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Toraip Fly....

670 Tytler, Alexander Fraser.

695 Universalists

83+

Tcrole, see Heliotrope.

Tytler, Patrick Fraser..

695 University

886

Turnspit, see Terrier.

Tzetzes, Joannes...

695 Unterwalden

541

Taas one

670
Tzschirner, Heinrich Gottlieb..... 695 Upas Tree.

S41
Tarpu atino
671

Upham, Charles Wentworth S42
Turpin.
678

Upham, Thomas Cogswell, D.D... 812

Tunnoise.

673

U

Upolu, see Navigators' Islands.

Tärr, Istrán.

673

Upsal, a district

842

Turetin. François.

674 U.

696 Upsal, a town

S43

Tutetin, Jean Alphonse..

674

Ubicini, Jean Henri Abdolonyine.. 696 Upshur co.

$43

Title..

674 Uccello, Paolo..

696

Ujishur, Abel Parker.

S13

Tartla Dore..

676 Udall, Nicholas..

696 Upson co..

8.13

Tascaloos3 co..

677 Udino

696 Ural, a river.

818

Toscany..

678 Udo, see Audius.

Ural Mountains.

543

Tesorsius co.
679 Uggione, Marco da, seo Oggione.

Urania..

844

Tesorores

679 Uhland, Johann Ludwig..

697

Uranium.

547

T3 co..

680 Uhlich, Leberecht..

697 Uranus, in Greek mythology, see

Talum, see Frascati.

Uigurs, seo Turks.

Calus.

seer. Thomas.

CSO

Ukraine....

697 Uranus, the Planet, see Astronomy.

Tit. See Nickel.

Ulema..

697

Urban (popes). .

845

Tortil, Louisa Caroline (Huggins) 630 Ultilas..

697 Urban II.

815

Tatuil, see Sarigators' Islands.

Ullmann, Karl..

rbar

815

Trer, government.

680

Ulloa, Antonio de.

698 Urban VI.

815

Ther, a city

650 Ulm.

698 Urban VIII..

8.15

Iszc1..
650 Ulpian (Domitius Ulpianus). 699 Urbana..

845

Triedlale, see Peeblessbire.

Ulrici, Herinann.

699 Urbino..

S16

Tri1 August Detlev Christian 680 Ulster co.

699 Urbino e Pesaro

816

Totham..

651 Ulster..

099 Urchin Fish, see Sea Porcupino.

691 Ultramarine

700 Tre, Andrew..

816

TES, David Emanuel.

691 Ultramontanism.

700 Urea, see Urine.

Ty Levi...

691 Ulysses..

700 Uredo..

$46

T*

681 Umber, see Paints.

Urfé, Honoré d'

816

Tie see Linnet

Umbre..

701

Urfey, Thomas D', see D'Urfey.

TE

692 Umbreit, Friedrich Wilhelm Karl. 701

$17

Tribe, se Fortuna.

Umbrella, a shade or screen... 701 Uric Acid, see Urine.

Tica Brahe, see Brahe.

Umbrella, in conchology.

702

Urim and Thummim.

847

TYOSTOiaus Gerhard

692 Umbrella Bird....

702

Urine..

817

The ca, Va...

632

Umbria ...

703

Urquhart, David..

843

Tyler eo, Texas.

682

Umpqua co....

703

Urquiza, Justo José de.

849

Ty er, Bennet, D.D.

692 Umritsir, see Amritseer.

Ursa Major, sco Bear, Great.

TT. John

693 Unau, see Sloth.

Ursinus, Fulvius..

849

TV, Bayall..

687 Uncas.

703 Ursinus, Zacharias.

S49

The Snuel.

697 Unguiculata

703 Ursula, Saint.

850

Tyler, William Seymour, D.D..... 637 Unicorn

703 Ursulines...

$50

Tyngadon, see Ear.

Uniola

703 Uruguay, a republic.

S50

T7 fale, William..

687 Union co., N. J.

704

Uruguay, a river.

831

693

Union co., Penn.

704

Usbecks, see Turks.

Tyaz, Stephen Higginson, D.D. 683 Union co., N. C.

704

Uses.

852

688 Union district, S. C.

704 Ushant

$52

Type Setting Machine, seo Printing. Union co.. Ga..

704 Usher.

$52

Tytaid Ferer..

690 Union parish, La..

704 Usher, James.

852

Typhon, in Greek mythology 692 Union co., Ark.

704 Usquebaugh.

853

Typhon an Egyptian deity, sce Union co., Tenn..

704 Usumasinta River, see Guatemala.

Demon.

Union co., Ky:

705 Usury

853

Typhoon, see Ilarricane.

Union co., Ohio

705 Utah..

$14

Typhus.

692

Ind..

705

Utah co..

856

Typograpby, see Printing

Union co, Ill..

705 Utica, N. Y.

856

Trupt, in ornitbology,see King Bird. Union co., Iowa...

705 Utica, Africa

857

Tyrant, a ruler or sovereign. 693 Union College..

105

Utopia ..

857

693 Unitarianism...

106 Utrecht, a province.

S57

Tytuł.

69.3 Unitas Fratrum, see Moravians.

Utrecht, a city.

S57

Trzone.

691 United Brethren in Christ.

710

Uyalde co...

859

Tyrrel co..

694

United Evangelical Church

711 Uvaroff, Sergei

83

Ty28

694 United Provinces, see Netherlands. Uvula.

853

Tyrobitt, Thomas.

694 United States of America... 712 Uwins, Thomas.
Tyler, Wuliam

694 United States, Literature of the... $17 L'zziah, see Hebrews.

Uri ...

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THE

NEW AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA.

SPIRITUALISM

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SPIRITUALISM, a term formerly used to “Divine Love and Wisdom" (paragragh 257) designate the doctrines and religious life of a Swedenborg avers that a man in whom the class of mystics who professed to be under the spiritual degree of the mind is open may come sensible guidance of the Divine Spirit, and who into angelic wisdom" by laying asleep the senwere distinguished by a habit of spiritualizing sations of the body, and by influx from above the Sacred Scriptures. Jacob Böhme, Mme. at the same time into the spirituals of his Gayon, Miguel de Molinos, and Mme. de Bou- mind.”—Clairvoyance appears to have played rignon, though not all ostensibly of the same an important part in the introduction of modcommunion, are representatives of the some- ern spiritualism, and a historical sketch of the what numerous class of religionists, particular, latter, to be complete, must include some noly of the 17th century, to whose teachings and tice of the former. Jung-Stilling, in his varipractice the appellation of spiritualism has been ous writings on pneumatology early in the applied. Latterly, however, especially in the present century, appears to have been the first United States, the word has been employed to notice that clairvoyants, during their more exclusively to designate the belief in and prac- exalted states of ecstasis, professed, with what tice of open intercourse with the spiritual seemed to him satisfactory evidence, to be in world. This alleged intercourse has attained converse with invisible intelligences.

The an extraordinary development in recent times, same claims to open intercourse with the and especially since about the year 1848. Al spiritual world, with many phenomenal evithough it was not until that period that the so dences which he regarded as establishing their called spiritual manifestations assumed a form truth, were afterward noted by Dr. Justinus and conspicuousness which forced them into Kerner, and detailed at large in his biography aniversal notice, it is asserted that many start- of one of his patients, Frederica Hauffe, more ling instances of them, as precursors and familiarly known as the seeress of Prevorst, prophets of the more signal wonders, had and who is said to have been in a magnetic been in the course of development during state for most of the time during the last 7 many years previous; and that, in fact, the years of her life, describing the persons and spiritualism of the day is the growth of a cen- repeating the language of what she represented tury. We are referred to the alleged fact that to be spirits, and being often accompanied with 100 years ago Emanuel Swedenborg was in mysterious rapping sounds. Many similar infell and open communication with the spiritual stances of alleged intercourse with the invisworld, and in daily converse with spirits and iblo world through clairvoyance subsequently angels, with all the familiarity with which man occurred, not only in Germany and other parts converses with man. There is also a tradition of Europe, but in the United States; but that while Swedenborg was on his deathbed, none of these phenomena were of so remarkhe was asked by a friend whether in that able a character as those presented in the solemn hour he still adhered to the state- case of Andrew Jackson Davis. (See Davis, ments and doctrines set forth in his books; ANDREW Jackson.) Thrown into an abnorwhen he answered emphatically in the affirma- mal state of mind and body by the process tire, adding that in about 80 years from that of magnetism, this young man, while protime events would occur that would greatly fessing to be in immediate converse with the tend to bring his teachings into general notice. spiritual world, dictated a large 8vo. volume It is noted by spiritualists as a singular coin- which was published under the title of “The cidence that the 80 years from that time (1772) Principles of Nature, her Divine Revelations, espired in 1852, at which time the alleged and a Voice to Mankind.” In a portion of this spiritual phenomena, corroborating in many book that was dictated in the autumn of 1846 respects what Swedenborg had taught con- (pp. 675–6) the entranced author distinctly cerning spirits and the spiritual world, were predicted that the communication with the exciting universal attention. In his book on spiritual world would ere long assume “the

VOL. XV.-1

form of a living demonstration." The same number of years was rapped correctly. Then, prediction is said to have been frequently re- in like manner, the age of each of the other peated by the young clairvoyant in his inter- children was by request indicated by this inviews with his visitors. Another event is visible agent. Startled and somewhat alarmed spoken of as possessing some significance in at these manifestations of intelligence, Mrs. Fox connection with this history. In the spring of asked if it was a human being that was making 1843, the societies of Shakers at New Lebanon that noise, and if it was to manifest it by makand Watervliet, N. Y., and several other com- ing the same noise. There was no sound. She munities of that fraternity, almost simultane- then said: “ If you are a spirit, make two disously became the subjects of strange psycho- tinct sounds." Two raps were accordingly logical experiences, during which certain of the heard. The members of the family by this members would lose all personal consciousness, time had all left their beds, and the house was while influences purporting to be the spirits of again thoroughly searched, as it had been bepersons of different nations, and who had lived fore, but without discovering any thing that in the world in different ages, took possession of could explain the mystery; and after a few their bodies, and spoke through their vocal or- more questions, and responses by raps, the gans. Shakers who personally witnessed these neighbors were called in to assist in further phenomena describe them as being very impres- efforts to trace the phenomenon to its cause; sive, and a constant burden of their communi- but these persons were no more successful than cations was: “Treasure these things up in the family had been, and they confessed themyour hearts; say nothing of them, for the pres- selves thoroughly confounded. For several ent, to the world's people, but the time is not subsequent days the village was in a turmoil far distant when these same wonders which of excitement, and multitudes visited the house, you now behold shall be witnessed extensively heard the raps, and interrogated the apparent in the world.” These manifestations continued intelligence which controlled them, but without for a year or more, when they suddenly ceased, obtaining any clue to the discovery of the agent, the alleged spirits bidding the “brethren" fare- further than its own persistent declaration that well, with a promise to come again before many it was a spirit. About 3 weeks after these ocyears, when their manifestations should be ad- currences, David, a son of Mr. and Mrs. Fox, dressed not merely to a select few, but to the went alone into the cellar where the raps were world in general. - The commencement of the then being heard, and said: “If you are the "spirit-rapping” phenomenon was as follows: spirit of a human being, who once lived on the Some time in the year 1847 the attention of earth, can you rap to the letters that will

spell Mr. Michael Weekman, who resided in the little your name and if so, rap now 3 times.” Three village of Hydesville in the township of Arca- raps were promptly given, and David proceeded dia, Wayne co., N. Y., was called to certain rap- to call the alphabet, writing down the letters ping sounds upon the door of his house, which as they were indicated, and the result was the he was unable by the most diligent efforts to name * Charles B. Rosma," a name quite untrace to any visible cause. Mr. Weekman soon known to the family, and which they were afterward vacated the house, and the family of afterward unable to trace. The statement was Mr. John D. Fox moved into it. In the latter in like manner obtained from the invisible inpart of March, 1848, this family was startled telligence, that he was the spirit of a peddler by mysterious rappings that were heard night- who had been murdered in that house some ly upon the floor of one of the bedrooms, and years previous. At first, we are told, the raps sometimes in other parts of the house. They occurred in the house even when all the memendeavored to trace the sounds to their cause, bers of the family were absent, but subsequentbut failed. On the night of March 31, having ly they occurred only in the presence of the been broken of their rest for several nights two younger daughters, Catharine and Margaprevious, they retired to bed earlier than usual, retta. Soon after these occurrences the famhoping to be permitted to sleep without dis- ily removed to Rochester, at which place the turbance. The sounds, however, were resum- manifestations still accompanied them; and ed, and, occurring near the bed occupied by here it was discovered, by the rappings at the two of the daughters, the youngest girl, then letters of the alphabet in the manner before about 10 years old, attempted to imitate them described, that different spirits were apparently by the snapping of her fingers. Whenever she using this channel of communication, and that would snap her fingers, the raps would imme- in short almost any one, on coming into the diately respond by the same number of sounds. presence of the two girls, could get a commuOne of the girls then said: “Now do as I do; nication from what purported to be the spirits count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,” at the same time striking of his departed friends, the same often being her hands together. The same number of raps accompanied by tests which satisfied the interresponded, and at similar intervals. The moth- rogator as to the spirit's identity. A new pheer of the girls then said: “Count 10;" and 10 nomenon was also observed in the frequent distinct raps were heard; “Count 15," and that movement of tables and other ponderable bodies nwnber of sounds followed. She then said: without appreciable agency, in the presence of "Tell us the age of Cathy (the youngest daugh- these two young girls. These manifestations, ter] by rapping one for each year," and the growing more and more remarkable, attracted

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namerous visitors, some from long distances, and have, in a few instances, been produced in their the phenomenon began, as it were, to propa- presence, as we are told, by invisible hands. gate itself, and to be witnessed in other families Mediums for the movement of ponderable bodin Rochester and vicinity, while, as coincident ies without hands, are said to be sometimes also therewith, susceptible persons would sometimes mediums for the preternatural movement of fall into apparent trances, and become clair- their own bodies; and intelligent and respectvoyant, and reaffirm these raps and physical able persons testify that they have seen the movements to be the productions of spirits. In medium Henry Gordon float in air several feet Nov. 1849, at the request of the alleged spirits, above the floor, for several minutes, without & public meeting was called in Corinthian hall, the slightest physical contact or support, he beRochester, for the purpose of submitting these ing at the time deeply entranced. Individuals phenomena to the investigation of a committee long deceased, it is said, have often been perto be appointed by the audience, with a view sonated by mediums so that their surviving to the publication of a report concerning their friends would instantly recognize them, and nature and claims, whatever the decision re- their earthly history has been accurately despecting these might be. The Misses Fox ap- tailed, though the mediums may never have peared upon the stage, the phenomena were known nor heard of them.

Persons report freely manifested and were subjected to many that the spirits of their departed friends have tests, and a committee appointed for their in- been seen and correctly described, and their Vestigation, after having continued their ex- words repeated, though to all but the medium periments there and elsewhere for several they were invisible and inaudible; and obstidays, reported that they were unable to trace nate diseases, on which the skill of the physithem to any mundane agency. From that time, cian has been exhausted in vain, are said to and especially from the time the Fox girls have been quickly cured simply by the imposiarrived in New York city in the following tion of the hands of the medium while under month of May, the alleged spiritual manifes- spirit influence. Spiritualists admit that many tations became the subject of extensive news- impositions have been practised under the name paper and conversational discussion; their facts of spiritual manifestations, but they aver that were published far and wide ; "mediums," in most instances cheats could not have been through whom they were said to occur, sprang palmed off even if designed, and that in other op in different parts of the country, and were cases there could be no possible motive for demultiplied by hundreds and almost by thou- ception, as the investigations were carried on sands; and for several years spiritualism con- in private families, while the mediums were stitated one of the most prominent themes of their own sons and daughters. The “Spiritual public discussion. Among the mediums of the Register” for 1859 estimates the number of acalleged spiritual manifestations there have been tual spiritualists in America at 1,500,000; those. representatives from all classes and conditions who have more or less faith in the doctrine, of mankind, male and female, high and low, but do not openly espouse it, 4,000,000; public rich and poor, learned and unlearned; and advocates, 1,000; mediums, public and private, even little children in their swaddling clothes 40,000; places for public meetings, 1,000; books are said to have been, in some few instances, and pamphlets, 500; periodicals, 30. Spiritumediums for the raps. The alleged mediums alists, however, are not associated under any have been classified as rapping mediums; medi- regular organization, but have their representurns for tipping and turning tables by a slight atives among all sects and parties of religionists toach of the finger; mediums for the movement and non-religionists, and these estimates of their of ponderable bodies without contact; mediums numbers can be considered as only approxifor the production of phosphorescent lights in mately correct.—Spiritualism numbers among a dark room; mediums for playing on musical its avowed converts in America many persons instruments in a manner beyond their ordinary well known in the walks of science, philosophy, abilities; mediums for involuntary writing; im- literature, and statesmanship. While it has its pressional speaking, seeing, hearing, personat- converts from every religious denomination, no ing, and healing mediums; mediums in whose small proportion of its advocates are from the presence are produced drawings, and pictures ranks of those who previously doubted or toin colors, and writings, and also in many in- tally disbelieved the immortality of the soul, stances tangible and visible living human and who affirm that they carry their sceptiforms; and mediums for the development of cal tendencies into the investigation of this other mediums. By the raps and tipping of subject. On matters of speculative theology, tables, and by the control of the medium's there seems to be among them the widest latiorgans to write and speak, the spirits are sup- tude of opinion, though a majority of them perposed to express their own peculiar intelli- haps are in their speculations inclined to what gence in a degree of perfection proportioned may be termed a sublimated naturalism. They to the development and passivity of the medi- tell us that it is not the object of the spirits to un; and it is averred that persons while un- teach theological dogmas as by any authority der the spiritual afflatus have often spoken in superior to that of man, but rather, by the menforeign tongnes which they had never learned; tal and physical phenomena incidentally preand writings in languages to them unknown sented in the course of their manifestations, to

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