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increase of 32 per cent. since 1850. Capital, sall, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Tamworth, BurStafford Court House.

ton-upon-Trent, 'Uttoxeter, Cheadle, Hanley, STAFFORD, Henry, duke of Buckingham. Burslem, and Newcastle-under-Lyme. The See BUCKINGHAM, DUKES OF.

chief river is the Trent, which traverses the STAFFORD, WILLIAM HOWARD, viscount, an county in a N. W. direction, and has several Énglish statesman, born Nov. 30, 1612, exe- considerable tributaries. Much of the surface cuted on Tower hill, Dec. 29, 1680. He was consists of moorlands, elevated in some places the 2d son of Thomas, 20th earl of Arundel, 1,000 feet above the level of the sea, runthe well known collector of the Arundelian ning in ridges separated by valleys sloping marbles; and upon the death without issue of toward the Trent; the land in the valley of his brother-in-law Henry, 4th Baron Stafford, the Trent is good. Staffordshire is an imporhe succeeded in having the dignity conferred tant manufacturing county, and coal, iron, copupon himself in right of his wife, who was at per, and lead mines are worked extensively. the same time created Baroness Stafford. In The leading manufactures are iron, hardware, Nov. 1640, a few months later, he was created and earthenware, of which last it is the chief Viscount Stafford. He was brought up in the seat in England, and which gives name to a Roman Catholic faith, and adhered during the division of the county called the Potteries. civil wars to the royal cause; but after the There is perhaps no article of ironmongery or restoration, conceiving that he had not been hardware which is not produced in Staffordrewarded according to his deserts, he was fre- shire. The pottery works established by Joquently found in opposition to the court, al- siah Wedgwood, and still carried on by his dethough he appears never to have played an scendants, are in this county. The ale breweries important part as a legislator. He was, how- of Burton-on-Trent are very extensive and celever, of sufficient prominence to be singled out ebrated. Staffordshire is connected with the by Titus Oates, the contriver of the “popish surrounding counties by a perfect network of plot," as one of his chief victims. On Oct. 23, roads, canals, and railways. There are some 1678, Oates deposed before the house of com- remains of Roman antiquities. The county mons that upon the subversion of the kingdom sends 4 members to parliament, beside 13 for by the Jesuits, Lord Stafford was to have the the boroughs. appointment of paymaster of the army; and on STAG, the common name of the red deer of the 30th the accused nobleman was committed Europe (cervus elaphus, Linn.) and its conto the tower, with other Catholic peers against geners. It is about 4 feet high at the shoulwhom similar charges had been preferred. ders, and of a general reddish brown color, After lying two years in prison, he was brought tinged with grayish in the winter; on the to trial on a charge of high treason before his rump is a pale spot extending a little above the peers on Nov. 30, 1680, his 69th birthday. tail; there is a blackish dorsal line, and on each During a trial of 7 days he defended himself side often a row of pale fulvous spots; the hair with an ability for which no one had given him is brittle, and in old animals forms a kind of credit; pointing out with such skill the weak- mane on the neck; the tail is moderate, the ness of Oates's evidence, that Evelyn, who was tear bag well developed, suborbital pit large, present, thought "such a man's testimony and the hoofs narrow, triangular, and comshould not be taken against the life of a dog." pressed. The antlers are large and rounded, But, as Dugdale and Tuberville, the other wit- with an anterior basal and a median anterior nesses for the government, swore positively snag, and the apex divided into 2 or more that Stafford had incited them to assassinate branches according to age; they are peculiar the king, a verdict of guilty was pronounced to the males, shed in the spring, and reproby à vote of 55 to 31. He was executed 3 duced, sometimes to a weight of 24 lbs., by weeks afterward; and such was the revolution August. (For family characters see DEER.) It in popular feeling which set in subsequent to is a strong, swift, and vigilant animal, with a his conviction, that, although he had been as- very acute sense of smell; it was formerly sailed by invective on the day of his trial, when found in herds in the forests of the mountainous he protested his innocence on the scaffold the regions of temperate Europe, but is now rare spectators cried: “We believe you, my lord. except in the least inhabited parts, like the God bless you, my lord.” His eldest son was highlands of Scotland, where stag hunting is created earl of Stafford, which title expired still a favorite sport with the privileged few. with the 4th earl in 1762; and in 1825 (the This in old times constituted the noble art of attainder of Lord Stafford having been reversed venerie, as distinguished from the more plebeian in the previous year) his descendant Sir George chase of the fallow deer and other species William Jerningham succeeded to the barony which resort to the plains more than the woods. of Stafford.

Gestation continues 8 months; the young or STAFFORDSHIRE, an inland and nearly calf is dropped in May, and is yellowish with central county of England, bounded by the white spots; the male is called a stag or hart, counties of Chester, Derby, Leicester, War- and the female a hind, the terms buck, doe, and wick, Worcester, and Salop; area, 1,250 sq. fawn belonging properly to the fallow deer m.; pop. in 1861, 746,584. The principal (dama culgaris, Gesn.); the venison is coarser towns are Stafford, the capital, Lichfield, Wal- than that of the fallow deer. It has been found



fossil, with bones of the elephant and other with yellow head, brown jaws, and 9 stigmata; pachyderms, in the Kirkdale cavern, the peat they live in the trunks and roots of apple trees, bogs of Ireland, and similar recent formations. willows, and oaks, and are sometimes injurious. It is represented in North America

by the larger STAGNELIUS, ERIK JOHAN, a Swedish poet, Wapiti (C. Canadensis, Erxl.). (See WAPITI.) born in the island of Oland, Oct. 14, 1793, died Other stags in the old world are the Barbary April 3, 1823. He was the son of a parish (C. Barbarus, Benn.), of N. Africa, of a dark priest, afterward made bishop of Calmar, and brown color with back of haunches and obscure received his education at the universities of spots white; and the Nepaul (C. Wallichii, Lund and Upsal. In 1815 he became a clerk Cuv.), brown, with a large white spot on the in the Swedish office for ecclesiastical affairs, ramp. Others are found in India and Japan. which position he held until his death. Hé

STAG BEETLE, the common name of the died prematurely from excessive drinking. His family lucanidæ, of the lamellicorn pentamerous poetical writings, including many in manucoleoptera, of which the type is the genus luca- script, were edited in 1824 by his friend Hamnus (Linn.). Many of the species are of con- marsköld in 3 vols., and comprise epic or narsiderable size, and have received their name rative poems, dramas, lyrics, ballads, and misfrom the large and powerful mandibles with cellaneous minor pieces. His reputation has which the males are furnished. The stag greatly increased since his death, and he is now beetle of Europe (L. cerous, Linn.) is 2 inches ranked among the Swedish classics. His entire long, exclusive of the mandibles, and is the works have been translated into German, and largest and most formidable of the British specimens of his poems are given in Howitt's beetles; the color is black, with brown elytra; "Scandinavian Literature." the head is wider than the body; the man- STAHL, GEORG Ernst, a German chemist dibles corneous, arched, with 3 large and sev. and physiologist, born in Anspach, Oct. 21, eral smaller teeth, and used as instruments of 1660, died in Berlin, May 14, 1734. He studoffence; antenna bent, pectinated, and 10- ied medicine at Jena, and became a lecturer jointed, tibiæ dentated along outer edge, and there in 1684, professor of medicine, anatomy, the tarsi ending in 2 hooks. They live in the and chemistry at Halle in 1694, and royal phytrunks of trees by day, flying abroad at night, sician at Berlin in 1716. Professing as a pieoften into houses, where their sharp and stag- tist a disdain for all learning, he was yet the like horns cause no little alarm; the females author of two theories prominent in the hisare smaller, with narrower head and much tory of science. In his Theoria Medica Vera shorter mandibles. They are also called horn (Halle, 1707; new ed. by Choulant, 3 vols., beetles and flying bulls. According to De Leipsic, 1831–'3; translated into German by Geer, they feed principally on the sweet juice Ideler, 3 vols., Berlin, 1832–3) he supposed spread over the leaves of the oak and exuding the existence of an anima or immaterial princion the bark, which they obtain by means of ple resident in the body, creating its organizathe brushes of the under jaws; they are said to tion, and governing all its processes with referseize caterpillars and soft-bodied insects, and ence to the final purpose of preserving life. to suck their juices; they are very strong, and Every corporeal movement, he said, is the can pinch the finger pretty hard, but do not product of a spiritual order. He invented also use their mandibles in this way unless pro- the phlogistic theory, which prevailed till the voked, and their punctures are not poisonous; time of Lavoisier, in development and defence they live only a short time in the perfect state, of which he published Zymotechnia Fundaperishing soon after laying their eggs in the mentalis (1697), Experimenta et Observationes crevices of bark near the roots of trees. The Chemicæ (1731), and numerous dissertations. larræ are large and fleshy grubs with very STAHL, Julius FRIEDRICH, a German statesthick body, arched, 13-ringed, and having a man and author, born in Munich, Jan. 16, 1802, brown scaly head armed with 2 strong jaws died at Brückenau, near Kissingen, Aug. 10, with which they gnaw wood, reducing it to a 1861. The name of his parents, who were coarse powder, and often doing much damage Jews, was Schlesinger, but he adopted the by boring into the trunks and roots of oaks name Stahl when in 1819 he was baptized into and beeches; there are 6 scaly feet, attached the Protestant church. He studied law, was to the first 3 rings; they are said to be 6 years appointed in 1827 Privatdocent in the faculty in coming to their growth, and by some are re- of law at Munich, in 1832 extraordinary progarded as the cossus of the Romans, a worm- fessor at Erlangen, and in the same year ordilike grab, according to Pliny, obtained from nary professor at Würzburg. In 1840 he acthe oak and considered delicious food, but not cepted a call to the university of Berlin. In coveted by modern epicures. The largest of 1848 he founded with Bethmann-Hollweg the the New England species is the L. capreolus German church diet, of which he was vice(Linn.), usually called horn bug; it is about 14 president until 1859, when a disagreement beinches long, without the mandibles, the latter tween the evangelical (low church) and the being sickle-shaped and toothed; the color high Lutheran parties, of which latter he was mahogany brown, smooth and polished. They the leader, led him to resign. In 1854 the appear in July and August. The larvæ are 3 king appointed him syndic of the crown, and a inches long when full grown, straw-colored, life member of the Herrenhaus (house of lords).

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He was also appointed in 1852 a member of thin, transparent white sheets like linen, and the supreme ecclesiastical council of the Prus- one in particular is called the “curtain” from sian state church, which position he retained the striking resemblance in its flexures to the until 1858, when he resigned. In politics he folds of a loose pendent sheet. Most of the opposed with great vigor and talent the spread grotesque figures in caves that give to these of democratic principles. His most important their chief interest, and suggest innumerable work is Philosophie des Rechts (2 vols., Heidel- strange resemblances, are due to the varying berg, 1830–'37), in which he develops his fa- forms of the groups of stalactites. In one mous theory of a “Christian state," which, place the pillars stand like trees in a grove; according to him, is to aid the church by the in another they suggest long colonnades and secular arm in extending the dominion of verandahs adorned with Gothic tracery; again Christianity, and in realizing its mission upon they hang over the edge of a precipitous wall, earth. In his work Die Kirchenverfassung, &c. resembling falling waters arrested in their (Erlangen, 1840), he declared himself in fa- course and turned into stone; and with every vor of an episcopal form of church govern- advancing step they present new and strange ment. In_1855 he had a controversy with varieties. They are white and translucent like Chevalier Bunsen, which, on account of the alabaster when the limestone that supplies their talent displayed on both sides, attracted gen- material is pure and white; but if this contain eral attention in literary circles. His last great impurities, these are also taken along and dework was Die Lutherische Kirche und die Union posited with the carbonate of lime. Thus are (Berlin, 1859).

produced the various colors frequently seen in STAHIR, ADOLF WILHELM THEODOR, a Ger- stalactites, and the concentric veins around man author, born in Prenzlau, Oct. 22, 1805. their central axis which are brought to view He was educated at Halle, and taught there in exposing a cross section by fracture. The till in 1836 he was invited to Oldenburg as common shapes of small stalactites are more professor in the gymnasium. He was chiefly like those of icicles, but in the interior the foroccupied with the history and criticism of mer are usually hollow for a foot or more from Aristotelianism, and published works thereon. the upper end. This results from the water An Italian journey furnished the subjects of before it falls first evaporating around the outer Ein Jahr in Italien (3 vols., Oldenburg, 1847- edge of the drop or collection of drops, and '50; 2d ed., 1853), and of a historical romance thus causing the deposit of a ring of stony matentitled Die Republikaner in Neapel (3 vols., ter. Down the outer side of this more water Berlin, 1849), characterized by a German critic gathers, continually adding new rings below, as a “poetical lava of rustic, martial, and rev- the cavity gradually contracting and finally olutionary scenes. He has also written other terminating in a point. The upper portion æsthetic and historical works. He married the gains in size by the partial evaporation of the authoress Fanny Lewald in 1854, and settled in water that flows down it, and thus the bluntBerlin.

ness of the cone is increased. In places where STAIR, Lord. See DALRYMPLE.

the wind sweeps through the caves the reguSTALACTITE (Gr.otalaçw, to drop, to drip), larity of the deposit is disturbed. and STALAGMITE (Gr. oradayuos, dripping, drop- STALLBAUM, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, a Gerping), concretions of limestone formed by the man scholar and educator, born at Zaasch, water that percolates through fissures in the Sept. 25, 1793. He was educated under Beck roofs of caves, carrying carbonate of lime in and Hermann at Leipsic, where he has been a solution, which is left behind as the water teacher since 1820, and extraordinary professor evaporates. The collections thus formed on in the university since 1840. He has published the roof itself and extending downward from a highly esteemed critical edition of Plato (12 it like icicles are called stalactites; those pro- vols., Leipsic, 1821–5), has edited several of duced by the drippings upon the floor, and the dialogues separately, and is the author. of which rise in the form of mounds toward the the introductions and annotations to Plato in roof, are called stalagmites. It is often the the Bibliotheca Græca (9 vols., Gotha, 1827 et case that the two meet and form pillars, and seq.). He has also edited Ruddiman's Institusometimes broad sheets when the dripping fol- tiones Grammatica Latina (2 vols., 1823), Euslows a fissure in the roof or seams of stratifica- tathius (5 vols., Leipsic, 1825–'30), and Terence tion. In parts of Weyer's cave in Virginia the (6 vols., 1830–'31); and he has written several stalactites may thus be seen in parallel rows treatises on education. starting along the lines that mark the divisions STAMEN, an essential organ in the infloresbetween the steeply inclined strata in the roof; cence of phænogamous plants. The stamen and in certain places lines of sheets are pro- consists normally of the filament and the anduced which reach from the roof to the floor. ther, and where the corolla is present the Some of them are so thin as to be translucent, stamens are situated immediately within it. and when struck produce a ringing sound. Morphologically the stamen is a modified leaf, The cave of Adelsberg in Carniola is famous for the filament being the midrib or petiole and the variety of its stalactitic forms, and among the anther the blade or lamina. The anther them are some remarkable examples of this is a closed receptacle secreting within itself a character. The stalactites are seen hanging in multitude of globules or grains of dust known


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as the pollen (see POLLEN), and which are em- under two heads, mental or psychical and physployed in the fecundation of the ovary. The ical. The first class are influenced favorably stamen is subject to many modifications, and is or unfavorably by whatever affects their menreducible in its simplest form to mere pollen tal state. Under the stimulus of pleasant or masses, as occurs in certain natural orders. joyful emotions, they experience little diffi

STAMFORD, a township and village of Fair- culty in conversation; under depressing influfield co., Conn., lying near the mouth of Mill ences, their utterance is seriously disturbed. river, 40 m. S. W. from New Haven, and 36 m. The physical stutterer is rendered worse by N. E. from New York; pop. in 1860, 7,185. unpleasant weather, great fatigue, vicious inThe New York and New Haven railroad trav- dulgence, and the excessive use of tobacco or erses the village and the S. part of the town- alcoholic drinks. Among the causes of stutship. There is a canal 180 rods long, 30 feet tering may be named abnormal excitability of wide, and 7 feet deep, from the village to the the nervous system, diffidence, fear, and other bay, between Greenwich and Shiphan points. kindred mental emotions; affections of the The township is drained by Mill and Miannus brain and spinal cord; and the involuntary rivers. It has considerable coasting trade, and imitation of chorea and ecstasy. Whatever large manufactories of iron ware, wire, boots tends to lessen the control of the individual and shoes, dye stuffs, coal oil, carriages, wool- over his muscles and nervous system will of len, and clothing. It is a favorite residence, course increase stuttering; and whatever deespecially in summer, of merchants and others velops the power of the will over the body will engaged in business in New York. The vil- lessen it. The number of bad stammerers is lage has a bank, a savings bank, a weekly news. estimated by Colombat at 1 in 5,000; but the paper, and 7 churches.

number who suffer in a greater or less degree STAMMERING, a torm generally applied to from defective utterance is certainly not less all kinds of defective utterance; a more ex- than 1 in 500. Only about of these are feset use of language would, however, restrict males.—The proper treatment of either stutterit to the organic or symptomatic defects, in ing or stammering is indicated by the cause distinction from stuttering, which is properly which induces it. In the case of the staman idiopathic or functional difficulty. Both merer there should be a thorough investigation stammering and stuttering may nevertheless be for an organic cause, which if possible should treated under the common title. The causes be removed. Hence, the clipping of the uvula, which lead to stammering are usually, though the removal of a portion of the tonsils, or the not always, organic; harelip, cleft palate, elon- excision of a wedge-shaped piece from a tongue gation of the uvula, enlargement of the ton- too large for the mouth, the use of electrical sils, a deficiency or unusual position of the or other remedies for the cure of paralysis, the teeth, tumors of the tongue or cavity of the cauterization of ulcers in the mouth, the remoath, and inflammation or ulceration of the moval of irregular or the insertion of false parotid glands, are the most frequent of these teeth, and the administration of tonics for decanses. Where the defect results from func- bility, have each resulted in the cure of cases tional disturbance, its principal causes are of stammering; but no one of these will angeneral debility, paralysis either local or gen- swer for all or perhaps a majority of cases. In eral, tetanic or other spasms; a rheumatic or stuttering also, the cause, when ascertained, neuralgic affection of the muscles of the face, will indicate to some extent the method of jaw, tongue, lips, &c., or of the vocal cords; cure. Temperance and abstinence from indulà condition of intoxication ; chorea; or in gences which affect the nervous system are of some cases a habitual imitation of stammering. course necessary. The muscles must be eduStuttering, on the contrary, is seldom or never cated to uniform obedience to the will, and organic. The stutterer is often in perfect health, the will trained to steady and intelligent conand the vocal organs are not in any way dis- trol over the muscles and nerves. A course eased or deformed. His difficulty consists in of lessons in enunciation, by a capable teacher, the momentary inability to pronounce certain will often effect a complete cure. In the case words or syllables. The stoppage of sound of the stupid or volatile, this training must be asually takes place at the first syllable, though long continued, if it is to effect any permanent oecasionally at the second or third. Words improvement. The various remedies which beginning with k, t, I, d, p, b, or m, usually have been proposed, most of which have had give the stutterer the most trouble, because a temporary but none a general and permanent they require the closing of the lips or the press success, would form an interesting chapter in ing of the tongue against the roof of the mouth the history of charlatanism. Dr. J. M. Warren for their enunciation, and an immediate re- of Boston lays down the rules that treatment opening for the vowel which follows; while he for impediments of speech should be comkeeps the lips closed, and compresses the cav- menced between the ages of 8 and 12; and that ity of the mouth in the attempt to force out "little permanent advantage will be gained, in the sound. Most stutterers can sing without the majority of cases, unless the treatment be difficolty, the action of the vocal organs being resolutely persevered in for one or two years." much less frequently interrupted in singing STAMP ACTS, laws for the raising of revthan in speaking. Stutterers may be classed enue by requiring the use of paper or parchment


bearing a government stamp for various legal rily, the number of the documents required to and other purposes. Such laws were introduced give validity to a transaction; and questions into England, in the reign of William and Mary, of this kind are frequently before the courts. from Holland, and from that time to the pres- Thus, if the terms of a stamped agreement are ent have multiplied, until now all or nearly all varied, there must be a new stamp; and an legal or commercial instruments are embraced affidavit used in one stage of a suit, if offered within their requirements, as well as many for use in a later stage, must be restamped. things which cannot be thus described; as When the instrument may lawfully be stamped newspapers, legacies (by means of stamped re- after it is executed, sufficient time is allowed ; ceipts), and admission to practice as a phy- 21 days, for example, in an agreement not unsician, advocate, barrister, or attorney. So no- der seal. If a stamped instrument is lost, or taries public, bankers, pawnbrokers, and others withheld by an opposing party, an unstamped must pay for a yearly license, which is given copy may be used in evidence. So a witness them on stamped paper or parchment. The may use an unstamped receipt or other instruprovisions of these acts have varied very much ment to refresh his memory. If stamps are from time to time. When the government stood spoiled so that they cannot be used, they may in especial need of money, they were extended be returned to the office, and will be paid for, more widely, and the revenue from them in- in the absence of all fraud. While the acts, creased. At present these acts are milder than and the courts in their construction and appliformerly; but it is scarcely possible at this day cation of them, aim at effectually preventing 'to pursue any business, or enter into transac- all fraud upon the revenue, they endeavor, so tions, in England, without paying a tax to the far as this is consistent with the safety of the government through a stamp. It is impossible revenue, to prevent fraud or injustice from the to give here even a selection of the principal accidental and unintentional violation of the matters requiring stamps, and still less to enu- stamp acts. For this purpose many instrumerate them, the list in the recent consolidated ments erroneously believed to be properly acts covering more than 100 pages. The low- stamped, or accidentally prevented from being est amount noticed is one penny for a receipt of so, may be subsequently stamped and thus acmoney over £2, and the highest is £22,500 on quire legal validity. Our readers will not forletters of administration on £1,000,000 proper- get that the endeavor of England to impose ty. The rate per centum varies considerably, stamp duties upon her transatlantic colonies in being as a rule highest on the larger sums, but 1765, was among the efficient causes of the seems to be, in general, from less than one quar- revolution which resulted in their indepenter of one per cent. to one per cent. The stamps dence.—Stamp acts, or analogous enactments, are impressions made upon paper by the proper are widely used on the continent of Europe. officers of government. If the instrument be In some countries, as in France, stamps appear written on parchment, the impression is at- to be used as well for the authentication of legal tached to it. In a great number of cases, the documents as for the purpose of revenue; and instruments in blank and already stamped are it is said that an important part of the income bought at the stamp offices. In others, the of the city of Paris is derived from this source. instrument when properly prepared is brought - This indirect method of raising a revenue to the office and stamped. The impression al- has been much and earnestly discussed, and ways states the price of the stamp, and some- there are, of course, conflicting opinions as to times the character or purpose of the document. its propriety or utility. It seems however to It is obvious that such impressions may be easily be too firmly established to be shaken. They forged, and it is said that they have been to a who favor it generally rest their approval on the considerable extent. To prevent it, this forge- following grounds. It is easily collected, at small ry was made a capital offence by the act of cost. It cannot be evaded without great diffiWilliam and Mary, and remained so until culty, and not to any great extent. By a careful about 30 years ago, when the punishment of discrimination it may be made to lay upon all death was changed to that of transportation. business transactions an equal or proportional An escape from the requirements of the acts burden. This burden is borne by none but those is easily and certainly prevented by the pro- who profit by the transactions upon which it vision that no document which needs a stamp rests; and while a poll tax must necessarily and is without one can be offered in evidence bear no proportion to the payer's means, and a or has any legal force whatever. And while property or income tax is always open to evathe courts, regarding the stamp acts as penal sion or fraud to a great extent, and an excise instruments, apply to them the common rule on manufactured articles is very often cumof a strict interpretation against the act, they brous, expensive, and inconvenient, the imseem nevertheless to oppose and prevent the post levied by means of the stamp acts serves admission or use of any instrument so con- to produce a large revenue with a great imstructed as to evade payment of the duty; and partiality, and a less cost and embarrassment the acts generally impose a penalty upon any than perhaps any other form of taxation now evasion of their provisions.- As it is the practised by civilized nations. The produce of purpose of the acts to raise a revenue in this stamp duties in Great Britain for 1860 was way, they have multiplied, perhaps unnecessa- £8,285,257 148. 4d.

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