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Relations with Great Britain.
the Secretary of State of the United States, and It is evident, my Lord, from Mr. Jackson's reMr. Jackson, His Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary ply of the 11th of the same month, that he received and Mini-cer Plenipotentiary at Washington, it this intimalion (which, carefully restricted as it bas unfortunately happened that Mr. Jackson has was, seems to have been willing to understand made it necessary that I should receive the com- in a general sense) with considerable sensibility. mands of the President to request his recall, and He speaks of it in that reply as being without that, in the mean time, the intercourse between example in the annals of diplomacy; as a step ihai Minister and the American Goveroment against which it was fit to enter his protest; as should be suspended.
a violation, in his person, of the most essential I am quite sure, my Lord, that I shall best con- rights of a public Minister; as a new difficulty sult your Lorship's wishes, and the respect which thrown in the way of a restoration of a thorough I owe to His Majesty's Government, by executing good understanding between the two countries. my duty on this occasion with perfeci simplicity I need not remark to your Lordship that nothand frankness. My instructions, too, point to ing of all this could, with propriety, be said of a that course as required by the honor of the two proceeding, in itself entirely regular and usual, Governments, and as suited to the confidence required by the state of the discussions to which which the President entertains in the disposition only it was to be applied, and proposed in a manof His Majesty's Government to view in its true ner perfectly decorous and unexceptionable. The light the subject to wbich they relate. With Government of the United States had expected such inducements to exclude from this commu- from Mr. Jackson an explanation of the grounds nication everything which is not intimately cons of the refusal, on the part of his Government, to nected with iis purpose, and, on the other hand, abide by Mr. Erskine's arrangement, accompanied 10 set forth, with candor and explicityess, the by a substitution of other propositions. It had facts and considerations which really belong to been collected from Mr, Jackson's conversations, the case, I should be unpardonable if I faligued that he had no power whatsoever to give any such your Lordship with unnecessary details, or af- explanation ; or, in the business of the Orders in fected any reserve.
Council, to offer any substitute for the rejected It is known to your Lordship that Mr. Jackson agreement; or, in the affair of the Chesapeake, arrived in America, as the successor of Mr. Ers- 10 offer any substitute that could be accepted; kine, while the disappointment, produced by the and it had been inferred, from the same converdisavowal of the arrangement of the 19th of sations, that, even if the American Government April, was yet recent, and while some other should propose a substitute for that part of the causes of dissatisfaction, which had been made disavowed adjustment which regarded the Orders to associate themselves with that disappoinıment, in Council, the substitute could not be agreed to, were in operation; but your Lordship also knows (if, indeed, Mr. Jackson had power to do more that his reception by the American Government than discuss it,) unless it should distinctly recog. was marked by all that kindness and respect nise conditions which had already been declared which were due to the representative of a Sov. to be wholly inadmissible. ereign, with whom the United States were sin To what valuable end, my Lord, loose convercerely desirous of maintaining the most friendly sations, having in view either no definite result, relations.
or none that was attainable, could, under such Whatever were the hopes' which Mr. Jack circumstances and upon such topics, be continued, son's mission had inspired of satisfactory explana- it would not be easy to discover; and I think I tions and adjustments upon the prominent points may venture to assume that the subsequent writof difference between the iwo countries, they cer ien correspondence has completely shown that tainly were not much encouraged by the confer- they could not have been otherwise than fruitless, ences, in which, as far as he thought proper, he and that they were not too soon abandoned for opened to Mr. Smith, soon after his arrival, ihe na- that formal course to which, from the beginning, ture and extent of his powers and the views of his they could only be considered as preparatory. Governinent. After an experiment, deemed by After remonstrating against the wish of the the Government of the United States to be suffi. American Government to give to the further discient, it appeared that these conferences, neces-cussions a written form, Mr. Jackson disposes sarily liable to misconception and want of pre- himself to conform to it; and, speaking in the cision, were not likely to lead 10 any practical same letter of the disavowal of the arrangement conclusion.
of April, he declares that he was not provided Accordingly. on 9ih of October, Mr. Smith ad- with instructions to explain' the motives of it; and dressed a letier to Mr. Jackson, in which, after sia he seems to intimate that explanation, through ting the course of proceeding which the Amer- him, was unuecessary, not only because it had alican Goverument had supposed itself entitled 10 ready been made through other chandels, but beexpect from him with regard to the rejected ar. cause the Government of the United States had rangement and the matters embraced by it, after entered into the arrangement with a knowledge recapitulating what Mr. Smith believed to have " that it could only lead to the consequences ihat passed in their recent interviews relative to those actually followed." In the conclusion of the subjects, he intimated that it was thought expe- fourth 'paragraph of the letter, he informs Mr. dient that their further discussions, on that par-Smith ihat ihe despatch of Mr. Canning to Mr, ticular occasion, should be in writing.
Erskine, "which Mr. Smith had made the basis
Relations with Great Britain.
of an official correspondence with the latter Min- which he was authorized to make an arrangeister, and which had been read to the American ment, the arrangement would not have been Minister in London," was the only despatch_by made." which the conditions were prescribed to Mr. Ers I suppose, my Lord, that it was impossible to kine for the conclusion of an arrangement with disclaim for the American Government, in more the United States on the matter to which it re-precise and intelligible language than is found in lated.
ihis quotation, all knowledge of Mr. Erskine's inMr. Smith's answer to this letter bears date the structions, incompatible with a sincere, honorable, 19th of October; and I beg your Lordship’s per- and justifiable belief that he was, as he prosessed mission to introduce from it the following quota- to be, fully authorized to make the agreement in tion: "The stress you have laid upon what you which he undertook to pledge the faith of His Mahave been pleased to state as the substitution of jesty's Goveroment. Yet, in Mr. Jackson's best the terms finally agreed on [in the arrangement letter (of the 23d of October) to Mr. Smith, be of April on ibe Orders in Council] for the terms says, “I have. Therefore, no hesitation in ioformfirst proposed, [by Mr. Erskine.) has excited no ing you that His Majesty was pleased to disavow swali degree of surprise. Ceriain it is, that your the agreement concluded between you and Mr. predecessor did present for my consideration the Erskine, because it was in violation of that gensame conditions which now appear in the present tleman's instructions, and altogether without audocument; that he was disposed to urge them thority to subscribe to the terms of it. These inmore thao the nature of iwo of them (boih palpa- structions, I now understand from your letter, as bly inadmissible, and one more than merely inad-well as from the obvious deduction which I took missible) could permit; and that, on finding his the liberty of making in mine of ibe 11ih instant, first proposal unsuccessful, the more reasonable were, at ihe. time, in substance made known to terms, comprised in the arrangement respecting you. No stronger illustration, therefore, can be the Orders in Council, were adopted. And what given of the deviation from them which occurred, is there to countenance the conclusion you have ihan by a reference to the terms of your agree drawn in favor of the right of His Britannic Ma. meni." jesty to disavow the proceeding? Is anything Your Lordship will allow me to take for granted, more common in public negotiations than to be that this passage cannot be misuoderstood. Its digio with a higher demand, and, that sailing, to rect and evident tendency is to fasten upon the descend to a lower ? To bave, if not iwo sets of Guvernment of the United States an imputation instructions, iwo or more than iwo grades of pro- most injurious to its honor aod veracity. The positions in the same set of instructions; to begin charge, ihat it had all along been substantially with what is the most desirable, and to end with apprized , however it might affect to be ignorant, what is found 10 be admissible. in case the more of the instructions which Mr. Erskine's arrangedesirable should not be attainable? This mustment were said to have violated, had before been be obvious 10 every understanding, and is con insinuated; but it is here openly made, in reply. firmed by universal experience.
100, to a paper in which the contrary is formally " What are the real and entire instructions declared by the official organ of the American given to your predecessor, is a question essentially Goveroment. between him and his Government. That he had, This barsh accusation, enhanced by the tone or, at least, ibat he believed he bad, sufficient au- of the letter in which it appeared, was in all rethority to conclude the arrangement, his formal spects as extraordinary as it was offensive. It assurances during our discussions were such as to cook the shape of an inference from facts and asleave no room for doubi. His subsequent letter, severations, which necessarily led to the opposite of the 151h of June, renewing his assurances to conclusion. It was preferred as an abswer to a me, that the terms of the agreement so happily claim of explanation, which Mr. Jackson proconcluded by the recent negociation will be strictly fessed not to be authorized by his Government to fulfilled on the part of His Majesty,' is an evident offer at all, but which he chose so to offer from indication of what his persuasion then was as to himself as to convert explanation into insult. It bis iostructions. And, with a view to show what was advanced, not only without proof and against bis impressions have been, even since the disa- proof, but agaiost all color of probability. It could vowal, I must take the liberry of referring you to scarcely have been advanced, under any conviethe annexed extracıs (see C] from his official let. tion, that it was necessary to the case which Mr. ters of the 31st of July
and of the 14th of August.” Jackson was to maintain; for His Majesty's Gov" The declaration, that the despatch from Mr. eroment had disavowed Mr. Erskine's arrangeCanning to Mr. Erskine, of the 23d of January, ment, according to Mr. Jacksou's owo representais the only despatch by which the conditions were tions, without any reference to the knowledge prescribed to Mr. Erskine for the conclusion of which this accusation imputed to the Governan arrangement on the matter to which it relates,' ment of the United States; and it need not be is now for the first time made to this Government. stated, that no allusion whatsoever was made to And I need hardly add, that, if that d-spatch had it by Mr. Secretary Canding, in those informal been communicated at the time of the arrange- communications to me which Mr. Jackson has ment, or if it had been made known that the pro- mentioned. It was not, moreover, to have been positions contained in il, and which were at first expected that, in the apparent state of Mr. Jackpresented by Mr. Erskine, were the only ones on son's powers, and in the actual posture of his ne
Relations with Great Britain.
gotiation, he would seek to irritate where he could Majesty's Government is called in question, 10 not arrange, and sharpen disappointment by vindicate his honor and dignity, in the manner studied and unprovoked indignity.
that appears to me best calculated for that puro The course which the Government of the Uni. pose." : ted States adopted on this painful occasion was To this, my Lord, there could be but one reply. such as at once demonstrated a sincere respect Official intercourse with Mr. Jackson could do for the public character with which Mr. Jackson longer be productive of any effects that were not was invested, and a due sense of its own dignity. rather to be avoided than desired; and it was Mr. Jackson's conduct had left a feeble hope that plainly impossible that it should continue. He further intercourse with him, unproductive of was, therefore, informed by Mr. Smith, in a letter good as it must be, might still be reconcilable of the 8th of November, which recapitulated the with the honor of the American Government. inducements to this unavoidable step, ihal no furA fair opportunity was accordingly presented to ther conimunications would be received from him; him of making it so, by Mr. Smith's letter of the that the necessity of this determination would, 1st of November, of which I beg leave to insert without delay, be made known to his Governthe concluding paragraph :
ment; and that, in the mean time, a ready allen"I abstain, sir, fronı making any particular an- tion would be given to any communications, afimadversions on several irrelevant and improper fecting the interests of the two nations, through allusions in your letter, not at all comporting any other channel that might be substituted. with the professed disposition to adjust in an am- The President has been pleased to direct that icable manner the differences un happily subsisting ! should make known this necessity to His Mabetween the iwo countries. But it would be im- jesty's
Government, and, at the same time, request proper to conclude the few observations to which ihai Mr. Jackson be recalled. And I am particI purposely limit myself, without adverting to your ularly instructed to do this in a manner that will repetition of a language implying a knowledge, leave no doubt of the undiminished desire of the on the part of this Government, that the instruc- United States to unite in all the means the best tions of your predecessor did not authorize the calculated to establish the relations of the iwo arrangement formed by him. After the explicit countries on the solid foundations of justice, of and peremptory asseveration that this Govern. friendship, and of mutual interest. I am furment bad no such knowledge, and that, with such ther particularly instructed, my Lord, to make knowledge, no such arrangement would have His Majesty's Government sensible, that, in rebeen entered into, the view which you have again quiring the recall of Mr. Jackson, the United presented of the subject makes it my duty to ap- States wish bot 10 be’understood as in any degree prize you that such insinuations are inadmissible obstructing communications, which may lead to in the intercourse of a foreign Minister with a a friendly accommodation ; but that, on the conGovernment that understands what it owes to trary, they sincerely retain the desire, which they itself.”
have constantly professed, to facilitate so happy Whatever was the sense in which Mr. Jackson an event, and that nothing will be more agreeable had used the expressions to which the American to them ihan to find the Minister who has-renGovernment took exception, he as now aware of dered himself so justly obnoxious, replaced by the sense in which they were understood; and, another, who, with a different character, may consequently, was called upon, if he had been mis- carry with him all the authorities and iostructions apprehended, to say so. His expressions conveyed requisite for the complete success of his mission; an injurious meaning, supported, moreover,' by or, if the attainment of this object, through my the context, and the notice taken of them had not agency; should be considered more expeditious exceeded the bounds of just admonition. To have or otherwise preferable, that it will be a course explained away even an imaginary affront would entirely satisfactory to ibe United States. have been no degradation ; but when an occasion These instructions, which I lay before your was thus offered, to qualify real and severe impu- Lordship without disguise, require no comment. tations upon the Government to which he was Before I conclude this letter, it may be proper accredited, it could scarcely be otherwise than a very shortly to advert to iwo communications, duty to take immediate advantage of it.
received by Mr. Secretary Smith from Mr. OakSuch, however, was not Mr. Jackson's opinion ley, after ihe correspondence with Mr. Jackson He preferred answering the appeal, which had had ceased. been made to him, by reiterating with aggrava- The first of these communications (of which I tions the offensive insinuation. He says, in the am not able to ascertain the date) requested a last paragraph of his letter of the 4th of Novem-document, having the effect of a special passporc ber, io Mr. Smith, “You will fiod that, in my cor- or safeguard, for Mr. Jackson and his fainily, durrespondence with you, I have carefully avoided ing their further stay in the United States. This drawing conclusions that did not necessarily fol. application was regarded as somewhat singular; low from the premises advanced by me; and least but the document, of which the necessity was of all should I think of uttering an insinuation not perceived, was nevertheless furnished. The where I was unable to substantiate a fact. To reasons assigoed for the application excited some facts, such as I have become acquaiored with surprise. I have troubled your Lordship, io conthem, I have scrupulously adhered. In so doing, versation, with a few remarks from my instrucI must continue, whenever the good faith of His tions, upon one of those reasons, which I will take
Relations with Great Britain.
the liberty to repeal. The paper in question states than nothing. It had not the appearance of an that Mr. Jackson " had already been once must allempl to rectify mi-apprehension. It sought to grossly insulied by the inhabitauis of Hampton, pul the American Government in the wrong, by in the unprovoked language of abuse beld by ihem assuming that what had given so much umbrage to several officers bearing the King's uniform, ought not to have given any. It imporled rewhen those officers were ihemselves assaulted proach rather than explanation. It kept out of and put in imminent danger."
sight the real offence, and, introducing a new and I am given to understand, my Lord, that the insufficient one in its place, seemed to disclose no insult here alluded to was for ihe first time brought other wish than to wiihdraw from the Governunder the notice of the American Government ment of the United States the ground upon which by this paper; that it bad, indeed been among the it had proceeded. Ils apparent purpose, in a word, rumors of the day, that some un becoroing scene was to fix a charge of injustice upon the past had taken place at Hampion or Norfolk, bei ween not to produce a beneficial effect upon the future
, some officers belonging to the Africaine frigate In this view, and in this only, it was perfectly and some of the inhabitants, and that it took its consistent that it should andounce Mr. Jackson's rise in the indiscretion of the former; that, no al- determination to retire to New Yoik. tention to the circumstance having been called The time when this paper was presented will for, and no inquiry baving been made, the truth not have escaped your Lordship's observation. It of the case is unknown; but that it never was followed the demand, already mentioned, of a sasesupposed that Mr. Jackson himself, who was on guard for “Mr. Jackson, his family, and the gene board the frigate, had been personally insulted, ileinen attached to his mission”-a demand which nor is it yet understood in what way he supposes cannot be regarded—especially if we look to the that he was so. I am authorized to add, that any inducements to which it was referred, as either complaint or representation on the subject would conciliatory or respectful. It followed, too, the instantly bave received every proper attention. letter of the 4th November, which, had eaplana
The other communication-of which the sub- tion been intended, ought undoubtedly to have stance was soon asterwards published to the Amer contained it; but whichi
, in lieu of it, contained ican people in the form of a circular letter from fresh matter of provocation. It was itself followed Mr. Jackson to the British Consuls in the United by the publication of its own substance in anoStates-seems to have been intended as a justif-ther garb. On the very day of its date, when Mia cation of his conduct , in that part of his corre- Jackson, if he meant it as an explanation
, could spondence which had given umbrage to the Amer- not be justified in concluding that it would not ican Goverument. This paper (bearing date the be satisfaceory, it was moulded by him into the 13th November) is not very explicit ; but it would circular address to which I have before alluded; appear to be calculated to give rather a new form and immediate steps appear to have been taken to the statements, which Mr. Jackson had suffered to give to it, in that shape, the utmost publicity
. the Goveroment of the United States to view in I have no wish, my Lord, to make any strong another light, until it had no choice but to act remarks upon that proceeding. It will be admit upon the obvious and natural interpretation of ted that it was a great irregularity; and that, if them sanctioned by himself.
Mr. Jackson had been particularly anxious to close Il was never objected to Mr. Jackson, (as this every avenue to reconciliation between the Amerpaper seems to suggest,) that he had stated that ican Government and himself, he could not hare îhe three propositions in Mr. Erskine's original fallen upon a better expedient. instructions were submitted to Mr. Smith by that I have now only to add, my Lord, the expresgentleman; or that he had stated it as made known sion of my own most ardent wish, that out of the to bim by Mr. Canning, that the instruction to incident which has produced this letter, an occa: Mr. Erskine, containing those three conditions, sion may be made to arise, which, improved as it was ibe only one from which his authority was ought to be, and I trust will be, by our respective derived, for the conclusion of an arrangement
on Governments, may conduct them to a cordial and the matter to which it related.
lasting friendship. Thus to endeavor to bring The objection was, that he had ascribed to the good out of evil, would be worthy of the rulers of American Government a knowledge that the pro-\ iwo nations that are only in their natural position positions submitted to its consideration by Mr. when they are engaged in offices of mutual kinds Erskine were indispensable conditions, and that Dess, and largely contributing to the prosperity he did so even after ihat knowledge had been dis- and happiness of each other..
I have the honor to be, with the highest con ceive that a repetition of the allegation could not sideration, my Lord, your Lordship's most obedibe suffered.
ent, humble servant, I willingly leave your Lordship to judge whe
WILLIAM PINKNEY. ther Mr. Jackson's correspondence will bear any
The MARQUIS OF WELLESLEY. other construction than it in fact received ; and whether, supposing it to have been erroneously construed, his leller of the 4th November should
Lord Wellesley to Mr. Pinkney. not have corrected the mistake, instead of con
Foreign Office, March 14, 1810. firming and establishing it.
Sir: The leller which I had the honor top As an explanation, this paper was even worse ceive from you, under date of the 2d of January,
Relations with Great Britain.
together with the additional paragraph received countries, through any channel of negotiation on the 24th of January, has been laid before the which may appear advantageous to that GovernKing.
The several conferences which I have held with I request you will accept the assurances of the you respecting the transactions to which your bigh coosideration with which I have the honor letter refers, have, I trust, satisfied you that it is to be, sir, your musl obedient and humble servant, the sincere desire of His Majesty's Government,
WELLESLEY. on the present occasion, to avoid any discussion which might obstruct the renewal of amicable
Mr. Pinkney to Lord Wellesley. intercourse between the two countries. The correspondence between Mr. Jackson and
Great CUMBERLAND PLACE, Mr. Smith has been submitted to His Majesty's
March 17, 1810. consideration.
MY LORD: I have had the honor to receive His Majesty has commanded me to express his your Lurdship’s letter of the 14th instant, in reply concern that the official communication between
io mine of the 20 January, and will lose no time His Majesty's Minister in America and the Gov.
in transmitting it to iny Government. ernment of the United States should have been
I have the honor to be, &c. interrupted before it was possible for his Majesty,
WILLIAM PINKNEY. by any inter position of his authority, to manifest
LORD WELLESLEY, &c. his invariable disposition 10 mainiain the relations of amily with the United States.
Extract—Mr. Pinkney to Mr. Smith. I am commanded by His Majesty to inform you, that I have received from Mr. Jackson the most
LONDON, March 27, 1810. positive assurances that it was not his purpose to
I have the honor to enclose a copy of Lord give offence to the Government of the United Wellesley's reply to my letter of the rih instant, States by any expression.contained in his letters
, respecting the British blockades of France before
the Berlin decree. or by any part of his conduct. The expressions and conduct of His Majesty's
I do not think it of such a nature as to justisy Minister in America having. however, appeared
an expectation that General Armstrong will be 10 the Government of the United States to be able to make any use of it at Paris, but I shall exceptionable, the usual course in such cases would nevertheless convey to him the substance of it have been to convey, in the first instance, io His without delay. Majesty, a formal complaint against his Minis [Referred to in Mr. Pinkney's letter of March 27.] ter, and to desire such redress as might be deemed
Lord Wellesley to Mr. Pinkney. suitable to the nalure of the alleged offence.
FOREIGN Office, March 26, 1810. This course of proceeding would have enabled
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the reHis Majesty to have made such arrangements, or ceipt of your letter of the 7th instant, requesting to have offered such seasonable explanations, as
a further explanation of my letter of the 20, conmight have precluded the inconvenience which cerning the blockades of France instituted by Great must always arise from the suspension of official Britain during the present war, before the 1st day communication between friendly Powers. His Majesty, however, is always disposed to pay
of January, 1807.
The blockade notified by Great Britain in May, the utmost attention to the wishes and sentiments 1806, has never been formally withdrawn. It canof States in amity with him; and he has there not, therefore, be accurately stated that the refore, been pleased 1o direct the return of Mr. Jack- strictions which it established rest altogether on son to England.
the Order of Council of the 7th January, 1807; But His Majesty has not marked with any they are comprehended under the more extensive expression of his displeasure the conduct of Mr. restrictions of that order. No other blockade of Jackson, whose integrity, zeal, and ability, have the ports of France was instituted by Great Britlong been distinguished in His Majesty's service, ain between the 16th May, 1806, and the 7th of and who does not appear on the present occasion: January, 1807, excepting the blockade of Venice, to have committed any intentional offence against instituted on the 27th July, 1806, which is still in the Government of the Uoited States.
force. I aid commanded to inform you that Mr. Jackson is ordered to deliver over the charge of His sideration with which I have the honor to be, sir,
I beg you to accept the assurances of high conMajesty's affairs in America to a person properly qualified to carry on the ordinary intercourse be your most obedient, humble servant,
WELLESLEY. iween the two Goveroments, which His Majesty is sincerely desirous of cultivating on the most friendly terms.
Mr. Pinkney to General Armstrong. As an additional testimony of this disposition,
LONDON, April 6, 1810. I am authorized to assure you that His Majesty
DEAR SIR: I do not know whether the state. is ready to receive, with sentiments of undimin- ment contained in my lelier of the 27th of last ished amity and good will, any communication month will enable you to obtain the recall of the which the Government of the United States may Berlin decree. Certainly, the inference from that deem beneficial to the mutual interests of both statement is, that the blockade of 1806 is virtue