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potash, or, better, of the ferridcyanide of potas- into Wales in 1055, where he married a daughsium, is to be moved once or twice over the ter of a chief nained Griffithar Llewellyn; the moistened spot, when the characteristic reac- son of Fleanchus, Walter I. (died 1113), returntions will be observed in case of the presence ed to Scotland, and became steward of the of strychnia. Instead of using an oxidizing household of Malcolm III., which office was body, Dr. Letheby brings out the blue color made hereditary in his family, and from which from the spot evaporated to dryness on a piece the surname Stuart was derived. Walter was of platinum foil, and moistened with sulphuric succeeded by his son Alan, he by another Walter, acid, by connecting the foil with the positive 3d high steward, and he by Alexander, who in pole of a single cell of Grove's or Smee's bat- 1199 was slain in a battle with the Danes, and tery, and the acid with the negative pole. left his office to his son Walter III., who conThis method is not found so satisfactory by spired against King Alexander II., and was subDr. Reese, for several reasons, as that already sequently poisoned by his wife Alda of Dembe. given. Both of them fail when morphia in Walter's son and successor Alexander was regent equal or larger quantities than the strychnia during the minority of Alexander III. His son has been added to the mixture of organic sub- James was regent after the death of that king, stances. Another method of detecting the and died in 1309. Walter III., who succeeded his presence of strychnia is by what is known as father, married Marjory, daughter of Robert the frog test. If the body and hind legs of a Bruce, in 1315, upon whom, in failure of the birth frog are immersed in a strychnia solution, te- of an heir male to her father, the crown was tanic spasms ensue on the absorption of an settled by act of parliament at Ayr, April 26, exceedingly small portion of the poison; the 1315. Marjory died in giving birth to Robert, same effect follows the injection of a few drops afterward Robert II. of Scotland; but David through the oesophagus, or into the tissue of the II., son of Robert Bruce by a second marriage, thorax or abdomen. The smallest sized frogs came to the throne in 1324 as a minor, and should be selected, not more than 17 inches after a succession of regencies Robert the long or of 50 grains weight. A frog weighing Stewart, in conjunction with the earl of Moray, 29 grains treated for half an hour by the became regent in 1334, having already distinfirst method, in a solution containing one grain guished himself in the battle of Halidon, when,

a of strychnia to 3 gallons of water (cach drop though but 16 years of age, he commanded a consequently representing door of a grain), division of the Scottish army. In 1335, the exhibited decided convulsions and suddenly earl of Moray having been taken prisoner by died. This test, in connection with the color the English, he concluded a treaty with Edtest and the extreme bitterness of strychnia so- ward III. of England. In 1338 he was aplutions, is regarded as abundantly sufficient to pointed sole regent, which office terminated in determine the presence of the alkaloid. The 1341 by the king's majority. In 1346, David frog test is particularly valuable because it is being taken prisoner, he was again elected rescarcely affected, if at all, by the presence of gent, and held the position till 1357, when morphia.

David was released. On the death of David in STRYPE, Jonn, an English divine and au- 1370 he was unanimously declared king with thor, born in London, Nov. 12, 1643, died Dec. the title of Robert II. The licentiousness of 13, 1737. He was educated at St. Paul's school this monarch, the doubts of the legitimacy of and at Cambridge, and in 1669 became minister the children of his first wife, and the chronic of Low Leyton in Essex, where he continued state of war with Great Britain, made his until a few years previous to his death. His reign and that of his son Robert III. harassing principal works are: “Memorials of the most and unfortunate for the people. Robert II. renowned Father in God, Thomas Cranmer, died in 1390, and Robert III. in 1406. The sucsometime Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.” ceeding monarchs of the line (all of whom are (fol., 1694); " The Life of the Learned Sir treated in separate articles) were James I., asThomas Smith” (8vo., 1698); "Historical Col- sassinated in 1437; James II., who died a lections relating to the Life and Acts of Bishop violent death in 1460; James III., murdered in Aylmer" (8v0., 1701); " Annals of the Reforma- 1488; James IV., slain in the battle of Flodden tion” (4 vols. fol., 1709–31); and " Ecclesiasti- in 1513; James V., son of the preceding and cal Memoirs" (3 vols. fol., 1721). He publish- of Margaret Tudor, sister of Henry Viil, of ed an edition of Stow's “Survey of London” England, died in 1542; Mary, executed in (2 vols. fol., 1720), though Stow's matter was England in 1587; her son James VI., who sucbut little more than a nucleus for his own ceeded Queen Elizabeth as James Í. of Engaccumulations in antiquarian research. His land, and died in 1625; Charles I., executed works were reprinted at Oxford (29 vols. 8vo., in 1649; Charles II., died in 1685; James 1822–8), affording very valuable documents for II., who was expelled from the kingdom in the ecclesiastical history of England.

1088, and died in 1701, and was the last reignSTUART, the name of a royal family of ing male member of the family, though his Scotland and England. The origin of the daughter Mary, wife of William of Orange, family is involved in some obscurity; but ac- came to the throne as queen regnant with her cording to tradition, Fleanchus, son of Banquo, husband, and his second daughter Anne sueon the murder of his father by Macbeth, fed ceeded her in 1702, reigning till her death in

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1714. The only son of James II., James returned to America, working his passage Francis Edward Stuart, was a pretender to the home, it is said, before the mast, and comthrone of England, and died in Rome in 1766. menced practice as a portrait painter at NewHis son Charles Edward Stuart (born in 1720, port, R. I. He removed thence successively died in 1788), was a second pretender to the to Boston and New York; but finding the war English throne. Henry Stuart, Cardinal York, of the revolution a hopeless obstacle to his brother of Charles Edward, was the last of the prospects, he set sail in 1778 for London, male line of the family, and with his death in where for a couple of years he led an irregular 1807 it became extinct. Its chief branches in life, making little progress toward establishing the female line are the houses of Savoy and a reputation, and often at a loss for actual Orleans and the duke of Modena, all descended necessaries. Having finally been introduced to from Henrietta Maria, daughter of Charles I., Benjamin West, then at the height of his fame of which king the duke of Modena is the lineal and influence, he received from him valuable representative, being thus, but for the act of assistance in money and instruction, and for settlement, heir to the crown of England. (See several years resided in family. These atCharles EDWARD, JAMES FRANCIS EDWARD, and tentions were warmly acknowledged by Stuart, STTART, H. B. M. C.).

who painted a full-length portrait of his beneSTUART, GILBERT, a Scottish author, born factor, which is now in the British national in Edinburgh in 1742, or according to some gallery. About 1781 he commenced practice anthorities in 1746, died in Musselburgḥ, Aug. in London on his own account, and soon rose 13, 1786. He was educated at the university to great eminence as a portrait painter, rivalof Edinburgh, where he studied jurisprudence ling Reynolds and the best English artists of and general literature, and in 1767 published a the day in that department. Among his nu* Historical Disquisition concerning the An- merous sitters were George III., the prince of tiquity of the British Constitution,” which pro- Wales, the earl of St. Vincent, the duke of cured him the degree of LL.D. Encouraged Northumberland, Sir Joshua Reynolds, John by the success of his next work, a View of Kemble, Col. Barré, Alderman Boydell, and Society in Europe in its Progress from Rude- many other distinguished persons. Subseness to Refinement” (1768), he made applica- quently he resided successively in Dublin and tion for the vacant professorship of public law Paris, and in the latter city painted a portrait in the university of Edinburgh; and failing in of Louis XVI. Returning to America in 1793, this, on account of his character for dissipation, he proceeded, after a short stay in New York, he repaired to London, and for several years to Philadelphia, for the purpose of painting the was a contributor to the “Monthly Review." portrait of Washington. The first picture he Returning to Edinburgh in 1773, he started, in destroyed; but at the second sitting he succonjunction with William Smellie, the “Edin- ceeded in producing the well known head from burgh Magazine and Review,” which for 4 years which he painted all his other portraits of was made the vehicle of savage strictures from Washington, and which has long been regarded his pen on prominent Scottish authors. This as the standard likeness. The original study, einbittered spirit is observable in his next together with a head of Mrs. Washington, is work, “ Observations concerning the Public now in the possession of the Boston AthenaLaw and Constitutional History of Scotland” After residing several years in Washing(Bro., Edinburgh, 1779), an attack on Dr. Rob- ton, he took up his permanent abode in 1806 ertson, whom he especially hated. In 1780 in Boston, where he continued in the active he published a "History of the Establishment practice of his art until his death. His last of the Reformation of Religion in Scotland” work was a portrait of John Quincy Adams, (4to., London), and in 1782 a "History of Scot- which was finished by Sully. land from the Reformation to the Death of viously painted John Adams, Jefferson, MadiQueen Mary” (2 vols. 8vo., London), in which son, Monroe, and most of the distinguished he again attacked Robertson, whose aspersions characters of the revolution and of the early against the character of the Scottish queen he period of the Union. His portraits of persons zealously repelled. This is considered his in private life are most numerous in Boston ablest performance. For several years sub- and its neighborhood, and these, like all his sequent to 1782 he lived in London, contribut- works, have lost nothing of their freshness or ing articles written in his characteristic vein to brilliancy through lapse of time. As a painter the “ Political Herald” and the “ English Re- of heads he holds the first place among Ameriview," of which John Murray was the proprie- can painters, if we except Copley, and his flesh tor; and a few months previous to his death coloring rivals the finest efforts of any modern he returned to Scotland.

school. Upon the extremities of his figures, STUART, GILBERT CHARLES, an American the draperies, and other accessories, he bepainter, born in Narraganset, R. I., in 1756, stowed little labor, and they are sometimes fin. ditel in Boston in July, 1828. He received his ished in the most slovenly manner.

He was first instructions from a Scottish painter named superior to almost every other painter, accordAlexander, by whom, when about 18 years of ing to Washington Allston, in the faculty of age, he was taken to Edinburgh. His master distinguishing between the conventional exdying soon after their arrival in that city, he pression which belongs to manners, and that

VOL. XV.-10

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more subtle indication of the individual mind. a "Grammar of the Hebrew Language with It was this which enabled him to animate his Points" (1821); “Letters to Dr. Miller on the canvas not with the appearance of mere gen- Eternal Generation of the Son of God” (1822); eral life, but th that peculiar distinctive life “Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews" which separates the humblest individual from (2 vols. 8vo., 1827–8); “Hebrew Chrestomahis kind.” Stuart was a man of fine social thy" (1829); “Essay on the Question whether qualities, and

a most accomplished talker. the use of Distilled Liquors or Traffic in them is STUART, HENRY BENEDICT Maria CLEMENT, compatible at the present time with making a Cardinal York, the last male representative Profession of Christianity” (1830); “ Letters of the Stuart family, born in Rome in 1725, to Dr. Channing on Religious Liberty” (1830); died in Venice in 1807. He was the younger a“Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans" brother of the pretender Charles Edward, (1832); “The Mode of Christian Baptism prewhom he was preparing to aid with a body of scribed in the New Testament" (1833); "A French troops assembled at Dunkirk, when the Grammar of the New Testament Dialect" (2d overthrow of the Jacobites at Culloden ruined ed., improved, 1834); " Hints on the Prophethe Stuart cause in Britain. He subsequently cies” (2d ed., 1842); “Commentary on the took orders in the Roman Catholic church, and Apocalypse" (1845); a “Letter to the Editor in 1747 was appointed by Benedict XIV. a of the North American Review on Hebrew cardinal. On the death of his brother in 1788 Grammar" (1847); “A Scriptural View of the he assumed the title of king of England as Wine Question” (1848); a Commentary on Henry IX., gratia Dei, non voluntate hominum, Daniel" (1850); “ Conscience and the Constias the medal which he caused to be struck on tution" (1851); a Commentary on Ecclesiasthe occasion declared. He was subsequently tes" (1851); and a Commentary on Proverbs" obliged to take refuge from French invasion in (1852). Professor Stuart was distinguished for Venice, and during the last years of his life great quickness and versatility of mind, indomwas dependent upon the British court for the itable perseverance, noble and generous immeans of subsistence.

pulses, and an enthusiastic interest in every STUART, JAMES, sometimes called Athenian subject that engaged his attention. Stuart, an English antiquary and architect, STUCCO (Ital.), a name applied to the hard born in London in 1713, died Feb. 2, 1788. In external finish given to the coat of plaster upon early life he was a painter of fans, a branch of walls, sometimes consisting of fine lime and art then greatly in vogue, and to which he de- sand without hair, hand-floated twice and well voted himself until about 1742. For several trowelled (see PLASTERING); but the term is more years subsequent to this he resided in Rome, properly applied to a hard finish prepared of a and in 1750 he accompanied Nicholas Revett on mixture of ground marble or chalk, with pure an antiquarian tour to Greece, remaining in lime as a cement, in such proportions and so Athens from March, 1751, to the close of 1753. worked as to produce a durable and uniform Returning to London in 1755, he set about surface susceptible of polish. This sort is the preparation, in conjunction with his fel- adapted for covering walls and internal decoralow traveller, of a work on the “Antiquities tions; but for external work the mixture is of Athens," of which the 1st volume appeared made of coarser materials and with cements in 1762, and the 2d and 3d posthumously in adapted to withstand the weather. Pulverized 1790-'94. Subsequent to his return to Eng- alabaster or gypsum is sometimes used instead land, Stuart was much employed in London as of marble, mixed with rich lime, carefully an architect.

slaked and sifted, and then trowelled on to a STUART, JOnn, Earl of Bute. See BUTE. rough coat until the surface is perfectly smooth,

STUART, Moses, an American divine and A solution of gelatine or strong glue or gum author, born at Wilton, Conn., March 26, 1780, arabic is sometimes used instead of water to died at Andover, Mass., Jan. 4, 1852. He was render the preparation more durable, and megraduated at Yale college in 1799, was employ- tallic oxides are added to produce desirable ed for some time as a teacher, studied law, was tints. The cements or stuccoes known in Engadmitted to the bar in 1802, and for the two land as Keene's, Martin's, and Parian are made succeeding years was a tutor in Yale college. of plaster of Paris, mixed with a saturated soHe afterward studied theology, and was or- lution either of alum, sulphate of potash, or dained pastor of the first Congregational church borax, then dried in the air, and baked at a of New Haven, March 5, 1806. In 1809 he dull red heat. The preparation is pulverized was appointed professor of sacred literature in and sifted, and is finally slaked with a solution the theological seminary at Andover, which of alum. Martin's is made with pearlash as office he held until 1848, when he resigned in well as alum, and is baked at a higher heat consequence of the advancing infirmities of age. than the others. When the surface is perfectly Beside 11 or 12 occasional sermons, and some dry, it may be polished by rubbing with fine other minor works, he published a “Grammar grit stones, followed by tripoli powder, chalk, of the Hebrew Language without Points" and oil. The application described in the ar(1813); “Letters to the Rev. William E. Chan- ticle Scagliola is a variety of stucco. ning containing Remarks on his Sermon recent- STUHL-WEISSENBURG (Hung. Székes Fely preached and published in Baltimore” (1819); jérvár), a town of Hungary, capital of the

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county of the same name, situated on the left to 15 feet and a weight of 1,200 lbs., and occabank of the Csorgó, near the border of an ex- sionally of much larger size; it ascends the tensive morass, 38 m. S. S. W. from Buda; rivers opening into the Caspian and Black seas, pop. 22,600. The principal buildings are the with other and smaller species. The flesh is cathedral and the episcopal palace. There are tough and of inferior quality; the sound or air manufactures of woollen and linen goods, hard- bladder furnishes an abundant supply of isinware, and several other articles. The kings of glass, for which great numbers are caught in Hungary were formerly crowned here, and the Russia. (See GELATINE, vol. viii. p. 123.) cathedral contains many of their tombs. Caviare is also made from the roe of the fe

STURGEON, the name given to the cartila- male,, which sometimes constitutes of the ginous fishes of the class of ganoids and family weight of the fish ; the skin is used for harness sturionide. The body is elongated and fusi- leather, and the dorsal cord, cut in pieces and form, covered with a rough skin protected by dried, is used as food. The sterlet (4. Ru5 longitudinal rows of tubercular plates; the thenus, Linn.), found in the Caspian, and largest of these rows is along the back, and growing to a length of 2 or 3 feet, furnishes a there is also one on each side, and one from most delicate food and the best caviare. Some each pectoral to the ventral fins; the plates idea of the commercial importance of this fishare flattened, and marked with radiating striæ. ery may be gathered from the fact that in The head is depressed, and ends in a long 1829, in the Caspian sea alone, about 8,800 triangular snout covered with bony plates; persons were employed, obtaining 786,000 mouth funnel-shaped and protrusible, on the sturgeons, yielding 28,500 lbs. of caviare and under surface, without teeth, having in front a 1,100 lbs. of isinglass; the fish are taken in few depending barbels, evidently organs of nets as they go up to spawn. The color in touch; gill covers very large and gills free; these species is brown of various shades, the pseudo-branchiæ and spiracles are present, but plates whitish, and the abdomen silvery.-In bo branchiostegal rays; fins well developed, North America sturgeons do not inhabit the the dorsal and anal opposite and behind the rivers flowing into the Arctic ocean, and are ventrals; tail heterocercal or unsymmetrical, not found north of the watersheds between the vertebral cord being prolonged into the lat. 53° and 54° N., where the mean annual opper lobe as in the sharks, and strengthened temperature is about 33° F.; they seldom enby folera along its upper margin ; a soft cau- ter clear cold streams, but ascend muddy rivers dal on the under surface of the tail. The ver- in such numbers that many large Indian tribes tebral column consists of an undivided soft subsist entirely on their flesh in summer; each churla dorsalis ; the air bladder is very large, watershed has its own_species, varying in cornmunicating freely with the casophagus; some minor characters. The sharp-nosed sturthere is a spiral valve in the intestine, and a geon (A. oxyrhynchus, Mitch.) attains a length conglomerate pancreas. They are generally of from 3 to 7 feet; it is found on the coasts of large size, inhabiting the northern temper- of New England, New Brunswick, and Nova ate seas of both coasts of America, eastern Eu- Scotia; it is common in Long Island sound rope, and western Asia, from which they ascend from the middle of June to October, and is the rivers in spring for the purpose of spawn- taken by harpoon and in nets; the smaller ing, returning to the salt water in autumn; specimens are esteemed for the table; it is species are also found in the great American grayish brown above, silvery on the sides, and fresh water lakes, which never descend to the white below. The lake sturgeon (A. rubicunSea. They are oviparous; the food consists of dus, Lesueur) is olive brown above, white beany soft substances which they stir up from low, with the fins reddish; it attains a length the bottom with their snouts, and of small fish; of 4 feet, and is found in the great lakes and they have a habit of jumping out of water, in the Ohio river. The short-nosed sturgeon generally considered for mere sport, but most (A. brevirostris, Mitch.) is dusky above and likely to disengage from their gills and bodies white below; the snout is short and blunt; it the lampreys which eat into their flesh.—The attains a length of 2 to 5 feet, and is so comgenus acipenser (Linn.) has the characters of mon in the Hudson that its flesh in the marthe family. The common sturgeon of Europe ket has been known as Albany beef; it much (A. sturio, Linn.) attains a length of 6 to 10 resembles the A. sturio of Europe. Other spefeet, and sometimes more; it is found in the cies are described from the northern waters, Caspian and Black seas and the rivers opening the rivers of the N. W. coast, and from Laké into them, and sometimes on the coasts of Superior, by Richardson and Agassiz.—The Great Britain and the Baltic; the flesh is deli- genus polyodon (Lacép.) or spatularia (Shaw) este, compared to veal, and was in old times has the general form of acipenser, but is withcoasidered a royal dish ; it was served without the bony plates on the body and head; great pomp in ancient Greece and Rome, but the snout is very much elongated, and comin modern days is held in far less esteem; still pressed into a thin leaf-like organ, partly bony it is largely consumed in Russia, fresh, salted, and partly cutaneous, sometimes nearly as long and pickled. A larger species, also found in as the body; gill covers very large, extending the seas and rivers of S. E. Europe, is the be- far back in a membranous point; the mouth is luga (A. huso, Linn.), attaining a length of 12 wide, with numerous minute teeth in the young animal, which are lost with age. The spoon- buildings and institutions of importance are bill sturgeon (P. folium, Lacép.) is steel-blue the museum of natural history; a library of above and white below; it attains a length of 200,000 volumes and 3,220 MSS.; a cabinet of 5 feet, and is found in the Mississippi, Ohio, medals containing about 17,000 specimens; a and their tributaries; it is also called shovel museum of the fine arts, with many valuable fish and paddle fish; the flesh is occasionally statues and pictures; a bazaar, and a theatre. eaten, but is rather tough ; the singularly Stuttgart has a gymnasium, military academy, shaped snout is used to shovel up the mud in polytechnic school, school of art, numerous search of food. The genus platirostra (Les.) schools, hospitals, asylums, and other charitais probably only the adult of polyodon, the ble institutions, and extensive barracks and principal difference being the absence of teeth. government offices. The manufactures include

STURLESON. See SNORRO STURLESON. woollen, silk, linen, and cotton goods, jewelry,

STURM, JOHANN, a German philologist, born musical and philosophical instruments, leather, at Schleiden, now in Rhenish Prussia, Oct. 1, and tin ware. The book trade is extensively 1507, died in Strasbourg, March 3, 1589. He carried on, and connected with it are numerstudied at Liége in the college of St. Jerome, ous paper mills, type founderies, lithographic and in 1524 went to Louvain, where he spent 5 establishments, and printing offices. The town years, and, in partnership with Rudiger Rescius, has railway communication with all the princiestablished a press, and printed some Greek pal places of Europe, and the Neckar is naviworks. In 1529 he went to Paris, and there gable. A considerable trade is carried on in read public lectures on Greek and Latin wri- different manufactured articles, and bark. In ters and on logic; and thence in 1537 to Stras- the vicinity are numerous parks and gardens, bourg to become rector of its newly establish- where the public are admitted, including Roed gymnasium, which, under his administra- senstein, the summer palace of the king; and tion for 45 years, acquired great celebrity, Kannstadt, about 3 miles distant, is resorted to and in 1566 was converted into a university. by the citizens and visitors as a favorite waterThe system of education introduced by him, ing place.-Stuttgart is a very ancient town, aiming chiefly at thorough Latin scholarship, but the date of its foundation is not known. exerted great influence throughout Germany, It suffered severely during the wars of the 16th and was the model of that adopted by the and 17th centuries. Though repeatedly occuJesuits. He was several times employed by pied by both sides during the wars of Napogovernment in a diplomatic capacity. He was leon, it escaped with little loss. a Lutheran, but liberal to all who suffered for STUYVESANT, PETRUS, the last Dutch direligious opinions, and was by the persecution rector-general of New Netherlands (New York), of stricter sectarians finally driven from the born in Holland in 1602, died in New York in head of his school. His works are very nu- Aug. 1682. Ile served in the war in the West merous, and are principally devoted to the Indies, became director of the colony of Curaelucidation of classic authors. His work on a çoa, and, having lost a leg in an unsuccessful system of education, De Literarum Ludis recte attack on the Portuguese island of St. Martin, aperiendis Liber (4to., Strasbourg, 1538), has returned to Holland in 1644. In 1645 he was been several times reprinted.

appointed by the Dutch West India company STUTTGART, a town of Germany, capital director-general of New Netherlands, succeedof the kingdom of Würtemberg, situated on ing William Kieft, whose conduct had involved the river Nesen, a tributary of the Neckar, 38 the settlers in a bloody war with the Indians, m. E. 8. E. from Carlsruhe and 97 m. S. E. and created general disorder in the colony. from Frankfort; pop. in 1858, 51,655. It He did not arrive till May, 1647, when he comstands in a very beautiful valley surrounded menced a vigorous and often arbitrary adminby vine-clad hills, with well wooded mountains istration, conciliating the savages and restoring in the distance. The town is encircled by a order in every department. In 1650 he arwall and ditch, is entered by 8 gates, and con- ranged at Hartford with the New England sists of two parts, the ancient and modern, commissioners a line of partition between the with two suburbs. In the chief square is á Dutch and English territories, which had prefine old Gothic church with a high tower, viously been undefined and a cause of frequent and many ancient sculptures and monuments disputes. He was also involved in trouble with of the princes of Würtemberg. The royal the Swedes on the south. In 1651 the Dutch palace, begun in 1746 and finished in 1806, built Fort Casimir on the Delaware, which was is a large building of freestone splendidly dec- captured by Rising, the governor of New Sweorated and furnished in the interior; and the den, in 1654. To revenge this wrong, Stuyveold palace, completed in 1570, resembles a sant in 1655, with 7 vessels and between 600 and feudal castle, and is now occupied by officials 700 men, sailed into the Delaware, and made a connected with the government. In the same conquest of the whole settlement. Ten years square is a monument to Schiller by Thorwald- of peace followed, disturbed only by the grow

The hospital church is a Gothic building, ing jealousy of the English, and by the civil finely decorated in the interior, and contains discontents which the arbitrary character of the grave of Reuchlin. The town hall was Stuyvesant's administration tended somewhat built in the 15th century. The other public to inspire. In 1653 a convention of the people,


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