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a spring course of lectures in the college of curved, and narrow, with 10 primaries; tarsi physicians and surgeons in Crosby street. His short and weak, and more or less feathered; lectures, which were delivered from brief notes, toes short and thick, and all 4 are or may be were reported in the “New York Lancet," and directed forward, as in no other bird; claws gave him at once a high reputation. For some strong and curved; 10 feathers in the tail. years he confined his practice mainly to dis- They are very swift and graceful fliers, feeding eases of the chest. About 1840 he was asso. exclusively on insects which they capture on ciated with Dr. Watson as editor of the "New the wing; they are migratory like the swalYork Journal of Medicine,” the organ while it lows, but do not mingle with them and are less existed of the New York medical and surgical hardy; most of them nestle in hollow trees, society. In 1842 he was elected one of the holes in buildings, or crevices in rocks; some physicians of the New York hospital, and in species rear 2 or 3 broods in a season.-In the connection with his duties there began to make genus cypselus (Illig.) the 2d quill is the longest, very thorough and careful researches into dis- and the tarsi are feathered to the base of the eases of the kidneys, not neglecting however toes; it is peculiar to the old world. The his former speciality of diseases of the chest. common European swift or black martin (C. His investigations on albuminuria and other apus, Illig.) is 7 inches long, with a forked diseases of the kidney were protracted through tail; it is blackish brown above with a green the whole remainder of his life. When failing gloss, and the throat grayish white. It aphealth compelled him in 1850 to visit Europe, pears in Great Britain in May, departing in he devoted most of his time while there to August; great numbers are seen morning and the study of microscopy with the French phy- evening, darting about after insects, uttering a sicist Robin; and in 1852 he published his shrill scream, the only note; the food consists “Treatise on Diseases of the Chest." In 1853 of very small insects, which are collected in he was appointed professor of the theory and considerable quantity in the mouth, retained practice of medicine in the medical department by a viscid secretion, before they are śwal. of the university of the city of New York, and lowed; the extreme shortness of the legs rendelivered a course in the spring of the same ders walking and rising from a flat surface year, and another in the ensuing winter. almost impossible, but the stout toes and sharp

SWIETEN, GERARD VAN, a Dutch physician claws form admirable clinging organs for climband author, born in Leyden, May 7, 1700, died ing in and out the holes where the nests are at Schönbrunn, Austria, June 18, 1772. He was placed; the nest is bulky and clumsily made, a favorite pupil of Boerhaave, and after a few and the eggs, 2 or 3, are pure white; only one years' practice was elected to the chair of medi- brood is raised in a season. The white-bellied cine in the university of Leyden; but his adher- swift (C. melba, Illig.) is 81 inches long, grayence to the Roman Catholic faith, and the stern- ish brown above and white below, the legs ness and inflexibility of his character, made him covered with brown feathers; it is common in so unpopular that he was compelled to resign his southern Europe, especially in mountainous professorship. In 1745 he was called to Vien- regions.- In the genus chætura (Steph.) or na as physician-in-chief to the empress Maria acanthylis (Boie) the tail is very short, about Theresa, and professor of medicine and anat- of the wings, slightly rounded, the shafts stiffomy. He was subsequently appointed direct- ened and extending beyond the feathers as or of the imperial library, perpetual president rigid spines; 1st quill the longest; legs covered of the faculty of medicine at Vienna, director with a naked skin. The species are found in of the medical affairs of the empire, and censor North and South America, Australia, and the of books. His great medical work, Commen- East Indies; they live in flocks, and breed usutarii in H. Boerhaavii Aphorismos de Cognos- ally in holes of trees, but sometimes in crevices cendis et Curandis Morbis (5 vols. 4to., Leyden, in rocks, and the eggs are usually four. The 1741–72), is still regarded as of great value for American swift or chimney swallow (C. pelusits careful observation, while it has served as gia, Steph.) is 54 inches long and 12; in alar the source of many smaller medical works by extent; it is sooty brown above with a greenother authors. He also wrote in French à ish tinge, a little paler on the rump, and contreatise on military medicine, and left a post- siderably lighter from the bill to the breast; it humous Essai sur les épidémies (1782).

is found from the eastern states to the slopes SWIFT, the general name of the cypselida, of the Rocky mountains, arriving from the a sub-family of birds generally placed among south by the end of April or beginning of May, the swallows, but by some recent German and departing during the first half of Septemornithologists ranked as a separate family ber. This species naturally makes its nest in coming near the humming birds, on account hollow trees, but in the neighborhood of man of certain anatomical peculiarities, and partic- builds in such chimneys as are not used in ularly of the absence of singing muscles in the summer for fires; the nest is made of twigs lower larynx. The swifts resemble the swal- snapped off from a dead tree during flight, lows in habits and in their general form; the fastened together by viscid saliva, without soft bill is more suddenly curved, unprovided with lining, and is generally placed from 5 to 8 feet bristles at the base; nostrils very large, oblong, from the entrance; the eggs are pure white. with an elevated margin; wings extremely long, They pass in and out the chimney with great

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rapidity, making a whirring sound like distant capacity of private secretary. Abandoning his thunder; there are sometimes 200 in a single former careless and idle habits, he now employchimney; if by chance the nest be loosened ed his leisure hours in study, and from daily by rains and fall, the young cling to the sides intercourse with his patron acquired a familiarof the chimney with their sharp claws; the ity with public affairs which gave to his subscratching and rambling have a very strange sequent political pamphlets a very different sound at night, and many a traveller in thinly character from those produced by mere men settled regions, unaccustomed to these noctur- of letters. But to one who like Swift was at nal disturbances, has been terrified by supposed heart the most haughty, despotic, and sensiunearthly noises in the chimney. They do not tive of men, the position of secretary, with a alight on trees or on the ground.—In the genus salary of £20, was a heavy price to pay for the collocalia (Gray) the bill is very small, wings advantages he derived; and in after years he very long, tail moderate and nearly even, and alluded with bitterness to the humiliations he tarsi naked. The esculent swift or swallow endured under the roof of Sir William Temple, (C. esculenta, Gray) is the principal maker of whom he was in the habit of addressing with the celebrated nests so highly esteemed by the the obsequiousness of a lacquey or a beggar, Chinese as articles of food; these consist of a and a sharp word or cold look from whom sufmucilaginous substance secreted by the greatly ficed to make him miserable for days. Much developed salivary glands, more or less mixed of the acerbity which subsequently characterwith fragments of grass and similar materials, ized his intercourse with people of every deand are attached to the surface of rocks in gree may doubtless be ascribed to this enforced almost inaccessible caves in the islands of the subserviency, aptly likened by Macaulay to the East Indies; the older writers supposed the tameness with which a caged tiger submits to Dests to be made of sea weeds macerated in the keeper who brings him food. At Moor and rejected from the stomach. These nests Park, Temple's seat in Surrey, Swift had freare built by 3 or 4 species, and are collected in quent opportunities of seeing. William III., large quantities, forming an important article who was in the habit of consulting the retired of commerce in China; for an account of the statesman on public matters; and on one occamode of collecting, value of the product, and sion he was deputed by his patron to persuade uses to which the nests are put, see Birds' the king to consent to the bill for triennial Nests, EDIBLE. The eggs are 2 in this genus. parliaments. The latter failed to be convinced There are many other species of swifts, both by the arguments of the Irish secretary, of in the old world and the new.

whose intellectual endowments he could have SWIFT, JONATHAN, dean of St. Patrick's, formed no flattering estimate, if his offer to a British author, born in Dublin, Nov. 30, make him captain of a troop of horse may be 1667, died there, Oct. 19, 1745. He was of considered a criterion. In 1692 Swift took his purely English descent; his father, Jonathan master's degree at Oxford, and two years later, Swift, emigrated from Herefordshire, and dying finding Temple unwilling to make any definito in embarrassed circumstances before the birth provision for him, he renounced his employof his son, left his family dependent upon his ment and left Moor Park in a pique, intending brother Godwin. The son's career at Trinity to take orders in Ireland and look for prefercollege, Dublin, which he entered in his 15th ment from some other source. His mortificaFear, was obscure and unhappy, the logic of tion may be conceived when he discovered the schoolmen, then the beginning and end of that a certificate from Sir William was necesthe curriculum at Dublin, being distasteful to sary to enable him to obtain orders; and the him, and his pecuniary circumstances such as letter in which he solicits it, praying that to prevent him from associating on an equal “Heaven would one day allow him the opporfooting with those he considered his equals. tunity of leaving his acknowledgments at the His neglect of the ordinary college studies re- feet" of his offended patron, is a curious illussalted in his failure at his first application to tration of the readiness with which he could obtain his bachelor's degree, which was at bumiliate himself for the purpose of furtherlength conferred upon him in Feb. 1685, spe- ing his own interests. In Oct. 1694, he was ciali gratia. This disgrace, however, seems to ordained, and soon after received the prebend hare aroused in him no other feelings than of Kilroot, in the diocese of Connor; but a few contempt and resentment; and during his sub- months served to weary him of the life of a sequent residence at the university he showed rural incumbent, and having received a kind himself so indifferent to academic rules and letter from Sir William Temple, who felt the discipline as to incur within two years no few- want of his services, he gladly returned to his er than 70 penalties and censures, beside being old position and to the elegant retirement and compelled to crave public pardon of the junior literary resources of Moor Park.

He was dean, Dr. Owen Lloyd. In 1688 he left Dublin thenceforth treated with more consideration, on a visit to his mother, who was then living and upon the death of Sir William in 1698 rein Leicester, England, dependent on the bounty ceived a legacy, coupled with the task of editof her relations, one of whom was the wife of ing his posthumous works, which were pubSir William Temple; and a few

months later lished in London in 1699, with a memoir of he entered the family of that statesman in the Temple and a dedication to the king. Although

a promise of a prebend of Westminster or Can- generally attributed to Somers himself or Barterbury had been held out to Swift, his claims, net. He avowed the authorship in the succeedunsupported by the influence of Temple, were ing year, and was immediately admitted into overlooked, and he was obliged to content him- the society of the statesmen he had defended, self with the position of chaplain and secretary and into that of Addison, Steele, Arbuthnot, to Lord Berkeley, one of the lords justices of and others of the leading wits of the time. Ireland, whom in 1699 he accompanied to With this period commences Swift's career as Dublin. A person named Bush succeeded in an author, although he did not engage actively supplanting him in the office of secretary, and in writing political pamphlets, his most numersubsequently in securing the presentation to ous and in many respects most characteristic the rich deanery of Derry, which Berkeley had performances, until several years later. Some promised to Swift; whereupon the latter, ex- trifles in prose and verse written for the amuseclaiming: “God confound you both for a ment of his friends had already shown him to couple of scoundrels!" threw up his chaplaincy possess a choice and original vein of humor, in a rage. As some sort of compensation for but he had signally failed in a series of "Pinthis disappointment, Berkeley gave him the daric Odes," his only serious effort in the higher vicarage of Laracor and several other livings, walks of poetry, which called forth from Dryamounting altogether to nearly £400 a year. den, who was his kinsman, the remark: "CouIn 1700 Swift entered upon the discharge of sin Swift

, you will never be a poet.” In 1704 his parochial duties at Laracor; and about the appeared his “Battle of the Books," written at same time Esther Johnson, with whom he had Moor Park in 1697, in support of Sir William contracted a tender friendship while they were Temple's views in the controversy respecting both dependants of Sir William Temple, came the relative merits of ancient and modern learnat his invitation, accompanied by Mrs. Dingley, ing. This was succeeded by the “Tale of a Tub," a friend, to reside in the neighborhood. At a wild and witty satire upon the Roman CathoMoor Park Miss Johnson had passed for the lics and dissenters, with an occasional allusion to daughter of Sir William's steward; but her the errors of the church of England, the high personal resemblance to Sir William himself church party of which it was his object to exalt. and a variety of other concurring circum- This work had also been completed in manu-. stances have rendered it tolerably certain that script several years previous, and is in every she was his illegitimate offspring. Younger respect one of Swift's most perfect and labored by 15 years than Swift, who appears to have efforts; but it proved an insurmountable obstaassisted in her education, she gave him from cle to his hopes of high preferment. After an their earliest acquaintance a love which never interval of several years he published in 1708 wavered in its warmth or constancy; and as his “ Argument against the Abolition of Christhe “Stella" of his poems and familiar letters, tianity," a masterpiece of gráve irony; "Sentiher name is inseparably associated with his ments of a Church of England Man in respect own in a sad and mysterious history. During to Religion and Government;" the humorous his previous residence in Ireland Swift had be- attacks on Partridge the almanac maker, encome enamored of a Miss Jane Waryng, the titled “Predictions for 1708 by Isaac Bickersister of an old college friend; but his offer of staff;” and “ Letters on the Sacramental Test," marriage was declined by her on considerations in which he enunciated views on the relaxaof health. Subsequently the lady herself, whom tion of the restrictions upon the dissenters very Swift addressed as Varina, reopened negotia- different from those entertained by the whigs, tions, and received from her former admirer a and which may partially explain his subsequent letter of acceptance, containing such unreason- abandonment of that party. In 1709 he pubable and insulting conditions, that further in- lished the only work to which he ever attached tercourse or correspondence was cut short. his name, A Project for the Advancement of Swift's conduct as a parish priest was creditable Religion,” dedicated to Lady Berkeley, About to himself and his calling; and, though laboring this time some efforts were made by Swift's poin behalf of an establishment which had nei- litical friends, who began at length to appreciate ther the respect nor the affection of the people, the value of his services, to secure his preferand with every inducement to neglect his du- ment; and among other plans proposed was one ties, he held regularly three services a week, the to make him bishop of Virginia, with a general average attendance at which rarely exceeded authority over all the clergy in the American half a score of persons, and in his sermons, colonies. The public scandal which the apcharacterized by himself as “pamphlets,” he pointment of the author of the “ Tale of s preached the doctrines of his church to the Tub" to this office would have created probably best of his ability. In 1701 he made the first operated against him on this as on other occa. of a number of annual visits to England, and sions, and he received nothing beyond the published anonymously in London his “Dis- flatteries of men in office and abundant invitacourse of the Contests and Dissensions between tions to dinner; while his friend Addison, who the Nobles and Commons of Athens and Romne," had done no more for the whigs than himself, vindicating the conduct of the whig leaders, was loaded with solid benefits. Smarting inSomers, Halifax, Harley, and Portland, in re- der a sense of neglect, and incensed by the spect to the partition treaty, and which was cold reception which Godolphin accorded to

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his repeated applications for an increased en- hold, indifferent apparently to the scandal dowment of the Irish clergy, he wavered for a which her equivocal position provoked. Soon while between whigs and tories, and finally, in after his formal adhesion to the tories Swift Oct. 1710, went over to the latter, by whom had become intimate in London in the family he was received with open arms. Harley and of a Mrs. Vanhomrigh, whose eldest daughter, St. John became his warm friends, and in the Esther, a spirited, intelligent, and accomplished exaltation of the moment he wrote to Stella in girl, kindly noticed and occasionally directed Ireland: "I stand with the new people ten by him in her studies, conceived so violent a times better than ever I did with the old, passion for her tutor as to be induced to proand forty times more caressed.” Swift imme- pose marriage to him. The offer was declined, diately entered the arena of political contro- but, whether from real interest in Miss Vanversy, and the “Examiner,” a weekly paper es- homrigh (who under the name of Vanessa has tablished by St. John and others in the inter- gained a celebrity as sad and romantic as that est of the ministry, was for more than half & of her companion in misfortune, Stella), or year the vehicle for bitter attacks from his pen from gratified vanity, he neglected to discourupon prominent whig statesmen. His power- age her advances. Upon the death of her moful pamphlet on the “Conduct of the Allies,' ther, Vanessa removed in 1714 to Ireland to published in Nov. 1711, and which had a con- be near Swift, who thus found himself involved siderable influence in bringing the war to a in a pitiable dilemma, with two women equalclose, raised his reputation to the highest pitch, ly devoted to him, and neither of whom he was and he found himself courted by men of rank willing to marry, notwithstanding he had proand station, and in a position to confer substan- tested to Stella that he “loved her better than tial favors upon deserving persons, which he is his life a thousand million of times." Vanessa, known to have done in a number of instances. ignorant of Swift's relations with Stella, and But he himself, while dictating, as Dr. John- absorbed in her own passion, endured his coldson has observed, the political opinions of the ness or reproaches without a murmur, in the English nation, remained unrewarded; and the hope of one day becoming his wife; but to efforts of Harley and St. John, now become Stella, who had waited patiently for more than Lords Oxford and Bolingbroke, aided by Mrs. 15 years to have this justice done her, the idea Masham, were unavailing to procure him a of being replaced in Swift's affections by a rival bishoprie, the queen, under the advice of Arch- was intolerable, and at her solicitation he is bishop Sharp and other prelates, positively re- said to have finally consented to a private marfusing him any high preferment. Upon the riage with her, which took place in the garden failure of an application in his behalf for the of the deanery in 1716. At his express stipuvacant see of Hereford, through the opposi- lation, however, the matter was kept secret; tion of the duchess of Somerset, whom he had and as the relations of the parties remained lampooned, Swift threatened to withdraw his unchanged, and they were never known to meet support from the ministry, but was pacified by but in the presence of a third person, it was his appointment, in Feb. 1713, to the deanery at the best but a nominal union, and throughof St. Patrick's cathedral, Dublin, the income out her life his wife commonly passed for his of which amounted to £700. Returning to mistress. In 1717 Vanessa retired with her Ireland, after an absence of nearly 3 years, he sister to Marley abbey near Celbridge, and for had scarcely got settled in his deanery when he several years lived in deep seclusion. During was summoned back to England to reconcile the illness of her sister in 1720 Swift renewed the difficulties between Oxford and Boling- his visits, each of which Vanessa commemoratbroke, which threatened to break up the cabi- ed by planting a laurel in the garden where net. About this time he wrote his “Public they met; but at length, tormented by suspiSpirit of the Whigs,” which reflected so bit- cion and impatience, she wrote to Stella to terly upon the Scottish nation and nobility that ascertain the nature of her connection with the latter in a body presented a complaint to Swift. The latter, getting possession of the the queen. In June, 1714, appeared his " Free letter, rode directly to Marley abbey, flung it Thoughts on the State of Public Affairs;" and upon the table before Vanessa with a frown upon the dismissal of Oxford a few weeks which struck her dumb with terror, and inlater he gave a noble proof of the strength of stantly departed. The unhappy woman surhis friendship by declining the flattering over- vived this shock but a few weeks, and Swift, tures of Bolingbroke, in order to be of service overcome by shame and remorse, retired for to the disgraced minister. The death of the two months to solitude in the south of Ireland. queen immediately after this event and the After her death appeared his poem entitled oferthrow of the tories sent Swift back to Ire- “Cadenus and Vanessa,” describing the manland, where he remained during the next 12 ner in which Swift (personified as Cadenus, an years.-Ever since the arrival of Stella in Ire- anagram of Decanus, the dean) received the land his relations with her had been of the early advances of Miss Vanhómrigh. Five most intimate and affectionate character. They years later Stella herself dropped into the saw each other daily when at home, corre- grave, without any public recognition of her sponded regularly when apart, and during his marriage, and with her departed what Thackfrequent absences she superintended his house- eray calls “the good angel of his life; when



Stella's sweet smile went, silence and utter of deafness and vertigo, to which he had been night closed over him.” Of the various reasons subject from an early period of his life, as to assigned for his conduct toward these two wo- preclude further literary labors. His infirmimen, of all persons in the world the most de- ties rapidly increased after this, and in a correvoted to him, that which ascribes it to the sponding degree his memory and intellect demalady which finally overwhelmed his reason cayed. In the latter part of 1740 his memory is the most charitable.-For several years after almost entirely left him, and frequent fits of Swift's return to Ireland he wrote little; but passion at length terminated in furious lunacy. finding Irish affairs likely to prove a fit cover for This subsided in 1742, and he passed the last 3 attacks upon the existing whig government, he years of his life in a condition of speechless produced in 1720 a “Proposal for the Universal. torpor, tenderly cared for by his cousin, Mrs. Use of Irish Manufactures," followed in 1723 by Whiteway, who had undertaken the charge of the celebrated “Drapier's Letters,” in opposi- his household. His brain was found loaded tion to the royal grant authorizing Wood to coin with water, and it is supposed that an opera£108,000 in halfpence and farthings for general tion, if it could not have prolonged life, might circulation in Ireland. The author by no means have restored his reason. He was interred in confined himself to the single grievance here the cathedral, amid extravagant demonstraalluded to, but denounced the whole system of tions of popular respect, and the tablet which government in Ireland with a vigor and point marks his place of sepulture bears the followwhich aroused a powerful popular feeling in ing characteristic inscription written by himhis favor. His effigy was produced on signs self: Hic depositum est corpus Jonathan Swift, and medals, and distributed broadcast in innu- S. T. P., hujus ecclesiæ cathedralis decani : ubi merable prints; and so powerful became his særa indignatio ulterius cor lacerare nequit. influence with the lower classes that Walpole, Abi, riator, et imitare, si poteris, strenuum pro when meditating legal proceedings against the virili vindicem. Obiit, &c. With a presentiauthor, was told that it would require 10,000 ment of his fate he had bequeathed the bulk of men to arrest him. It may be doubted, however, his property, amounting to £10,000, to found a whether Swift, proud of his unmixed English hospital for insane persons.-In person Swift blood and looking upon the aboriginal inhabi- was tall and well made, with a swarthy comtants of Ireland as a servile and alien caste, re- plexion, and a cast of face that would have ally valued the popularity which he enjoyed. been heavy but for the expression communicatBut with all his affected contempt for the land ed to it by the eyes, which Pope describes as of his birth, he frequently betrays an instinc- azure as the heavens." Under the influence tive yearning toward it, which has been likened of anger his features assumed an austerity to that felt by the inferior animals for their which awed and frightened most persons. His young. In 1726 appeared his “Gulliver's character, seemingly made up of paradoxes, is Travels,” the most original and extraordinary still an enigma to many. Economical almost of all his productions, and that by which he to the verge of parsimony, he reserved a third will be known while the language lasts. Of of his income for charities; brutal, overbearing, these wonderful satires on human nature and and coarse in his manners, he was constantly society Masson observes: "Schoolboys who performing acts of kindness in private; assumread for the story only, read Gulliver with de- ing in the treatment of religious subjects a light; and our literary critics, even while levity of manner which subjected him to the watching the allegory and commenting on the charge of irreverence, he was at heart reverent philosophy, break down in laughter, from the and pious; indifferent generally upon whom sheer grotesqueness of some of the funcies, or the lash of his satire descended, and having are awed into pain and discomfort by the hosts of bitter enemies, he possessed friends ghastly significance of others." In 1726 and who almost idolized him; honest and straight1727 he made visits to England, renewing his forward in his intentions, and sincerely hating intimacy with Pope, Gay, Bolingbroke, Ar- cant, he “bound himself to a lifelong hypocbuthnot, and others of his early friends; but risy; and despising women for their intellecafter the death of Stella he never left Ireland, tual dependence upon man, and frequently grossnotwithstanding he was strongly urged to ex- ly insulting them, he yet loved a woman with change his deanery for a living of less value and an exclusiveness and earnestness for which he importance in Berkshire. His pride revolted has never perhaps received full credit. An inagainst the sacrifice of dignity which this step tense and arrogant desire for power and notoriwould involve, and he clung to Ireland, com- ety characterizes every prominent action of his plaining bitterly to Bolingbroke that he should life. “All my endeavors from a boy to disbe compelled to die there “in a rage, like a tinguish myself,” he writes to Bolingbroke, poisoned rat in a hole." For several years he were only for want of a great title and forwrote with vigor and increasing bitterness on tune, that I might be used like a lord by those Irish affairs, and amused himself with compos- who have an opinion of my parts—whether ing verses, the humor of which is more than right or wrong, it is no great matter;" and it equalled by the fierceness and obscenity of the may be supposed, after this humiliating consatire; but by the year 1736 his health became fession, that the scruples which he at first hon. so undermined by frequently recurring attacks estly entertained, and probably never relin

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