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consisting of two depnties from each village in STYLE, OLD AND New. See CALENDAR. New Netherlands, had met and demanded that STYLITES (Gr. Otudirns, belonging to a pil. ** no new laws shall be enacted but with the con- lar), Simeon, a Syrian who lived in the first half sent of the people; that none shall be appoint- of the 5th century, known in church history for ed to office but with the approbation of the having inaugurated a new kind of asceticism. people; that obscure and obsolete laws shall He left his convent, and for 9 years lived under never be revived." This assembly was dissolved the open sky on a pillar, the top of which was by the governor, who commanded the mem- only 2 cubits in circumference. Finally he bers to separate on pain of punishment, telling ascended a pillar 20 yards in height, on which them in his farewell message : “We derive he lived for 30 years, and preached with reour authority from God and the company, not markable effect to the crowds who gathered from a few ignorant subjects.” The spirit of around him. The people of Antioch received resistance nevertheless increased, and was fos- his body into their city, and revered him as tered by the large number of English settlers their patron saint. His example found several who had come to reside within the limits of imitators in the East until the 12th century. New Netherlands. The encroachments of the In the West asceticism of this kind was little New England colonies at last induced Stuy- encouraged by the ecclesiastical authorities. resant himself to repair to Boston and lay his STYRIA (Ger. Steiermark), & duchy and remonstrances before the convention of the crown land of Austria, bounded by Upper and united colonies, which met with but little fa- Lower Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Carniola, For; and a second embassy to Hartford had no Carinthia, and Saltzburg; area, 8,664 sq. m.; better success. The Connecticut agents made pop. in 1857, 1,056,773. It is divided into the exorbitant claims to territory by virtue of the circles of Gratz, which contains the capital of royal patent. “In case there was another the same name, Marburg, and Bruck. A great roval patent," said the Dutch commissioners, part of the surface is mountainous, being trav" between where would New Netherlands then ersed by three chains belonging to the Noric lie ?" ** We know of no New Netherlands, un- branch of the Alpine system, the highest sumless you can show a patent for it from his ma- mits of which are on the N. W. and S. W. fronjesty," was the cool reply. In 1664 Charles II. tiers, their culminating points, Grossenberg and granted to his brother, the duke of York, the Eisenhut, being respectively 8,381 and 7,676 feet territory from the Connecticut river to the above the sea. In the S. and E. part the mounshores of the Delaware, and an English fleet tains are of moderate height, and some of them under Richard Nicolls appeared in the bay in separated by extensive valleys. The N. W.part August and demanded the surrender of the is known as Upper Styria, and the country in city. Stuyvesant was unwilling to capitulate, the opposite direction as Lower Styria. The but the municipality, seeing the futility of surface belongs to the basin of the Danube, toresistance, insisted on yielding. After hold- ward which the drainage flows by numerous ing out for a short time, the governor at last tributaries; the most important of these are consented, and the city was given up on Sept. the Mur, Enns, Raab, Save, and Drave, all of 3, 1664. After the capture Stuyvesant went which, except the Raab, are navigable for in 1665 to report to his superiors in Holland, boats. There are numerous small lakes, but and afterward returned, spending the remain- none of any considerable size, and several cold, der of his life on his farm or bouwerij (whence hot, and mineral springs. Limestone, sulphur, the name of the street called the Bowery), then alum, rock salt, gold, silver, lead, copper, cobalt, outside the limits of the city. He lies buried in zinc, and iron ore of superior quality, are all the vaults of St. Mark's church in 10th street. found. In the more elevatod districts the cli
STY (Lat. hordeolum, from hordeum, barley), mate is cold, but in the valleys it is mild and A small intlammatory tumor on the edge of the agreeable. The soil in the valleys is generally eyelid, about the size of a grain of barley. fertile, but the grain produced is barely suffiSty has its seat in the cellular tissue at the cient for the consumption of the population. margin of the lid, involving generally the roots The vine thrives well in the valleys and on of one or more of the eyelashes. The tumor is lower slopes. The mountains are generally furuncular in character, and almost invariably clothed to their summits with timber, and the goes on to suppuration; its progress is some- forests cover about half the surface. The intimes tedious and the suppuration imperfect. habitants are mostly of German origin, but Sty is most common in persons of a strumous the Slavic Vindes or Sloventzi are also numerhabit, and often has for an exciting cause de- ous; nearly all are Roman Catholics. Iron rangement of the digestive organs. By attend- is extensively manufactured, and some of the ing to the condition of these organs the recur- mines were known to the Romans. Some linrence of the disease may be inost generally en, cotton, woollen, and silk goods are also manprevented. When the little tumor has made ufactured; but the most important branch of its appearance, it is best to promote its matu- industry is the felling and rafting of timber. ration by warm and emollient fomentations. Several millions of jews-harps are annually exIt is commonly advisable to leave it to burst of ported. An important transit trade between itself; but when maturation has occurred, if it Italy and Germany is carried on, and is greatly occasion much uneasiness, it may be punctured. facilitated by good roads, and by the Vienna
and Trieste railway, which crosses the Semmer- we can apply. Some vegetable substances also ing mountains.-Under the Romans the east- possess the same property, as camphor, benzoic ern part of Styria belonged to the province of acid, &c. Sublimation is much employed in Pannonia, and the western to Noricum. Chris- the arts and manufactures as a means of sepatianity was introduced in the 4th century, but rating volatile from fixed bodies, usually for the northern barbarians afterward overran the obtaining the former in a purer state. The province. Styria was annexed to Austria in vapor is sometimes chemically changed by con1192, was subsequently attached to Bohemia, tact with the oxygen of the air, and the subliand wrested from King Ottocar II. by Rudolph mate is then of a different composition from I. of Hapsburg, a possession of which house it the original body, as when oxide of zinc is prohas since remained.
duced by subjecting the metal or its ores to heat STYX (connected with Gr. otuyew, to hate, exposed to the air. abhor), in Greek mythology, the chief river SUBLIME PORTE (Fr., lofty or magnifiof the lower world, around which it flows 7 cent gate), the title officially given to the Ottotimes. The name was said to be derived from man government, and also applied to the edifice the nymph Styx, the daughter of Oceanus, who, in which state affairs are transacted. Orkhan when Jupiter prepared to wrest the power from (1326–57), the first Turkish sultan who adoptthe hands of Saturn and the Titans, was the ed the title padishah, erected a magnificent first of the immortals to answer to his call, palace with an imposing entrance, on which he coming with her 4 sons to his assistance. For bestowed the name of “Sublime Porte," which her readiness he made her children his constant from that time to the present has been applied attendants, and upon her he conferred the dis- to the monarch and government ruling there. tinction of being the oath-sanctioner of the This use of the term also had its origin partly gods. When a god was about to take the oath, perhaps in the oriental custom of transacting a cup of water from this stream was brought public business at the gate of the city or palace. him by Iris, and while pouring out this he took SUBMERGED FORESTS. See FORESTS, the oath. In the Hesiodic theogony Styx is SUBMERGED. called the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. SUBPENA, a judicial process directed to a She was the mother of Zelos (zeal), Nike (vic- witness commanding him to appear at the court, tory), Bia (strength), and Cratos (power). to testify what he knows in the case therein SÚABIA. See Swabia.
described, pending in the court, under a cerSUAREZ, FRANCISCO, a Spanish scholastic tain penalty (sub pæna) mentioned in the process. theologian, born in Granada in 1548, died in If the court wishes to examine any books or Lisbon in 1617. He early entered the order papers which are in possession of the witness, of the Jesuits, was in succession professor at a clause is inserted in the writ bidding him to the universities of Alcala, Salamanca, Rome, bring them with him; and the subpæna is and Coimbra, and one of the most prolific theo- thence called a subpæna duces tecum. A sublogical writers of his age. Benedict XIV. and pæna ought always to be served at a reasonable Bossuet accounted him among the most learned time before the trial, in order that the witness theologians of their church, and Grotius called who is summoned thereby may have time to him a profound theologian and philosopher, arrange his affairs in contemplation of his abwith whom but few could be compared. His sence, and may have convenient time to reach work, Defensio Fidei adversus Anglicanæ Sectæ the court. The statutes generally regulate the Errores, was ordered by the parliament of Pa- matter, and usually require that for every cerris to be burned by the public executioner, be- tain number of miles distance, one day shall be cause it claimed for the pope a coercive power added in estimating the time of service. The over kings. The complete works of Suarez manner of service is also often prescribed by were published at Lyons, Mentz, and Venice, in American statutes. In New York, for example, 23 vois. fol., the last named edition in 1748, and the mode of service is to show the subpæna to a new edition is now (1862) in course of pub- the party; to deliver to him a copy of the prolication at Paris. The Jesuit Noël published cess, or a ticket containing the substance of it; extracts from them in 2 vols. fol. (Geneva, and to pay or tender to him the amount allowed 1732). A life of Suarez was written by Des- by law for travelling to and returning from the champs (Perpignan, 1671).
place at which he is required to attend, and his SUBJEOTIVE. See OBJECTIVE AND SUB- fees for one day's attendance. These fees for JECTIVE.
travel and daily attendance are also matter of SUBLIMATION, a process of distillation in express statutory provisions, and they differ in which the vapors condense in a solid form. It the different states. The subpæna ought to be takes place naturally in volcanic fissures and served upon the witness personally, for othercraters, and the products, often of a sulphur- wise he cannot be proceeded against as for a ous character, are deposited upon the walls. contempt if he neglects to appear. Service Deposits thus formed are termed sublimates. may be made by any person, and is proved A great variety of mineral substances sub- generally by affidavit, or, if it be made by a ject to vaporize by heat and become solid sheriff or his otticer, by a simple return or ceragain on cooling; and the number of such in- tificate of service. When a witness has been creases with the increased degree of heat which duly summoned, and his fees have been paid or tendered, or payment or tender has been waiv- law, the courts have gone in some cases so far ed, he is guilty of a contempt of court if he fails as to say that the subscribers to a common obto appear at the appointed time, and may beject may be treated as contracting with each proceeded against by attachment. The process other, the consideration of each subscription of attachment rests not on the ground of any being the promises of the other contributors, actual damage resulting from the party's failure each subscriber being thus liable to a suit by all to appear, but is given for the vindication of the others. This doctrine however is against the the dignity of the court; and if it be clearly weight of authority; and it may be regarded as shown that the court's process was wilfully dig- pretty well settled that no action can be mainobeyed by the witness, he is condemned to tained on a subscription unless it is made in fine or imprisonment, or whatever other pun- favor of some particular person or corporation ishment is ordered by statute for the offence. in existence at the time, and capable of bringIn Massachusetts, and probably in other states, .ing a suit upon it. Thus it has been held that the party actually injured by the non-appear- a subscription to the stock of a corporation to be ance of the party summoned has a statutory afterward formed did not render the subscriber action for all damages caused by his default.- liable to a suit by the corporation after it had The office of the subpæna at common law is been chartered and organized. But where the simply to bring into court a witness whose evi- subscription paper named a party who was to dence is sought. Chancery, borrowing the collect the sum subscribed, it was held that he name of the writ, but giving it a far larger might bring a suit against a subscriber. So scope, issued it in order to compel a defendant when the paper provided that the money should in a cause to appear and answer upon oath the be paid to a person to be appointed by the subplaintitf's allegations. This sort of subpæna scribers in a prescribed manner, it was held was invented or first used in chancery by John that such person, when so appointed, might de Waltham, bishop of Salisbury, master of the sue on the subscriptions. And it has been held rolls under Richard II.; the commons com- that a subscription for a good consideration, but plained - of his subtlety' “as contrary to the which could not be sued for want of a ty to course of the common law.” It was in fact whom the promise was made, may be the conthe cause and subject of some of the loudest sideration for a promissory note payable to a complaints against the chancery jurisdiction; party capable of bringing an action. There but it was finally acquiesced in and became the are many cases which hold that no action most effective process of the chancery courts, can be maintained upon a mere voluntary suband thereby the means of much of its benefi- scription for a charitable or other purpose, cent action. The prayer for the subpæna is upon the ground that there was no legal conusually included in the closing clause of the sideration for the promise; and these cases bill, and asks that the defendant “may be re- would seem to be in accordance with the rule quired to appear, to answer the bill and to of law requiring an · actual consideration for a abide by the decree of the court."
promise in order to make it legally binding. SUBSCRIPTION, in law, a contract by which There are other decisions, however, which unone agrees to contribute with others for a coin- dertake to raise a consideration from the prommon purpose. The word is sometimes applied ises of the other contributors; from the acts to the sum of money subscribed. The contract done and expenses incurred on the faith of the of subscription depends for its validity upon the subscription; and from the express or implied same principles and facts as other contracts. The promise or legal liability of the parties, in subscribers may be sued for their subscriptions whose favor the subscription is made, to carry whenever the conditions upon which they have out its purposes. Where, by the express terms promised to pay are fulfilled, if the purpose of of the subscription, the promisee agrees to apthe contract is a legal one, and founded upon a propriate the funds to a particular object and good consideration, and if there is a party capa- in a particular way, upon the well settled prinble of maintaining the action. Subscription ciple of mutuality of contracts, his promise is a papers, however, are often hastily drawn up good consideration for that of the subscribers. and carelessly expressed; no party is named to Whether, however, the merely legal and imwhom the amounts subscribed are to be paya- plied liability of a charitable corporation or ble; it is merely agreed to contribute certain board of trustees to appropriate the funds subsoms to a specified object, leaving the mode of scribed in accordance with the provisions of collecting these sums to be afterward provided their charter or trust is a sufficient considerafor; and the inducement to subscribe is com- tion, without an express promise in the submonly either a benevolent object or the hope scription paper, to support an action on a subof future profit, without any immediate legal scription in their favor, is a question on which consideration. In short, the difficulty in the there is some conflict of opinion. Subscriptions way of enforcing contracts of subscription has which rest on an express contract by the promarisen frequently, we may say indeed chiefly, isee to do some act beneficial to the subscriber, from the want of proper parties and of a valid are in fact but ordinary contracts. consideration for the promise. In their dispo- SUCCORY. See CHICORY. sition to uphold this class of contracts, if they SUOHET, Louis GABRIEL, a French general, can be upheld consistently with the rules of born in Lyons, March 2, 1772, died in Mar
seilles, Jan. 3, 1826. He entered the national sides of head sometimes spiny or tuberculated; guard of Lyons in 1791 as 2d lieutenant of cav- it is common in the ponds of the New England alry, became a chief of battalion, was pres- and middle states. The gray sucker (C. Hudent at the siege of Toulon in 1793, and was sonius, Les.) is grayish above, and 18 to 21 then transferred to the army of Italy. He inches long; it is found in rivers opening into received the rank of chief of brigade on the Hudson's bay, in Columbia river and its tribubattle field at Neumark in April, 1797. He taries, and in the fur countries. Other large was selected as one of the commanders in the species from the northern regions have been army of Egypt, but was detained by Brune as described by Richardson and Agassiz. Among major-general in the army of Italy, in which he the larger species of the western rivers are the reëstablished order and discipline; afterward Missouri sucker (C. elongatus, Les.), 2 to 3 feet served as chief of staff under Masséna on the long, in the Ohio river, black on the back, and Danube, and again in Italy, where after Mas- hence called black horse and black buffalo; séna took the command he was made general and the buffalo sucker (C. bubalus, Raf.), of of division, and during the siege of Genoa, about the same size, in the Ohio, Mississippi, with a far inferior force, secured the capture Missouri, and their tributaries, brownish above, of 15,000 Austrians with 6 standards and 33 bronzy on the sides, and whitish on abdomen. cannon. He took part in the battle of Maren- These and other species are frequently used as go and in the passage of the Mincio, and com- food in the West. manded the centre of the army of Italy at Boz- SUCKING FISH, the popular name of the zolo, Borghetto, Verona, and Montebello. In remora, a spiny-rayed fish of the genus echeneis 1805 he commanded the left wing under Mar- (Linn.), so named from the Greek exw, to hold, shal Lannes at Austerlitz, and in 1806 took an and vavs, a ship. This genus was placed by important part in the battle of Jena. In 1808 Cuvier among the malacopterygians, near the he was made commander of a division in cod family ; Müller ranked it among the discothe army of Spain, and by his siege of Sara- boli (lump fishes), with the goby family ; Agasgossa (1809), the taking of Lerida (1810), Tor- siz considers it as belonging with the scombetosa and Tarragona (1811), and the occupation roid or mackerel family. The body is elongated, of Montserrat, won the baton of a marshal of tapering behind, covered with very small scales; the empire in 1811. He afterward took Oro- there are 4 perfect branchiæ; very small teeth pesa, Murviedro, and Valencia, which place he on jaws, vomer, and palate, crowded and hardly entered Jan. 14, 1812, capturing 18,000 Span- distinguishable posteriorly; mouth small and ish troops and immense stores, and was re- horizontal, the lower jaw the longer; eyes warded with the title of duke of Albufera and above the angles of the mouth; ventrals thoa large revenue. His justice and moderation racic, narrow, united only at the base, and gained him the affection of the Spaniards, and apparently not used for attaching the animal on the withdrawal of the French from Spain to submarine bodies; head flattened. Above he left the country with honor. Louis XVIII. the head and anterior dorsal vertebræ is an made him a peer of France in 1814. He wrote oval disk, presenting from the middle to both Mémoires sur la guerre d'Espagne, 1808-1814 sides oblique transverse cartilaginous plates, (2 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1829).
arranged like the slats of a Venetian blind; on SUCKER, the popular name of the soft-rayed the middle of the under surface are spine-like fishes of thé carp family (cyprinida) included projections connected by short bands with the in the genus catostomus (Lesueur). They are skull and vertebræ, and their upper margin is characterized by a single dorsal, 3 rays in the beset with fine teeth. According to De Blaingill membrane, smooth head and gill covers, ville, this organ is an anterior dorsal fin, whose jaws without teeth and retractile, mouth be- rays are split and expanded horizontally on neath the snout, and lips plaited or lobed suit- each side instead of standing erect in the usual able for sucking; there are comb-like teeth in way. By means of this apparatus, partly the throat; the intestine is very long, and the suctorial and partly prehensile by the hooks, air bladder divided into 2 or more parts. There these fishes attach themselves to rocks, ships, are about 30 species in the fresh water rivers and the bodies of other fishes, especially to and lakes of North America; they feed on sharks. The dorsal is opposite the anal, but aquatic plants, worms, larvæ, and mollusks, the fins are weak, and these fishes accordingly and rarely take bait; they are very tenacious adhere to sharks and other moving bodies, of life; the young are devoured by kingfishers, which transport them to places where food is fish hawks, and carnivorous fishes. The com- abundant, and often from the tropics to temmon sucker (C. Bostoniensis, Les.) is 8 to 15 perate regions. There are 6 or 8 pyloric apinches long, of a brownish color, olive on the pendages, but no air bladder. The common head, reddish with metallic lustre on the sides, sucking fish of the Mediterranean, so well and white below; it is common in New Eng- known to the ancients (E. remora, Linn.), is land and the middle states. The chub sucker from 12 to 18 inches long, shaped somewhat (C. gibbosus, Les.) is 7 to 12 inches long, dark like a herring, dusky brown above and lighter brown above, golden greenish yellow on the below; it has 17 or 18 plates on the head ; it sides, anterior part of abdomen whitish, and occurs in the Atlantic ocean, on the British fins dark; body convex in front of dorsal, and coasts, and has even wandered to the American
shores. The Indian remora (E. naucrates, 1819 he attained the rank of brigadier-general, Linn.) attains a length of 24 feet; it is olive and was appointed to negotiate a suspension of brown above and whitish on the sides, and has hostilities with the Spanish general Morillo. 22 to 24 plates in the sucking disk; it is found He was not long after promoted to the comin the Atlantic, on the American and African mand of a division sent from Bogota to assist coasts, in the Red sea, Indian ocean, and even the province of Guayaquil. Though repulsed around Japan. On the Mozambique coast it is at Huachi, he succeeded in the autumn of 1821 pot to a practical use in catching marine tur- in effecting a favorable armistice with the royaltles; a number are taken to sea in a vessel of ist general Aymerich, and thus enabling the water, and are put overboard when a turtle is Peruvian division to form a junction with the seen, a rope fastened to a ring having been Colombians. In May, 1822, he achieved the attached to the tail; in the instinct to escape decisive victory of Pichincha, which was imthey attach themselves to the nearest turtle, mediately followed by the capitulation of Quito. and both fish and reptile are hauled in together. Having returned to Bogota, he was despatched The E. lineata (Bloch), of the tropical Pacific, early in 1823 as Colombian envoy to Lima, with has a very elongated body and only 10 sucking an auxiliary Colombian army of 3,000 men. He plates. Peculiar to the American coast is the found Lima in the hands of the royalists, and white-tailed remora (E. albicauda, Mitch.); it retired to Callao, where he was besieged till is from 1 to 2 feet long, grayish slate above, the successes of Gen. Santa Cruz in the south with dark band on sides; the disk has 21 plates; of Peru compelled the royalist general to it is not uncommon on the southern shore of evacuate Lima in July, 1823. Sucre attemptMassachusetts and in Long Island sound, where ed to cooperate with Santa Cruz, but the it is generally called shark sucker. None of the defeat of the latter rendered his return to species feed upon the fish to which they are Callao necessary. Bolivar soon after took the attached, but upon small floating animals. For command of the liberating army in person, but other sucking fish, adhering by means of the after the battle of Junin relinquished it to Suventral fins, see LUMP Fish.
cre, who, on Dec. 9, 1824, fought and won the SUCKLING, Sir John, an English poet and battle of Ayacucho, the most brilliant battle dramatist, born in Whitton, Middlesex, in 1608 ever fought in South America, capturing the or 1609, died in Paris probably in 1642. He Spanish viceroy La Serna, killing and woundwas the son of the comptroller of the royal ing 2,600 royalists, and the next day receiving household under James I., and was educated at the surrender of Gen. Canterac, the Spanish Trinity college, Cambridge. Succeeding to an commander, with 15 general officers and the immense fortune at the death of his father in whole army prisoners of war. Three days later 1627, he travelled for a while on the continent, he entered Cuzco in triumph, and immediately and in 1631–2 served as a volunteer in the proceeded against Olañeta, who with a small forces under Gustavus Adolphus. Returning to body still held Upper Peru against the republiEngland, he became one of the most brilliant cans. The death of Olañeta in April, 1825, ornaments of the court of Charles I., and was placed both Upper and Lower Peru in Sucre's distinguished not less for his wit and gallantry hands, and he assembled as speedily as possible than for his passion for gambling. At the a congress at Chuquisaca, which, in Aug. 1825, breaking out of disturbances in Scotland in decided to form the new republic of Bolivia, to 1639 he equipped a body of 100 horse for the request Bolivar to draw up a constitution for royal service, at a cost, it is said, of £12,000, them, to call their capital Sucre, and to invest but was disgraced by the pusillanimous conduct the government for the time being in Gen. of himself and his men in an encounter with the Sucre with the title of " captain-general and Scots near Danse, for which he was merciless- grand marshal of Ayacucho.” In 1826 a new ly ridiculed by the rival wits of the time. In congress assembled to receive the constitution the succeeding year he was elected to the long prepared by Bolivar, and Sucre resigned his parliament; but, having joined in a plot to res- captain-generalship, but was at once elected cue Stratford from the tower, he was compelled president under the new constitution. The to take refuge in France. His literary remains revolution in Peru in 1827, which overthrew comprise 4 plays, a number of short poems the government of Bolivar, exerted an undedicated to love and gallantry, a treatise on favorable influence in Bolivia, and an insur" Religion by Reason," and a collection of let- rection took place in which Sucre was atters. His reputation at the present day rests tacked and dangerously wounded. On his almost entirely upon his poems. His works recovery in Aug. 1828, he resigned and rewere published by Tonson in 1709, and in 1836 turned to Colombia, but was at once made appeared “Selections from his Works," with a commander of the Colombian army of the memoir by the Rev. Alfred Suckling.
south, and political chief of the southern deSUCRE, ANTONIO JOSÉ DE, a South Amer- partments of the Colombian republic. In this iran general, born in Cumana, Venezuela, in capacity he led his troops in a series of military 1793, assassinated in the neighborhood of Pas- operations which terminated in the defeat to, in Ecuador, in June, 1830. He entered the and capitulation of the Peruvians under Gen. insurrectionary army in 1811, serving under La Mar at Tarqui, Feb. 26, 1829. He became Miranda, and afterward under Gen. Piar. In a member of the constituent congress of 1830,