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STILICHO, FLAVIUS, a Roman general, as- and after a bloody battle was defeated, and sassinated Aug. 23, A. D. 408. He was the son again soon after under the walls of Verona. of a Vandal officer of the cavalry under Va- Alario now departed from Italy, and Stililens, rose to high rank during the reign of cho in 404 received the honor of a triumph Theodosius, by whom he was sent in 384 to in Rome. Intrigues were still carried on Persia to ratify a treaty with the monarch of against him in the Byzantine court, and he now that country, was rewarded for his services on formed an alliance with his late enemy against that occasion with the hand of Serena, the the emperor of the East. His preparations, niece and adopted daughter of Theodosius, and however, were disturbed by the invasion of soon became master-general of all the cavalry Italy in 405 by Radagaisus, at the head of a and infantry of the western empire. Jealousy mixed multitude of Vandals, Suevi, Burgunsprang up between him and Rufinus, on whom dians, Alani, and Goths. But while they were Theodosius conferred the government of the besieging Florence, Stilicho cut off their comEast, which soon ripened into intense hatred. munications and supplies by strong lines of cirIn 394 Stilicho became governor of the West, cumvallation, and hunger and disease forced as guardian of Honorius, whom Theodosius them to capitulate. Radagaisus was put to bad proclaimed Augustus; and when Theo- death, and his men were sold as slaves; but dosius died in 395, leaving to Honorius the em- the other portion of this horde, which had pire of the West, and to Arcadius that of the not entered Italy, ravaged Gaul, from which East, Stilicho immediately passed the Alps in the garrisons had been withdrawn, and which the depth of winter, spread terror among the Stilicho, intent chiefly on the preservation of barbarians by his bold and rapid operations, Italy, was obliged to leave to its fate. Meanand having in a single summer established a while Alaric had become impatient of the defirm peace on the border, returned to Milan, lay, and marching to Æmona on the borders and prepared to march in person to Constanti- of Italy, sent to the emperor of the West & nople, ostensibly against Alaric and to lead demand for the promised subsidies. The inback the eastern legions, but really to break fluence of Stilicho secured to the Gothic king the power of Rufinus. Being met near Thes- the payment of 4,000 pounds of gold; but a salonica by a message from the Byzantine large party were indignant at his supposed eart that his nearer approach would be consid- partiality for the barbarians, and his power at ered an act of hostility, he went no further, but court was also secretly undermined by the arts en zaged Gainas, the leader of the Gothic allies of the eunuch Olympius, whom he himself had of Arcadias, to put Rufinus to death, which he introduced into the imperial palace. The latter accomplished in Nov. 395. Stilicho, however, represented to Honorius that he was without gained little by this proceeding, as Arcadius authority in his own kingdom, and that his fell into the hands of the eunuch Entropius and death was meditated by Stilicho, who designed Gainas, both of whom became bitterly hostile placing the imperial crown upon the head of his to himself. Several attempts were inade to son Eucherius. On the death of Arcadius in assassinate him, and the senate of Constanti. May, 408, Honorius proposed to visit ConstanDople issued a decree declaring him an enemy tinople as the guardian of Theodosius, the inof the republic, and confiscating his possessions fant son of that emperor. From this project in the East. Stilicho, who did not desire to he was diverted, but he could not be dissuaded involve the empire in civil war, made no effort from showing himself to the camp at Pavia, to interfere with the ministers of Arcadius. In filled with Roman troops and enemies of Stili396 Alaric ravaged the northern parts of Greece, cho. Immediately after his arrival there, sud penetrated into the Peloponnesus. Stilicho through the agency of Olympius, the friends at the head of a powerful army sailed from Italy of Stilicho, some of the most islustrious officers to chastise the invaders; but Alaric escaped into of the empire, were murdered. Stilicho was Epirus, of which he took possession, and con- in the camp of the barbarian allies at Bologna, cluded a treaty with the ministers of Arcadius, and immediately called a council of his friends, by which he was made master-general of the who demanded to be led against the murderers. province of Illyricum. Stilicho retired to Italy, But he hesitated, and his friends, indignant at where in 398 a marriage was celebrated be- his want of resolution, left him to his fate. An tween his daughter Maria and Honorius. In unsuccessful attempt to assassinate him was 400 Alaric invaded Italy, and Honorius was made by Sarus, a Goth, but he succeeded in only prevented from flying with the court to escaping, and threw himself into the hands of Gail by Stilicho, who hastened to collect his his enemies in Ravenna, and took refuge in a scattered troops from Rhætia, Gaul, and Ger- church. From this sanctuary he was led out, many, while Alaric seems to have been delayed and no sooner had he passed the threshold by the siege of Aquileia, and to have returned than he was slain by Count Heraclian at the to the Danube for reënforcements. In 403 that head of a troop of soldiers. His family and leatler besieged Milan, from which the emperor friends were persecuted, and many of them put ied, and the garrison was reduced to the last to death, and his own name was branded with extremity when the rapid approach of Stilicho the title of public enemy, and his estate confischanged the position of the contending parties. cated. His qualities and services have been Alaric was attacked in his camp at Pollentia, celebrated by the poet Claudian.

STIRLING

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STILLING, JUNG. See Jung-STILLING. preacher in Boston. He was one of the found.

STILLINGFLEET, EDWARD, an English an- ers and corporators of Brown university, and thor and prelate, born in Cranbourn, Dorset, the schools of Boston were also indebted to his April 17, 1635, died in London, March 27, 1699. efforts for much of their efficiency. He was acHe was educated at St. John's college, Cam- tive in the promotion of all humane institutions, bridge, at the age of 18 obtained a fellowship, and was an officer of several of them at the and in 1657 was presented to the rectory of time of his death. He was a member of the Button. Subsequently he became chaplain in convention which framed the constitution of ordinary to Charles II., and dean of St. Paul's, the United States. During his lifetime Dr. and in 1689 bishop of Worcester. His first Stillman published a great number of sermons work, “ Irenicum, or the Divine Right of par- and addresses, some of which, with others preticular Forms of Church Government Exam- viously unpublished, were collected in an 8vo. ined" (1659), was distinguished by a tolera- volume in 1808. tion inclining, as the high church party thought, STILLWATER. See SARATOGA, BATTLE OF. toward Presbyterianism, and which he subse- STILT, a wading bird of the avocet family, quently confessed “ showed his youth and want and genus himantopus (Briss.), so called from of due consideration." His views however the length and slenderness of the legs. The soon took another direction, and he combat- bill is long, straight, slender, and pointed, with ed Roman Catholics and nonconformists with a groove on each side to the middle; wings equal energy. Of this character were his long and pointed, 1st quill much the longest; “Rational Account of the Grounds of Protes- tail short and nearly even; legs very thin and tant Religion” (fol., 1664), written in vindi- long, with scaled tarsi; toes moderate, joined cation of Archbishop Laud's views in his con- at the base, with a wide membrane between ference with Fisher, the Jesuit; his “Dis- the outer and middle toes; hind toe wanting; course concerning the Idolatry practised in the claws small and sharp; neck long. Of the Church of Rome” (1671), which he afterward half dozen species found in various parts of the defended against several antagonists; a sermon world, may be mentioned two, the black-necked against the nonconformists entitled “The Mis- and the white stilt, the former American and chief of Separation,” which was answered by the latter European. The black-necked stilt Owen, Baxter, and others, to whom Stilling- (H. nigricollis, Vieill.) is about 14 inches long, fleet published a rejoinder entitled “The Un- black above, with forehead, lower parts, rump, reasonableness of Separation” (4to., 1681); and and tail white; bill black, and legs red. It is a variety of less important tracts against the found as far N. as the middle states in spring, Roman Catholics, the Socinians, &c. He is, going S. beyond the limits of the United States however, better known at the present day by in autumn; though the legs seem disproporhis “ Origines Sacræ, or Rational Account of tionately long, it is a graceful bird, and frethe Grounds of Natural and Revealed Religion” quents salt marshes in flocks of 6 to 20, delight(4to., 1662), which is still regarded as one of the ing to wade knee-deep in search of aquatic ablest defences of the truth of revelation; and larvæ and insects, snails, and small fry; the by his “Origines Britannicæ" (1685), an ac- nests are built in company, at first upon the count of the ecclesiastical history of Britain ground, from which they are gradually raised from the introduction of Christianity to the by successive additions; the eggs are usually conversion of the Saxons. After his consecra- 4, of a pale yellowish clay color, with large irtion he devoted himself with great energy to regular blotches and lines of brownish black; diocesan reforms, and participated with distinc- though the gait on first alighting is rather untion in parliamentary debates. He wrote sev- steady, the flight is rapid and regular, the legs eral more polemical tracts and a number of extending behind; the flesh is indifferent eatmiscellaneous pamphlets, and in the latter part ing. The white stilt (H. melanopterus, Meyer) of his life engaged in a sharp controversy with is of about the same size, and with similar Locke on the latter's definition of substance habits, preferring, however, the edges of fresh and theory of ideas in general. His works water streams; it is white, with the back and were printed in 1710 in 6 vols. fol., to which wings shining_greenish black, and legs red; it was added in 1735 a volume of his miscella- is found in S. E. Europe, Asia, and Africa; the neous works.

bill is 3 inches and tarsus 4. STILLMAN, SAMUEL, D.D., an American STIRLING, a parliamentary and municipal clergyman, born in Philadelphia, Feb. 27, 1737, burgh of Scotland, capital of Stirlingshire, on died in Boston, March 12, 1807. His parents the river Forth, 31 m. W. N. W. from Edinremoved in his childhood to Charleston, S. O., burgh; pop. of the burgh in 1861, 13,846. where he studied theology; and he was licens- The town is built on a height at the head of ed to preach in 1758, and ordained as an evan- the navigation of the river, which is crossed by gelist of the Baptist church in 1759. In 1761 two bridges and a railroad. Many of the pubhe removed to Bordentown, N. J., and in lic buildings are very ancient, and the castle is 1763 to Boston, where in 1765 he became pas- supposed to have been originally built by the tor of the first Baptist church, which relation Romans. It stands upon a rocky height more he held till his death, being for many years than 200 feet above the plain, and forms & regarded as the most eloquent and popular conspicuous object from several of the sur

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rounding counties. The castle of Stirling holds Stobæns called his whole work an Antholoa prominent place in the history of Scotland, gy," and divided it into 4 books; but it has and is connected with most of the important come down in a somewhat different form and events that occurred in that kingdom before it as two separate works. The original 1st and was annexed to England. The royal palace is 2d books are now entitled “Physical and Ethstill standing in an apartment of which the earlical Extracts,” and the remainder the “ Anof Douglas was mortally stabbed by James II. ; thology," or by the Latin writers Sermones. and in another room the same James, as well These works, with extracts from many still exas James V., was born. There is also a palace tant ancient writers, contain passages from a commenced by the latter and finished by his large number of writers whose works are lost, daughter Mary. The parliament house has and who are not otherwise known. A combeen much defaced by being occupied by troops. plete edition of both the “Extracts" and the Part of the royal chapel is used as an armory. Sermones was published by Tauchnitz (3 vols. There are several ancient churches and some 16mo., Leipsic, 1838), modern ones within the town, beside numer- STOCK EXCHANGE, the appellation origious schools. The town house is very ancient, nally given to the building in which stocks and the old residence of the earl of Mar is a were bought and sold, but which has now come very curious building. Stirling has some man- to signify transactions of all kinds in stocks. ufactures, the principal of which are woollens In England the term stocks is confined to the of different descriptions, leather, ropes, &c. government stocks, annuities, &c., and the The river is shallow, but a considerable trade is term shares is used for the capital or stock of carried on. The Scottish central railway passes railroad, banking, and other companies; but it, and 3 others have their termini at the town. in the United States the obligations of the The salmon fishery of the Forth is valuable. national debt, as well as of states, counties,

STIRLING, EARL OF. See ALEXANDER, and cities, and the shares of railroads, banks, WILLIAN.

mining, manufacturing, and insurance comSTIRLING, WILLIAM, a Scottish author, born panies, are all called stocks. In France the at Kenmure, near Glasgow, in 1818. He was word rentes has the same limitation as stocks graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in in England. The amount of the public debt of 1899. and soon after turned his attention to the Great Britain at the end of 1860 was £801,477,study of Spanish literature, history,' and art, 741, and the interest £26,833,469. The debt for which purpose he travelled and resided of France in 1860, of which the rentes are the several years in Spain. In illustration of these evidences, was $1,714,000,000, and the interest subjects he has published Annals of the on it $114,000,000. The dealing in the variArtists of Spain" (3 vols. 8vo., 1848), “The ous stocks, bonds, and annuities is the business Cloister Life of the Emperor Charles the Fifth” of the stock exchange, and the dealers in them (1852), and a life of Velasquez, entitled “Ve- are usually known as stock brokers and stock lasquez and his Works” (12mo., 1855). In 1852 jobbers. In New York the traffic in stocks is of he was elected in the conservative interest a two kinds, the regular sales at the first and secmember of parliament for Perthshire, which ond boards, and the operations of the street. The constituency he still represents.

first are, or are supposed to be, legitimate in STIRLINGSHIRE, a central county of Scot- their character, and the sales bona fide; the secland, bounded by the counties of Perth, Clack- ond are speculative in character, often illegal, mannan, Linlithgow, Lanark, and Dumbarton; and as often mere gambling or betting by parties area, 462 sq. m.; pop. in 1861, 91,926. The without capital. The board of brokers in New principal towns are Stirling, Falkirk, Alva, York is composed of 200 regular members, who Bannockburn, and Denny. The chief rivers are men of reputed wealth, and who at their are the Forth, Avon, Kelvin, Endrick, and two daily sessions, either on their own account Carron. Half of Loch Lomond belongs to or on account of persons for whom they act, Stirlingshire. Loch Coulter, Loch Elrigg, and purchase or sell the various stocks which are some others are also in the county; and the called in order. Many of these sales and purW. end of Loch Katrine forms the N. E. bound- chases are made for speculative purposes, but ary for a short distance. Ben Lomond, in the very seldom on account of brokers themselves. X w. part of the county, rises to the height The delivery of stocks and the payment at full of 3,197 feet above the sea. Coal and iron price is the almost invariable custom. It is only are mined, and woollen and cotton goods are when a failure occurs that differences are fixed manufactured; the iron works situated at Car- between members of the board.

When a ron are among the largest in the world. member of the board fails to deliver or pay

STIVER, a Dutch copper coin, of the value for stocks as agreed, his name is struck from of about two cents in the currency of the Uni- the list. He may be reinstated, however, upted States.

on effecting a settlement with his creditors. STOAT. See ERMINE.

The efforts by one class of brokers to depreSTOB.ETS, JOANNES, the compiler of a val- ciate stocks, and by another to enhance their nable collection of passages from Greek au- value, have led to the technical names of bears thors, probably born at Stobi in Macedonia, and bulls, and in the French bourse to the similived in the latter half of the 5th century. lar terms baissiers and haussiers. (See BEARS

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AND Bulls.) The measures resorted to for the the month to annul his contract by the pay.
purpose of raising or depressing values are ex- ment of a small fixed sum. If he adheres to
traordinary and not always creditable. The his bargain, when called upon on these days,
stock exchange has its own peculiar terms, not it is then called ferme, "fixed." The parquet
generally understood by outsiders. The phrase is in, session from 1 to 3 P. M. every day;
"buyer's option,” added to the memorandum the coulisse is in session then, as well as before
of a sale of stocks, implies that the purchaser, and after. The transactions of the latter are
who buys at 30 or 60 days, can at his own as irregular as those of our “ curbstone bro-
choice call for the delivery of the stocks at any kers,” and its premiums for annulling a sale
time within the period by giving one day's no- are less than those of the parquet. The stock
tice and paying interest at 6 per cent. up to the exchange at London has very similar rules,
time he calls. Such purchases are usually made and its street operators are similar in char-
at a little above the cash price. “Seller's op- acter.—The excitement at the hour of “high
tion," on the contrary, is a little below the cash 'change,” in London, Paris, or New York,
price, and the seller has the right to deliver any is often such as beggars description ; sev-
day within the limited time, by giving one day's eral hundred men are shouting, calling out
notice, receiving interest up to the time of de- what they have to sell or what they wish to
livery. A "corner" is an operation by several buy, at the top of their voices, all together,
brokers, who form a clique to compel others and leaping and gesticulating, almost as if in-
to pay a heavy difference on the price of stock. sane; in speculative periods, immense sums are
Sometimes the clique purchase gradually a large made or lost in a few minutes. Nathan Mayer
amount of stock on time, buyer's option; they Rothschild, the day after the battle of Water-
next sell nearly the same amount on time, sell- loo, made, it is said, over £1,000,000 sterling in
er's option, so as to secure an eventual market the purchase of stocks.
for their stock; then buy for cash, thus raising STOOK FISH. See Cod.
the price, and make a sudden call for the stock STOCK JOBBING. See STOCK EXCHANGE.
they have purchased on buyer's option, which, STOCKBRIDGE, a township of Berkshire
if they have calculated correctly, compels the co., Mass., on the Houšatonic river and railroad,
parties from whom they have purchased to buy 168 m. by railroad from Boston, and 17 m.
of them at a high price in order to deliver at à from Pittsfield; pop. in 1860, 2,000. The sur-
low one. The operation is attended with con- face of the township is varied; in the 8. is Monu-
siderable hazard. A “lame duck” is a broker ment mountain, separating it from Great Bar-
who is unable to respond with the shares or rington, in the W. West Stockbridge mountain,
money when contracts mature. A “spread in the S. E. the Beartown mountains, and in the
eagle" is the operation of a broker who sells N. W. Rattlesnake mountain. Between these are
a given quantity of stock on time, say 60 days, valleys of great beauty. The

Housatonic and
buyer's option, and buys the same quantity at its affluents drain the town. The Stockbridge
a lower price, on the same time, seller's option. or Housatonic Indians, among whom John Ser-
If both contracts run their full time, he makes geant and Jonathan Edwards labored mis-
his difference; but if the buyer or seller com- sionaries, formerly had their home here, but
pel him to deliver before the time, he may be removed westward in 1788. There are two
seriously embarrassed. The “street” or “the manufacturing villages in the township, Glen-
curbstone brokers," as the board call them, dale and Curtisville, where woollen goods to
though often men of probity and honor, and the amount of $200,000 annually are made,
transacting a very large amount of business, as well as some castings, hollow ware, &c. The
are not governed by as strict rules, nor as care- village of Stockbridge has a bank, an insurance
ful to abide by the letter of the law. Many of office, an incorporated academy, several private
them are "lame ducks." They have a room schools, and 3 churches (Congregational, Epis-
adjoining that occupied by the board, and copal, and Roman Catholic).
during its sessions in communication with it. STÖCKHARDT, Julius Adolph, a German
Their operations are mostly speculative, and writer and lecturer upon chemistry and agri-
there are few of the tricks of the trade in which culture, born at Röhrsdorf, near Meissen, Sar-
they are not skilled. Few of them possess any ony, Jan. 4, 1809. After receiving a classical
considerable capital, and if they are successful education he studied practical pharmacy and
one day, they often lose the next.-In Paris, the natural sciences for several years, and in
the bourse is conducted on a very similar plan. 1833 was graduated by the board of govern-
There are 60 agents de change, 60 courtiers de ment examiners at Berlin as an apothecary of
commerce, and 8 courtiers d'assurance, who to- the first class. In 1834 he travelled in Belgium,
gether make up the parquet, answering to the England, and France, and on his return entered
board of brokers. The coulisse answers to our as assistant the laboratory of Dr. Struve's phar-
"street.” The time transactions are usually maceutical establishment in Dresden. In 1838,
“the end of the current month," or the end of having received the degree of Ph.D. from the
the next month. The 4th of each month is university of Leipsic, he became teacher of
settling day. There is a class of transactions natural science in Blockmann's institute in
called “free or premium sales,” in which the Dresden, and in the following year teacher of
purchaser has the right on the 15th or 30th of chemistry, physics, and mineralogy in the

technological school at Chemnitz, and royal has also contributed to various kindred publiinspector of apothecaries. His rare talent for cations. In 1851 he travelled through the presenting, both in the recitation and lecture farming districts of England, Scotland, France, room, scientific knowledge upon subjects which and Belgium, and in 1856 through Holland and are usually exceedingly obscure to the com- Belgium. It is said that, principally through munity at large, was soon recognized both by his efforts, two bushels of grain are now harthe students and the citizens, and the remark- vested in Saxony where formerly but one grew. able power of critical observation displayed STOCKHOLM, the capital and largest city in his writings (Untersuchung der Zwickauer of Sweden, in lat. 59° 20° 31" N., long. 17° 54'

Steinkohle, 1840; Ueber Erkennung und Anwen- E., 330 m. N. E. from Copenhagen, and 440 m. dung der Giftfarbe, 1844, &c.) was the occasion W. S. W. from St. Petersburg; pop. in 1861, of almost innumerable applications for the in- 116,972. It is beautifully situated at the juncvestigation of commercial problems, and de- tion of Lake Mælar with an arm of the Baltic mands for his opinion upon scientific legal ques- called the Skængard, the latter being more tions. In 1843 he travelled in Belgium and properly an archipelago indented as it were France to perfect himself in technological sci- into the land. The city is built chiefly upon ence, and in 1846 published his Schule der Che- a number of islands, and consists of three mie. In Germany new editions of this work principal divisions: the Stad, or original city, have been published almost every year since its the Norrmalm (northern suburb), and Süderorigin; and it has been translated into at least malm (southern suburb). It is handsomely 8 different languages. It was translated into designed and built, with several squares and English by C. II. Peirce, M.D., under the title public walks ornamented with trees and statues. of The Principles of Chemistry illustrated by The surrounding country, and much of the Simple Experiments” (Cambridge, Mass., 1850). ground upon which the city stands, are rocky In 1844 Stockhardt began a course of popular and solid; yet it has been necessary, from the agricultural lectures before the Chemnitz agri- nature of other parts, to build much upon piles, cultural society. The interest excited by these whence the name is derived, meaning island of lectures led to the establishment of the system piles. The city has been likened to Venice, and of agricultural experimental stations (Land- there are several points of view which recall wirthschaftliche Versuchs-Stationen), the im- the southern city of the sea; but the resemportance of the influence exerted by which, blance is imperfect. The approaches by water throughout Germany, in diffusing scientific are uncommonly beautiful, both on the lake side knowledge, and in bringing it to bear immedi- and from the Baltic, commanding views probately upon the affairs of practical life, can ably unsurpassed of their kind. The most strikhardly be overrated. From 1846 to 1849 Stöck- ing object from every point is the great rechardt edited (with Dr. Hulse) the Polytech- tangular palace, an immense structure, standing nisches Centralblatt, and from 1850 to 1855 upon an eminence in the central island. Its (with Schober) the Zeitschrift für Deutsche vast and massive walls rise far above all the Landwirthe. In 1848 he was appointed pro- neighboring buildings, and its long straight lines fessor of agricultural chemistry in the royal need the relief afforded by the towers of the academy at Tharand, a new chair having been neighboring cathedral church. The palace, of founded purposely for him; and he still holds Italian architecture, is a regular quadrangle, that position (1862). Since then, extending flanked upon the E. and W. sides by handsome his idea of popular agricultural instruction, he . parallel wings. There are few cities in Europe has given, chiefly at his own expense, plain whose general aspect is more attractive than conversational lectures (Feldpredigten) in the that of Stockholm. There are vast ranges of various farmers' clubs and societies of Saxony buildings, relieved and overshadowed in the and other parts of Germany, explaining the Stad by the majestic palace and church towers improvements in agriculture which chemical rising from their midst, in the Norrmalm laid science has shown to be desirable, and illus- out with modern symmetry and elegance, and trating these with experiments whenever this in the Södermalm rising from the harbor could be done. Several of the more impor- terraced upon a noble amphitheatre of rocky tant portions of these lectures have been pub- cliff, and all or nearly all reflected in the clear lished in a popular form by their author, as waves of lake and fiord. From the corner of bis Guanobüchlein (1851 ; 4th ed., 1856), and almost every street debouching upon the wide Chemische Feldpredigten (1851; 4th ed., 1857), water fronts, the eye encounters the richest and both of which have been translated into sev- most remarkable pictures. Nowhere has naeral foreign languages; and of the latter sev- ture disposed her undulations of soil and curves eral English editions exist, as “Chemical Field of water boundary with more endless variety; Lectures for Agriculturists,” translated by J. and nowhere does she produce effects and perE. Teschemacher (Cambridge, Mass., 1853), and spective of more striking beauty. In the com** Agricultural Chemistry, or Chemical Field pass of a single evening walk one may pass Lectures" (London, 1855). In 1855 he estab- through sombre forest and smooth pasture lished at Leipsic a popular journal, Der chemi- slopes, climb tall granite cliffs overhanging sche Ackersmann, in which his so called field glassy lake and bay, and glide through the busy sermons have since been published; and he seaport filled with sails and moving industry,

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