counties, as Lanarksupposed to exhibit a more unfavour- shire, by permitting nineteen-twenable result for the manufacturing dis- tieths of the crime to go unpunished, tricts than a fair average of years.
exhibits a far less amount of crimiFrom this table, it appears that the nality than would be brought to light Fast preponderance of crime is to be under a more vigilant system. But found in the manufacturing or densely- still there is enough in this table to peopled districts, and that the pro- attract serious and instructive attenportion per cent of commitments tion. It appears that the average of which they exhibit, as compared with seven pastoral counties exhibits an the population, is generally three, average of 1 commitment for serious often five times, what appears in offences out of 1155 souls : of eight the purely agricultural and pastoral counties, partly agricultural and partly districts. The comparative crimi- manufacturing, of 1 in 682: and of nality of the agricultural, manufac- eight manufacturing and mining, of 1 turing, and pastoral districts is not in 476! And the difference between to be considered as accurately mea
individual counties is still more re. sured by these returns, because so markable, especially when counties many of the agricultural counties, es- purely agricultural or pastoral can be pecially in England, are overspread compared with those for the most part with towns and manufactories or col- manufacturing or mining. Thus the lieries. Thus Kent and Shropshire proportion of commitment for serious are justly classed with agricultural crime in the pastoral counties of counties, though part of the former is Anglesey, is 1 in 3900 in fact a suburb of London, and of the
1 in 2452 latter overspread with demoralizing
1 in 1990 coal mines. The entire want of any
Cumberland, 1 in 1194 police force in some of the greatest In the purely agricultural counties of
1 in 476
Total, 6,269,426 12,067 -PORTER’s Parl. Tables, 1841, 163; and Census 1841.
Aberdeenshire, is 1 in 2086
Lanarkshire, 1 in 832* East-Lothian, 1 in 994
Renfrewshire, 1 in 306 Northumberland, 1 in 1106 Further, the statistical returns of
Perthshire, 1 in 1181 crime demonstrate, not only that such While in the great manufacturing is the present state of crime in the or mining counties of
densely peopled and manufacturing Lancashire, is 1 in 418 districts, compared to what obtains Staffordshire, 1 in 482 in the agricultural or pastoral, but Middlesex,
1 in 439 that the tendency of matters is still Yorkshire,
1 in 839 worse ;t and that, great as has been Lanarkshire has no police except in Glasgow, or its serious crime would be about 1 in 400, or 350.
+ Table, showing the comparative population, and committals for serious crime, in the under-mentioned counties, in the years 1821, 1831, and 1841.
the increase of population during the Parliamentary returns. The criminal last thirty years in the manufacturing statistics have exposed this fallacy as and densely peopled districts, the pro- completely, in reference to the different gress of crime has been still greater degrees of depravity in different parts and more alarming. From the in- of the empire, as the registrar-general's structive and curious tables below, returns have, in regard to the different constructed from the criminal returns degrees of salubrity in employments, given in Porter's Parliamentary Tables, and mortality in rural districts and and the returns of the census taken manufacturing places. It now disin 1821, 1831, and 1841, it appears, tinctly appears that crime is greatly that while in some of the purely more prevalent in proportion to the pastoral counties, such as Selkirk and numbers of the people in densely peoAnglesey, crime has remained during pled than thinly inhabited localities, the last twenty years nearly station- and that it is making far more rapid ary, and in some of the purely agri- progress in the former situation than cultural, such as Perth and Aberdeen, the latter. Statistics are not to be it has considerably diminished, in the despised when they thus, at once and agricultural and mining or manufac- decisively, disprove errors so assiduturing, such as Shropshire and Kent, ously spread, maintained by writers it has doubled during the same period : of such respectability, and supported and in the manufacturing and mining by such large and powerful bodies in districts, such as Lancashire, Stafford- the state. shire, Yorkshire, and Renfrewshire, Nor can it be urged with the slightmore than tripled in the same time. est degree of foundation, that this It appears, from the same authentic superior criminality of the manufactusources of information, that the pro- ring and densely peopled districts is gress of crime during the last twenty owing to a police force being more years has been much more rapid in generally established than in the agrithe manufacturing and densely peopled cultural or pastoral, and thus crime than in the simply densely peopled being more thoroughly detected in the districts; for in Middlesex, during the former situation than the latter. For, last twenty years, population has in the first place, in several of the advanced about fifty per cent, and greatest manufacturing counties, parserious crime has increased in nearly ticularly Lanarkshire in Scotland, the same proportion, having swelled there is no police at all; and the crifrom 2480 to 3514: whereas in Lan- minal establishment is just what it cashire, during the same period, po- was forty years ago.
In the next pulation has advanced also fifty per place, a police force is the consequence cent, but serious crime has consider- of a previous vast accumulation or ably more than doubled, having risen crime, and is never established till the from 1716 to 3987.
risk to life and insecurity to property Here, then, we are at length on firm had rendered it unbearable. Being ground in point of fact. Several always established by the voluntary writers of the liberal school who had assessment of the inhabitants, nothing a partiality for manufactures, because can be more certain than that it never their chief political supporters were can be called into existence but by to be found among that class of so- such an increase of crime as has renciety, have laboured hard to show that dered it a matter of necessity. - manufactures are noways detrimen- We are far, however, from having tal either to health or morals; and approached the whole truth, if we that the mortality and crime of the have merely ascertained, upon anthenmanufacturing counties were in no re- tic evidence, that crime is greatly more spect greater than those of the pasto- prevalent in the manufacturing than ral or agricultural districts. The com- the rural districts. That will probably mon sense of mankind has uniformly be generally conceded ; and the prerevolted against this absurdity, so ceding details have been given merely completely contrary to what experi- to show the extent of the difference, ence every where tells in a language and the rapid steps which it is taking. not to be misunderstood ; but it has It is more material to inquire what pow been completely disproved by the are the causes of this superior profligacy of manufacturing to rural dis- districts as the necessary and unatricts ; and whether it arises unavoid- voidable hotbed of crimes, strives only ably from the nature of their respec- to prevent the spreading of the contative employments, or is in some degree gion into the rural parts of the country. within the reach of human amendment There is a certain degree of truth or prevention.
in these observations; but they are It is usual for persons who are not much exaggerated, and it is not in practically acquainted with the sub- these causes that the principal sources 'ect, to represent manufacturing oc- of the profligacy of the manufacturing cupations as necessarily and inevi- districts is to be found. tably hurtful to the human mind. The real cause of the demoralizaThe crowding together, it is said, tion of manufacturing towns is to be young persons, of different sexes and found, not in the nature of the emin great numbers, in the hot atmo- ployment which the people there resphere and damp occupations of facto- ceive, so much as in the manner in ries or mines, is necessarily destruc- which they are brought together, the tive to morality, and ruinous to re- unhappy prevalence of general strikes, gularity of habit. The passions are and the prodigious multitudes who excited by proximity of situation or are cast down by the ordinary vicisindecent exposure ; infant labour situdes of life, or the profligacy of early emancipates the young from their parents, into a situation of want, parental control ; domestic subordi- wretchedness, and despair. nation, the true foundation for so- Consider how, during the last half cial virtue, is destroyed ; the young century, the people have been brought exposed to temptation before they together in the great manufacturing have acquired strength to resist it; districts of England and Scotland. and vice spreads the more extensive- So rapid has been the progress of ly from the very magnitude of the manufacturing industry during that establishments on which the manu- period, that it has altogether outfacturing greatness of the country de- stripped the powers of population pends. Such views are generally en- in the districts where it was going tertained by writers on the social forward, and occasioned a prodistate of the country; and being im- gious influx of persons from differplicitly adopted by the bulk of the ent and distant quarters, who have community, the nation has abandoned migrated from their paternal homes, itself to a sort of despair on the sub- and settled in the manufacturing disject, and regarding manufacturing tricts, never to return.* Authentic
* Table showing the Population in 1801, 1821, and 1841, in the under-mentioned
counties of Great Britain.