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STRICKLAND. I. AGNEs, an English au- publications are: “History of the American thoress, born at Reydon hall, Suffolk, in the Bible Society” (New York, 1849; new ed., early part of the present century. She was 1856); “History of Methodist Missions" (1850); carefully educated under the personal supervi- “Genius and Mission of Methodism" (1851); sion of her father, and at the age of 16 produced "Christianity Demonstrated” (1852); "Memoir & poem in 4 cantos entitled “Worcester Field, of the Rev. James B. Finley" (1853); “A Treaor the Cavalier," which Campbell pronounced tise on Biblical Literature” (1853); “The Light the best work of its class since the appearance of the Temple," a masonic work (Cincinnati, of Scott's metrical romances. It was followed 1854); “The Astrologer of Chaldea” (Cincinduring the next few years by “Demetrius," a nati, 1856); “Pioneers of the West (New novel, of which the scene is laid in modern York, 1856); “Life of the Rev. Francis AsbuGreece; “The Pilgrims of Walsingham," a series ry (Pioneer Bishop)” (1858); “Life of Jacob of tales constructed on the plan of Chaucer's Gruber" (1859); and “Old Mackinaw” (Phila"Canterbury Pilgrims;" “ Alda, the British delphia, 1860). Captive;" and several popular historical and STRONG, CALEB, an American statesman, biographical works for children. In 1840, in born at Northampton, Mass., Jan. 9, 1745, died conjunction with her sister Elizabeth, she there, Nov. 7, 1819. He was graduated at Harcommenced the elaborate series of the “Lives vard college in 1764, studied law, and was adof the Queens of England," completed in 1849 mitted to the bar in 1772. During the revolution in 12 vols., which was followed by “Lives of he was a member of the general court or legisthe Queens of Scotland” (8 vols., 1850–59). lature and of the Northampton committee of Both have proved very popular, and the biog- safety. For nearly 25 years after 1776 he was raphy of Mary, queen of Scots, in the latter county attorney, in 1779 was a member of the series, by Agnes Strickland, is an elaborate at state constitutional convention, and in 1780 of tempt, founded on a variety of documents not the state council, and several times represented previously consulted in detail, to establish the his county in the state senate. In 1787 he was innocence of that sovereign. In 1861 she pub- elected to the convention for framing a national lished “Lives of the Bachelor Kings of Eng- constitution, but was obliged by sickness in his land," completing, with her “Queens," a con- family to return home before the completion tinuous series of English history. At various of its labors; and in 1789 he was elected one times Miss Strickland has been a contributor of of the first U. 8. senators from Massachuprose and verse to the periodicals, and a col- setts, was reëlected in 1793, and resigned in lection of her articles has been reprinted under 1796. From 1800 to 1807 he was governor of the title of “Historical Scenes.” II. JANE Massachusetts, and again from 1812 to 1816. MABGABET, sister of the preceding, commenced As a federalist he was opposed to the war with her literary career as a contributor to juvenile England, and his conduct during the war was annuals and religious publications, to which the subject of severe animadversion by his pooccupation she devoted herself for several litical opponents. When requisition was made year. In 1854 she published “Rome, Regal upon him for troops, he, in common with the and Republican” (2 vols. 8vo.). III. CATHARINE whole federal party of New England, denied PARE (Mrs. Trail), sister of the preceding, the right of the president upon constitutional has resided for several years in Canada, where grounds, and stood aloof from the contest, until her husband, Lieut. Trail, of the 21st regiment, what seemed to be a retaliatory act of the adwas quartered, and has produced " The Back- ministration in withdrawing nearly all the troops Foods of America," “ The Canadian Crusoes," from the coast of Massachusetts, and the actual and “ A Guide to Female Emigrants.” IV. presence of the enemy, rendered it imperative STHANNAH (Mrs. MOODIE), another sister, mar- that he should make every effort for the defence ried an officer in the same regiment with Lieut. of the state. The constitution specified three Trail, and is also a resident in Canada. Her cases in which the president could call upon a Forks comprise “Mark Hurdlestone" and state for the militia, viz.: to execute the laws, "Flora Lindsay," novels, and “Roughing it in to suppress insurrection, and to repel invasion. the Bush,” a history of her personal adventures a difference of opinion arose between the presiin the new world.

dent and the governor as to which was to deSTRICKLAND, WILLIAM P., D.D., an Amer- cide that either of these exigencies existed. iean clergy man and author, born in Pittsburg, There had then been no judicial decision on Penn., Aug. 17, 1809. He was educated at the subject, and the opinion of the supreme the Ohio university, Athens, O., entered the court was asked on the questions whether the itinerant ministry of the Methodist Episcopal commanders-in-chief of the states had a right church in Ohio in 1832, and was afterward for to judge of the exigency, and whether, when some years agent and district secretary of the either of the three exigencies did exist, the American Bible society. In 1856 he removed militia could be lawfully commanded by any to New York, where he has been engaged in officer but of the militia. An answer to these literary labor, mostly in connection with the questions was returned, signed by Theophilus Methodist book concern. He is now (Jan. Parsons, Samuel Sewall, and Isaac Parker, sus1862) chaplain of the 48th New York regiment, taining the governor in his interpretation of stationed at Port Royal, 8. O. His principal the constitution. But although Gov. Strong

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so emphatically declined answering calls which the mineral celestine or sulphate of strontia, he considered unconstitutional, he was ready which consists of strontia 56.4 and sulphuric to adopt every measure which the safety of the acid 43.6 per cent. This is of vitreous lustre, state demanded, and to accede to all requests white or faintly bluish or reddish, and more or which he considered within the limits of less transparent; hardness 3 to 3}; specific his constitutional obligations; and the state gravity 3.95. Its crystals are modified forms of throughout the war was amply defended, so the right rhombic prism, and are found in great that no evil resulted from the difference be- perfection and of large size on Drummond's tween the state and national authorities. island, Lake Huron.-The nitrate is the only

'STRONG, JAMES, an American theological strontia compound of importance. It is the inwriter, born in New York, Aug. 14, 1822. He gredient used in fireworks for giving a crimson was graduated at the Wesleyan university, Mid- color to the flames, and is prepared by convertdletown, Conn., in 1844. In 1852 he published ing the native sulphate into the sulphuret by a “Harmony and Exposition of the Gospels," heating it mixed with charcoal in a crucible, and in 1854 a "Greek Harmony of the Gospels” and decomposing the sulphuret, dissolved in on a similar plan, and also an abridgment of water, with dilute nitric acid. Colorless transthe forms and questions upon it. He is also parent crystals of slender octahedral form septhe author of brief manuals of Greek and He- arate on the evaporation of the neutral or acid brew grammar, an outline of theology, and an solution. The salt is insoluble in alcohol, but “ Appeal to Sunday School Efforts;" and of dissolves in 5 parts of cold and one half part various articles, chiefly on biblical topics, in the of boiling water. A beautiful exhibition of “Methodist Quarterly Review," and a series of red fire is prepared by treating bibulous paper communications in the “Christian Advocate with nitric and sulphuric acids, and, after and Journal," on the subject of ministerial edu- washing out all the free acid and drying, satucation, which elicited much controversy. He rating it with a solution of the nitrate of stronhas been for several years engaged, in connec- tia or chloride of strontium. The chloride is tion with the Rev. Dr. McClintock, on an ex- prepared by using hydrochloric instead of nitensive "Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, tric acid in decomposing the sulphuret. A and Ecclesiastical Literature,” which is now mixture that deflagrates with a magnificent red (Feb. 1862) nearly ready for publication. In color, but which is very dangerous to make 1856 he received, although a layman, the hon- and to keep, is prepared of 40 parts of nitrate orary degree of D.D. from the Wesleyan uni- of strontia, 5 of chlorate of potash, 13 of versity. In 1858 he became professor of bibli- sulphur, and 4 of sulphuret of antimony. Its cal literature and acting president of the Troy spontaneous explosion has been the cause of university, N. Y., which position he resigned some frightful accidents.-Strontium, the mein Dec. 1861.

tallic base, was first isolated by Davy in 1807, STRONTIA, or STRONTIAN, an alkaline earth, but was first obtained in a pure state by Bunof which strontium is the metallic base, repre- sen and Matthiessen in 1855. It is a malleable sented by the formula Sro, chemical equiva- metal, of pale yellow color, and burns in the lent 52, obtained from its nitrate by ignition. air with a yellowish flame emitting sparks. It was first distinguished from barytes by Dr. STROPHE (Gr., from otpeow, to turn round), Hope in 1792, and was named by him from a division of the Greek choral ode, much the Strontian, in Argyleshire, Scotland, where the same as a stanza. Opposed to it is the antimineral compound containing it was found. strophe. The chorus recited these various Pure strontia is prepared in the same manner parts of the poem with their faces toward the as barytes from its corresponding salts. It is a different sides of the theatre, and turned to the grayish white, porous substance, infusible, not one or the other side as they began the respecvolatile, of alkaline reaction, and having an tive divisions; hence the name. acrid, burning taste. It slakes like lime, and · STRUENSEE, Karl AUGUST VON, a German dissolves in 2 parts of boiling water or 50 parts statesman and author, born in Halle, Aug. 18, of cold water. It resembles barytes, but its 1735, died in Berlin, Oct. 17, 1804. He was salts are not poisonous like those of the latter educated at the orphan house and the universubstance. Combined with carbonic acid, it sity of Halle, and in 1756 was appointed a lecforms the mineral strontianite, which occurs turer on mathematics and Hebrew at Halle, and in Scotland in veins traversing gneiss along with the next year professor at the military academy galena and heavy spar. It consists of strontia of Liegnitz. In 1769 he was called by his 70.19 and carbonic acid 29.81 per cent. It is brother Count Struensee to Copenhagen to of light shades of yellow or green, gray, or take charge of the finances of the Danish kingwhite, more or less transparent; lustre vitre- dom, and on his brother's downfall was im. ous; hardness 3.5 to 4; specific gravity 3.605 to prisoned for a short time, but was soon released, 3.713. Its chief interest is in its property of returned to Prussia, and retired to his country communicating a reddish tinge to flame. In seat at Alzenau in Silesia. In 1782 he was the United States the mineral occurs at Schoha- made councillor of finances and director of rie and at Warwick, Orange co., and at several maritime trade at Berlin, and distinguished localities in Jefferson co., N. Y. Strontia also himself by measures which greatly increased occurs combined with sulphuric acid, forming the trade of Prussia. In 1789 he was ennobled

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ander the name of Von Karlsbach, and in 1791 Matilda, and all their adherents, which was
appointed minister of state, and president of accomplished Jan. 16, 1772. Struensee and
the board of excise, which office he held till his Brandt were tried by a special commission, and
death. He published several valuable works sentenced to decapitation, their right hands to
on military science, political economy, and be cut off, their bodies quartered and broken
commerce.-JOHANN FRIEDRICH, count, a Dan- on the wheel, and their heads and hands to be
ish statesman, brother of the preceding, born stuck upon a pole. This sentence was carried
in Halle, Aug. 5, 1737, executed at Copen- into effect in all its details. During his im-
hagen, April 28, 1772. His early education was prisonment Struensee professed penitence and
acquired in Francke's orphan house, and he conversion from scepticism to Christianity, and
studied medicine at the university of Halle, re- made a written confession of his errors and
ceiving his diploma in 1757. He was soon crimes.
after appointed public physician at Altona, and STRUTT, JOSEPH, an English antiqnary and
in 1768 was employed to attend Christian VII. artist, born in Springfield, Essex, Oct. 27, 1742,
of Denmark in his tour through Germany, died in London, Oct. 16, 1802. At 14 years of
France, and England. His agreeable and in- age he was apprenticed to Ryland, the engra-
sinuating manners won the confidence of the ver, and he subsequently studied oil painting at
king, and he was a ready companion in his the royal academy, although he never accom-
profligacy. With consummate address, he plished much in that line. A taste for antiqui-
gained the good will of the queen (Caroline ties led him to pass much time in the reading
Matilda, sister of George III. of England), who room of the British museum, and an examina-
was at first prejudiced against him, and for tion of the rare manuscripts resulted in the
nearly 3 years he was the actual ruler of Den- preparation of his first work, " The Regal and
mark. In 1770 he was intrusted with the phys- Ecclesiastical Antiquities of England, containing
ical education of the crown prince, afterward the Representations of the English Monarchs
Frederic VI., and soon after caused the king from Edward the Confessor to Henry VIII."
to deprive Count Bernstorff of his seat in tho (4to., 1773). His remaining works comprise
council of state, and appoint Count Rantzau- " Horda-Angel-Oynnan, or a Complete View of
Aschbach in his place. He obtained the re- the Manners, Customs, Arins, Habits, &c., of the
call from France of his profligate friend Ene- Inhabitants of England from the arrival of the
wold von Brandt, who had been banished some Saxons" (3 vols. 4to., 1774-6); “Ohronicle
years before, and through him he accomplished of England” (2 vols. 4to., 1777–8), intended
many of his purposes. The king gave himself to comprise 6 vols., but which from want of
up to vicious indulgence, and two parties strove encouragement he terminated with the Nor-
to obtain the power, the party of the queen man conquest; “Biographical Dictionary of
doFager led by Count Bernstorff, and the Engravers” (2 vols. 4to., 1785–6); "Complete
party of the queen led by Struensee. The lat- View of the Dress and Habits of the People of
ter triumphed, and Struensee was appointed England, from the Establishment of the Sax-
prime minister with almost unlimited powers. ons” (2 vols., 1796-'9); and “The Sports and
He soon persuaded the king to dissolve the Pastimes of the People of England" (4to., 1801),
council of state, and to institute in its place a popular work, and well known by Hone's
the commission of conference, composed of his edition (8vo., 1830). He left, beside some mis-
own creatures. This measure, though con- cellaneous pieces, a fragment of a romance enti-
firming his power at the time, brought great tled “Queen Hoo Hall,” which, at the request
odium on Struensee, as subverting, through of Murray the publisher, was completed by Sir
the influence of a foreigner, the Danish consti- Walter Scott in 1808. Strutt also engraved a
tution, and depriving the nobility of their series of plates illustrating the “Pilgrim's
hereditary power. Count Rantzau, who had Progress," and a number of single works. He
been promoted by his influence, being deprived died in poverty.
by this act of office, went over to the party of STRUVE, FRIEDRICH GEORG WILHELM VON,
the queen dowager, and became one of his bit- a Russian astronomer, born in Altona, April 15,
terest enemies. The finances of the country 1793. He was educated at the university of
were in a bad condition, and by injudicious Dorpat, and in 1813 was attached to the obser-
measures of taxation he increased the public vatory of that city, of which he became direct-
hostility to his administration. Scandals were or in 1817. In 1839 he was made director of
circulated in regard to his relations with the the magnificent observatory of Pulkowa, which
queen, and he suppressed them by silencing position he still retains, and was not long after
the press. The party of the queen dowager, made councillor of state. He has confined
bitterly hostile to him, sought an opportunity his labors as an astronomer principally to
of destroying him, and the partial failure of his the observation of fixed and double stars, and
intellectual powers, overtasked by his labors has made large additions to the knowledge of
and his licentiousness, soon furnished it. The these bodies. He has also been engaged in a
king was forced by the queen dowager and her variety of labors connected more or less inti-
partisans to sign an order for the arrest of mately with astronomical science, such as the
Struensee and his brother, whom he had made triangulation of Livonia, measuring the de-
esancillor of justice, Brandt, Queen Caroline grees of latitude in the Baltic provinces, meas-

6

STRYCHNIA

uring an arc of the meridian between Swe- STRUVE, GUSTAV VON, a German writer and den and southern Russia, the observation of politician, born in Livonia in 1805. He studied the eclipses of 1842 and 1851, &c. His most law at the German universities, was for some important works are: Observationes Dorpa- time secretary of the embassy of Oldenburg at tenses (8 vols., Dorpat, 1817–'39); Catalogus Frankfort, and soon after settled as a lawyer at Novus Stellarum Duplicium (Dorpat, 1827); Mannheim in the grand duchy of Baden, where Stellarum Duplicium Mensure Micrometricce he made himself known as a liberal journalist, (St. Petersburg, 1827); Études d'astronomie as a speaker in political meetings, and as a phrestellaire sur la voie lactée et la distance des nologist. In 1848 he made two fruitless inétoiles fixes (St. Petersburg, 1847); and Stel- surrectionary attempts to introduce a republilarum Fixarum imprimis Duplicium et Multi- can form of government into Baden, and after plicium Positiones Mediæ pro Epocha 1830, &c. the first failure retired to Switzerland, where (fol., St. Petersburg, 1852). He has contributed he published with K. Heinzen a “Plan for much to the “Transactions” of the academy of Revolutionizing and Republicanizing Germasciences of St. Petersburg.-OTTO WILHELM, son ny. The second attempt ended with a deof the preceding, born May 7, 1819. Educated feat at Staufen. Being arrested on Sept. 25, under his father's direction, and now second he was sentenced on March 30, 1849, to imastronomer at Pulkowa, he has distinguished prisonment for life. Ile was however on May himself by numerous astronomical discoveries, 24 liberated by the success of the revolution, including over 500 new double stars and a satel- and elected a member of the constituent assemlite of Uranus, and by some interesting conclu- bly of Baden, in which he was the principal sions in regard to the ring of Saturn. He leader of the republican party. After the dishas published narratives of two chronometric solution of the constituent assembly and the expeditions undertaken by order of the Rus- suppression of the revolution he went to Switzsian government, and observations on Biela's erland, which he was soon forced to leave. He comet.

then went to England, and in 1851 came to the STRUVE, GEORG Adam, a German jurist, United States, where he first commenced the born in Magdeburg, Sept. 26, 1619, died in Jena, publication of a political weekly journal (Der Dec. 13, 1692. He studied law at the universi- Zuschauer), and after its discontinuance devoted ties of Jena and Helmstedt, and in 1646 was ap- himself to the compilation of a universal histopointed professor of law in the former, and in ry of the world. After the outbreak of the civil 1648 assessor to the high court of the circle war in the United States in 1861 he entered the of Saxony. In 1667 he was appointed privy ranks as a private soldier, but was soon elected councillor to the duke of Weimar, and was captain in the 8th regiment New York volunselected as his advocate in the case of the suc- teers. Beside several works on phrenology, he cession to the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg. In has published Das öffentliche Recht des Deut1674 he returned to Jena as professor of canon schen Bundes (2 vols., Mannheim, 1846); Syslaw and ordinarius of the judicial college, and tem der Staatswissenschaften (4 vols., Frankfort, in 1680 was appointed president of the re- 1847–8); Geschichte der drei Volkserhebungen gency at Jena, the duke being a minor. He in Baden (Bonn, 1849); Weltgeschichte (9 vols., published 13 'elaborate treatises on law, of New York, 1854–8); and Das Recolutions which the most important are: Syntagma Juris Zeitalter (New York, 1859–’60). Feudalis (Jena, 1653); Syntagmata Jurispru- STRYCHNIA, or StryCHNINE, a poisonous dentiæ Civilis (1665); and Jurisprudentia Ro- alkaloid obtained from several species of plants mano-Germanica Forensis (1670).—BURKIARD of the genus strychnos. (See Nux VOMICA.) GOTTHELF, a German jurist, son of the preced- It was discovered in 1818 by Pelletier and ing, born in Weimar, May 26, 1671, died in Carenton in the nux vomica and bean of St. Jena, May 24, 1738. He studied at Jena and Ignatius, to the amount of 0.4 per cent. in the various other German and Dutch universities, former, and 1.2 per cent. in the latter. The and in 1692 engaged at Jena with one of his S. ticuté affords it most readily and of the brothers in the pursuit of the philosopher's purest quality, but this species is too rare to be stone, in which they soon beggared themselves. of practical importance; and the bean of St. Ile afterward devoted himself for two years to Ignatius for a similar reason is little employed the study of the Scriptures and the writings of compared with the nux vomica. Several methTauler and Arndt, and in 1697 was appointed ods are adopted for reducing the seeds to powcurator of the library of the university of Jena. der before extracting the alkaloid. They are In 1704 he succeeded Schubart as professor of rasped with a file, or softened by steam, then history, and in 1712 was appointed by the uni- sliced and ground when dry; or, as practised versity historiographer and councillor, and ex. by the large manufacturers, the whole seeds traordinary professor of law. In 1717 he was are macerated in dilute sulphuric acid, and appointed privy councillor by the reigning steam is passed through them in a covered vat prince of Baireuth, and in 1730 by the Saxon lined with lead. They are then ground, and court. He was one of the first to attempt to the pulp is lixiviated or expressed.

If pure reduce statistics to a system. The most im- water alone is used, the strychnia is obtained portant of his numerous works is his Corpus as an igasurate, and if it is acidulated with Juris Gentium (Jena, 1743).

sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, then as a salt

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of these acids. After the infusion is concen- poisonous effects, and chloroform is probably trated, the salt is decomposed by adding lime, still more efficacious. Conium is the most exand the strychnia falls with the excess of lime act antidotal or antagonistic remedy. A case and impurities. These being separated, boiling is reported of a boy in Cortland co., N. Y., who alcohol dissolves the strychnia, and by evapo- took about two grains of strychnia in mistake ration this is obtained in crystals, which may for morphia, and was soon after seized with be purified and decolored by redissolving and violent tetanic spasms, locked jaw, &c. Chlocrystallizing several times, or by converting roform was administered freely, by inhalation into a sulphate with sulphuric acid, then de- and application along the spine, and in 10 mincolorizing with animal charcoal, and recover- utes the patient became perfectly quiet under ing the strychnia by decomposing the salt with its influence. On withdrawing it the spasms ammonia. The alkali brucia accompanies the returned; but by keeping him under the effects strychnia, and may be almost entirely removed of the anæsthetic 41 hours, the poison was abin the repeated treatment with alcohol, in sorbed and the boy recovered. As a medicine which when cold brucia is much more soluble strychnia is employed for the same purposes as than strychnia. Their medicinal properties nux vomica, and is introduced into the system are very similar, but much less strongly marked either by application to a fresh wound, injecin brucia. When strychnia is rapidly crystal- tion into the veins, or by taking it internally in lized from its solution, it is a white granular pills or in solution in acidulated water. The powder; but if time be given it crystallizes in pills commonly contain from ia to š of a grain octahedrons or quadrilateral prisms. Micro- each, and after the first dose the others are scopic crystals were observed by Dr. J. J. regulated according to the observed effects, the Reese of Philadelphia on evaporating single strength of the medicine being always uncerdrops of water upon a slip of glass, when the tain. Strychnia is the most useful remedy quantity present could not exceed gooibor of a against muscular debility and simple paralysis, grain in weight. Some of the crystals appeared and for constipation arising from debility of circular, others stellate and scalloped, inter- the muscular coat of the bowels. The presmingled with dentated crosslets. His paper ence of strychnia, even in inconceivably small upon strychnia in the “ American Journal of quantities, is indicated by several curious and the Medical Sciences," for Oct. 1861, presents most satisfactory tests. The chief of these, much valuable information upon this substance called the color test, depends on the properand the means of detecting its presence, and is ty, peculiar to strychnia, of exhibiting a beauthe authority for what follows respecting the tiful play of colors when, in the presence of methods of detecting it. Strychnia is an in- sulphuric acid, it is brought in contact with tensely bitter substance, one grain, according certain oxidizing bodies, such as the peroxto Dr. Reese, dissolved in 25 gallons of water, ides of lead and manganese, bichromate of communicating a perceptible taste when the potash, ferridcyanide of potassium (red prusmoath is forcibly rinsed with the water. It is siate), and permanganate of potash. When a withont odor, and undergoes no change in the small fragment of strychnia on a white plate air

. Exposed to heat, it is not volatile, but melts is moistened with a drop of strong sulphuric like a resin, and is soon decomposed. It dis- acid, and either one of these bodies is stirred in solves in the volatile oils and in boiling alco- contact with it, a rich violet blue color appears, hol, but scarcely at all in water, ether, or ab- which very soon changes to a mulberry pursolute alcohol. Its composition, according to ple, and afterward to light red. Dr. Reese is Liebig, is represented by the formula N, O, H, positive that the reactions of some other sub0s, bat other authorities give very different stances cited as resembling those of strychnia proportions of these elements. The salts of under these circumstances are in reality differstrychnia when in solution are decomposed by ent when the experiment is carefully made. the alkalies and their carbonates and by tannic So delicate is this test, that he succeeded in deacid. — The effects of strychnia upon the animal tecting by it the presence of strychnia in pure system are very remarkable. It is one of the solutions containing only 72.000 of the alkamost active and deadly poisons known. One loid. In mixtures, such as the contents of the sixth of a grain of the pure alkali has been stomach, containing organic substances, it is known to kill a dog in half a minute, and less readily discovered when present in proportion than a grain would probably destroy human equal to joo of a grain to a pint of the mixture, life

. The strength of the commercial article is, this being first reduced to a small bulk by however, very variable. The poison acts alike evaporation. A drop of the matter to be testwhether applied externally to a fresh wound ed is very carefully evaporated to dryness at a or injected into the veins, and its effects are temperature too low for the strychnia to be communicated by injecting the blood of an ani- decomposed, upon a clean white porcelain surmal under its influence into the veins of an- face. A drop of pure and strong sulphuric other; they are exhibited by convulsions soon acid, taken out of the bottle on the end of a terminating in death. Various antidotes have finely pointed glass rod, is then placed near to been proposed, but in cases of poisoning there the dry spot on the porcelain, and a little of it can rarely be time for their exhibition. Cam- is to be drawn along in contact with the spot. phor taken internally is said to correct the Then a very small crystal of the bichromate of

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