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quished, as to the propriety of entering the Gen. Pinckney in the Carolinas, and the same church merely for support, were readily si- year succeeded Col. Jonathan Williams in the lenced. “But having put the cassock on," command of the U. S. corps of engineers, with says Thackeray, “it poisoned him; he was the rank of colonel. For meritorious serstrangled in its bands. He goes through life vices in the campaigns of 1813 and 1814 on tearing like a man possessed with a devil ;" the St. Lawrence river, and in defence of the and to the consciousness of the false part he city and harbor of New York, he was brevetwas enacting and of the sordid motive which ted as brigadier-general, and honored by speguided his literary labors, may doubtless be cial marks of distinction from the city auascribed much of the suffering of the man thorities. After the war he was for several who was accustomed to observe the anniver- years successively director, superintendent, and sary of his birth as a day of mourning, and inspector of the military academy, still holding whom Archbishop King once called " the most his commission as chief engineer of the army unhappy on earth.” He is preēminently the until 1818, when, with a number of other offiBritish satirist of his age, reflecting in all his cers of the corps, he left the service on the apwritings what Masson calls “the mad, the ob- pointment by the president of a distinguished scene, the ghastly, the all but infernal and yet French officer, Gen. Bernard, to the charge of infinitely sorrowful humor" of Rabelais, with investigating and modifying the coast defences. a genius peculiarly his own. Of real elevation' Gen, Swift was afterward surveyor of the port or sympathy with what is beautiful or sublime of New York for 9 years, then civil engineer of he seems to have been utterly destitute, and the Baltimore and Susquehanna railroad, and his poetry, written principally in the octo- from 1829 to 1845, under appointment from syllabic verse cultivated by Prior and Gay, President Jackson, superintendent of the harthough remarkable for ease and felicity of ex- bor improvements on the lakes, removing to pression and rhyme, as also for its peculiar and Geneva, N. Y., where he has since resided. In inimitable humor, is frequently coarse and in- the winter of 1830–31 he constructed the raildecent beyond that of any other writer of the road from New Orleans to Lake Pontchartime, the author apparently dwelling with a train, through what was considered an unmorbid pleasure upon images of pure

physical fathomable swamp, susceptible of neither draindisgust and loathsomeness. It is but just how. ing nor piling. This, it is believed, was the first ever to add that his grossness is always repul- railroad in the United States provided with an sive, not seductive; and that the most offensive iron T rail. It was constructed of massive frames pieces were written at a period of his life when of cypress logs obtained in clearing the way disease and despair had begun to obscure his through the swamp, and laid upon a filling of the mental faculties.—Some posthumous works of tertiary fossil shells from the mounds composed Swift were published long after his death, in- of these materials discovered in the swamps. cluding " A History of the four last Years of These shells, thus brought into use, were afQueen Anne;" “Polite Conversation,” a satire terward applied, by the advice of Gen. Swift, on the frivolities of fashionable life; and “Di- to the construction of the well known “shell rections for Servants.” A complete edition road” to Lake Pontchartrain, and to the comof his writings was published in 19 vols. by Sir pletion of the streets in New Orleans. In 1838 Walter Scott, whose biography of him is still Gen. Swift was chief engineer of the Harlem the standard one. That by Dr. Johnson, in his railroad in New York. In 1841 he was sent "Lives of the Poets,” reflects too closely the by President Harrison on an embassy of peace dislike which the biographer always entertained to the governors of Canada, New Brunswick, for Swift. There is also a copious life by and Nova Scotia. In 1851 and 1852, with his Thomas Sheridan, and an account of his latter son McRay Swift, C.E., he made the tour of years by Dr. Wilde of Dublin, written on the Europe, and recorded his observations in his occasion of the remains of Swift and Stella diary, a work kept from his boyhood, and in being exhumed, during some repairs in St. which is a complete history of the military Patrick's cathedral, in 1835. The character academy at West Point, together with the of Swift is also the subject of an elaborate and biography of President Madison and other in some respects unnecessarily severe essay by eminent public men, and essays upon scientific Thackeray, included in his “British Humorists." and literary subjects. He has contributed

SWIFT, JOSEPH GARDNER, an American gen- many valuable papers to scientific journals on eral and civil and military engineer, born in the exact and natural sciences and their pracNantucket, Mass., Dec. 31, 1783. In 1800 he tical applications. Of his sons two have died entered the army as a cadet at Newport, R. I., in the service of their country, one as civil enand in 1802 became the first graduate of the gineer, from exposure; and the other, a dismilitary academy at West Point. He was then tinguished officer of the U. S. engineers, died made 2d lieutenant in the U. S. corps of mili- in Mexico during the war. Another son, Jonatary engineers, and in 1807, having attained than Williams, an officer in the U. S. naval the rank of captain of engineers, he was ap- service, was crippled for life on board the frigpointed to the command of West Point. In ate Brandywine. 1812 he had reached the rank of lieutenant- SWIFT, ZEPHANIAH, an American judge, colonel, and was made aide-de-camp to Major- born in Wareham, Mass., in Feb. 1759, died in

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Warren, O., Oct. 27, 1823. He was graduated sequence. Franklin's directions were, that the at Yale college in 1778, and established himself learner should take with him an egg or large in the practice of law at Windham, Conn.; was white pebble, and, wading out till the water a member of congress from 1793 to 1796 ; was was full breast high, face about, and toss the secretary of the mission to France in 1800; egg or pebble into the water between himself and in 1801 he was elected a judge, and from and the shore, yet where it is so deep that he 1806 to 1819 was chief justice of the state. In can only reach it by diving, and then plunge 1814 he was a member of the Hartford con- after it; in so doing he will find himself buoyed vention. He published a “Digest of the Law up by the water, and learn, in struggling to of Evidence," and a “ Treatise on Bills of Ex- reach it, that it is easier for the human body to change” (1810); and a “Digest of the Laws of swim than to sink. By Gen. Pfuel's method Connecticut” (2 vols., 1823).

a swimming girdle of hemp, about 5 inches SWIMMING, the art of sustaining the body wide, was passed loosely around the chest, just at the surface of the water, and moving in it, under the arms, and to the back of this a ring by the aid of the hands or feet, or both acting was attached in which was tied a rope 5 or 6 in unison. Although not a natural faculty of fathoms in length which could be fastened at man, there is little difficulty in acquiring the will to a pole 8 feet long. The swimming bath art of swimming, since the human body, ex- or place was to have about 8 feet depth of cept in the case of persons remarkably spare water, and a rail 4 feet in height above the and lean, is specifically lighter than salt water, water protected the platform. From this rail the and hardly perceptibly heavier than fresh wa- learner was required to leap, the teacher holdter. As to methods, the frog is the best model. ing the rope firmly; when in the water, being The body being inclined at an angle of 45°, sustained by the rope, now attached to the pole, the breast downward, the head thrown back, the legs and arms stretched out and held firmly the elbows close to the chest, the arms flexed, together, the chin touching the water, he was the palms downward, and the thumbs brought directed to assume the position above described together near the chin, the knees drawn up at the call of the teacher, “One” being the signal but spread apart, and the soles of the feet di- for placing the legs in position, “Two" for the rected outward and made hollowing by the extension of the legs at the widest possible ancontraction of the toes, the first movement is gle, the toes being still contracted and kept outthe simultaneous one of the hands and feet, the wards, and "Three" for the return to the origiformer with the palms still downward describ- nal position. The learner was exercised in these ing a horizontal curve of from ; to of a circle, positions till he could perform them promptly while the latter are thrown vigorously back- and rapidly, and was then trained in the motions ward and outward, so that the inner surface of the hands and arms, and subsequently in the of the leg and thigh, as in the case of the frog, union of the two; he was next allowed to swim, shall offer its resistance to the water. Swim- feeling less and less the support of the rope, ming on the back varies very slightly from this till it could be cast loose with safety. In most in the muscular motions required, though the cases a training of one or two lessons daily for position of the swimmer is more nearly hori- 2 or 3 weeks suffices to enable the learner to zontal, and the hands need not play so impor- swim for a half hour without much fatigne, tant a part; it is possible to swim a long time and practice is then only necessary to perfect with the use of the feet only, but not so long him.-In leaping or diving the swimmer must with the hands alone, in case of the loss or keep the muscles firm and the limbs straight paralysis of one of the legs. “Treading water,” and stiff, as to strike the water first with the or swimming in a nearly perpendicular posi- abdomen, side, or back may be attended with tion, by a moderate motion of the feet and a serious consequences. In attempting to save : slow spreading of the hands, is a method fre- person from drowning, the swimmer should quently resorted to by good swimmers as a re- not allow the drowning person to seize one of lief from the other modes. In order to float on his limbs, or to clasp him in his arms, as he will the back, the swimmer turns himself, and suf-' not only be unable to save him, but will himfers the back of the head to be submerged, the self inevitably be drowned; he should approach mouth and nose only being above water; the him from behind, and if he sinks pull him up hands are extended, and the legs partially by his hair, or raise him by placing the hands flexed, and spread so as to atford the greatest under the arm pits; if he is an exhausted swimpossible floating surface. In a calm sea, a per- mer, he may be supported by placing his hand son may thus lie on the surface for hours, with- on the shoulder of the swimmer who wonld out danger of drowning.- Various plans have save him.-An illustrated treatise on swimming, been suggested to communicate confidence and with full directions for learners, may be found self-possession to the learner. Corks, swimming in Walker's “Manly Exercises” (11th ed., Lonbladders, and life preservers of tin, India rubber, don, 1860). &c., have been used extensively. Dr. Franklin's SWINE. See Hog. and Gen. Pfuel's methods are perhaps the best, SWITZERLAND, a S. E. co. of Indiana, bor. the one to inspire confidence, and the other to dering on Kentucky, from which it is separated acquire, with a feeling of perfect safety, the by the Ohio river; area, 220 sq. m.; pop, in muscular movements in their regular order and 1860, 12,698. The surface is undulating and

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the soil fertile. The productions in 1850 were and W. by France, and nearly the entire boun401,884 bushels of Indian eorn, 78,169 of wheat, dary line is formed by rivers (the Rhine and 44,455 of oats, and 9,769 tons of hay. There Doubs), lakes (of Constance and Geneva), and were 8 grist mills, 12 saw mills, 4 tanneries, 27 mountains (the Alps and Jura). In its greatest churches, and 3,541 pupils attending public length, which is near the parallel of 46° 35' schools. It was settled by Swiss in 1802. N., it measures 216 m.; in its greatest breadth, Capital, Vevay.

a little W. of the meridian of 9° E., 140 m. SWITZERLAND (Lat. Helvetia ; Ger. In 1862 Switzerland consisted of 22 cantons, Schweiz; Fr. La Suisse), a federal republic of or, as 3 cantons, Unterwalden, Appenzell, and central Europe, situated between lat. 45° 50' Basel, are divided into 2 independent half canand 47° 50' N., and long. 6° and 10° 25' E. It tons each, of 25 states, the area and population is bounded N. and E. by Germany, s. by Italy, of which are exhibited in the following table:


Area, nq. in. Pop. in 1850. Pop. in 1860.






250,698 267,641 11,497 254,908 Zürich. Bern

2,615 458,301 468,516 63,572 406,862 Bern. Lucerne.

502 182,543 180,965 128,248 2,697 Lucerne. Uri... 418 14,505 14,761 14,722

89 Altorf. Behwytz 358 44,165 45,191 44,649

039 Schwytz. Unterwalden Obwalden 186 18,799 13,899 13,804

95 Sarnen. Unterwalden Nidwalden. 112 11,339 11,561 11,506

55 Stanz. Glarus

265 80,213 33,459 5,566 27,563 Glarus. Zog 91 17,461 19,667 19,035

622 Zug. Freyburg or Fribourg.

632 99,891 105,970 90,862 15,578 Freyburg. Soleure or Solothurn. 292 69,674 69,527 69,799 9,626

Soleure. Basel City..

15 29,698 41,251 9,996 80,826 Basel. Basel Country..

166 47,885 51,773 9,824 41,721 Liesthal. Schaffhausen..

118 85,800 85,646 2,080 83,489 Schaffhausen. Appenzell Outer Rhodes.

102 43,621 48,604 2.243 46,329 Herisau and Trogen (alternately). Appenzell Inner Rhodes.. 61 11,272 12,020 11,896

123 Appenzell. SL Gall..

781 169,625 181,091 111,087 69,802 St. Gall. Grisons or Graubündten

2,705 89,595 91,177 29,003 52,166 Chur or Coire. Aargau or Argovie..

538 199,852 194,600 88,683 104,885 Aarau. Thurgau or Thurgorie.

331 88.90S 90,847 22,152 67,861 Frauenfeld. Ticino or Tessin...

1,082 117,759 181,896 131,241 113 Lugano. Vand

1,226 199,575 218,606 12,931 199,465 Lausanne. Valais. 2,019 81,559 90,580 90.169

697 Sion or Sitten. Neufchâtel.

809 70,753 87,847 9.349 77,476 Neufchâtel. Geneva

111 64,146 88,345 42,855 40,266 Geneva. Total...

15,747 2,392,740 | 2.534,240 | 1,040,469 | 1,483,298 The statement of the area of the several can- mated by Kolb (Handbuch der vergleichenden tons rests on the trigonometrical calculations Statistik, 1860) as follows: German, 1,750,000; recently made under the direction of Gen. Du- French, 550,000; Italian, 130,000; Romansh, four; but that of the cantons of Bern, Uri, 45,000.-Switzerland is one of the most reLucerne, and Unterwalden is based upon an markable countries of the globe for its magniapproximative estimate. The population has ficent and picturesque scenery. It is the most increased since 1816 about 50 per cent., more mountainous district of Europe, and, with the slowly than that of the United States and Great Tyrol and Savoy, the most elevated. Even the Britain, but in a larger ratio than that of France. most level part in the N. presents mountains Geneva, Basel, and Neufchâtel have increased rising upward of 2,000 feet. It is covered nearly 100 per cent. ; Lucerne and Bern more throughout its whole extent by the Alps, of than 50; Zürich nearly 50; while Uri, Appen- which the 3 following groups, with their varizell, Unterwalden, and Schaffhausen have re- ous offshoots, belong properly to Switzerland : mained nearly stationary. Since 1850 Lucerne, 1, the Helvetian or Lepontine Alps, which, comObwalden, Soleure, and Aargau show a small mencing near Monte Rosa, run through Valais decrease. In 1850 there were 92 towns, 63 on both sides of the Rhône, by St. Gothard, hamlets, and 6,800 villages. The population to the Moschelhorn and the Bernhardino in of the towns was 492,600; the largest are Ge- the Grisons, and separate Switzerland from neva, Bern, Basel, and Zürich. The difference Lombardy ; 2, the Rhætian Alps, which run of language still existing points to the differ from the Bernhardino through the whole of ence of origin of the inhabitants of the several the Grisons and the Tyrol, and southward to cantons. The N., N. E., and central cantons Monte Pelegrino; 3, the Pennine Alps, which speak a German dialect; the French prevails border upon Valais, and separate that canton in the cantons of Vaud, Geneva, and Neufchâ- from Savoy and Piedmont. As to their height tel, and in a part of the cantons of Valais, the Alps are generally divided into the High Freyburg, and Bern; the Italian in the canton Alps, rising from 8,000 to 15,000 feet above the of Ticino and in a part of Grisons; and the level of the sea, and covered with perpetual Romansh, & corrupted dialect of the Latin, snow and ice; the Middle Alps, beginning at which has been supposed to come near the about 5,500 feet above the sea, and rising to colloquial dialect alleged to have been in use the line of perpetual congelation; and the Low among the Romans, in a part of Grisons. The Alps, commencing with an elevation of about population speaking these 4 languages is esti- 2,000 feet. The principal Alpine summits are

VOL. XV.-16

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Monte Rosa in Valais, 15,150 feet; the Mutter- number, and among them many famous as wahorn in Valais, 14,784; the Finsteraarhorn in tering places. The most celebrated are Leuk Bern, 14,106; the peak of the Furca, Mt. St. (Valais), St. Maurice in the valley of Engadin Gothard, 14,037; the Jungfrau in Bern, 13,718; (Grisons), Pfeffers (St. Gall), Baden (Aargau), the Mönchhorn in Bern, 13,498; the Schreck- and Schinznach (Aargau).—To the tourist horn in Bern, 13,386; and the Eiger in Bern, Switzerland presents a great abundance of nat13,075. Beside these, there are 4 summits ural curiosities. There are many points of view ranging from 13,000 to 12,000; 8 from 12,000 whence the semi-circular array of Alpine peaks, to 11,000; 9 from 11,000 to 10,000; and 19 presented at once to the eye, extends for more from 10,000 to 6,400. To the west of the Alps, than 120 m., and comprises between 200 and along the boundaries of France, runs a ridge 300 distinct summits, capped with snow, or of the Jura mountains lower than the Alps, bristling with bare rocks. Of the heights combut presenting many picturesque points of manding such Alpine panoramas the Righi is scenery and beautiful valleys. The Jura is probably the finest, as it is certainly one of the united with the Alps by the Jorat, which runs most accessible; some give preference to the through the canton of Vaud. The glaciers of Faulhorn, from its proximity to the great chain, Switzerland are the reservoirs which feed some and the High Alps rising close at hand are seen of the largest rivers of western Europe. The from it to great advantage. For a near view Rhine and Rhône rise in Switzerland. The of Alpine scenery, amid the recesses of the former has its 3 sources, the Upper, Middle, mountains, the spots which afford a concentraand Further Rhine, in the Rhætian Alps, and tion of the grandest and most sublime objects pursues in Switzerland or on its E. and N. are the valleys of the Bernese Oberland, those borders a course of above 200 m. Among its which descend from the Monte Rosa, especially affluents is the Aar, which rises in the S. E. the valleys of Zermatt in Valais and Macumountains of Bern, receives the Simmen, Saane, gnaga in Piedmont, and those around the base Emmen, Reuss, and Limmat, and carries to the of Mont Blanc, including Chamouni in Savoy. Rhine the waters of 14 cantons. The Rhône, In these districts, the glaciers, the most characwhich rises in a glacier of the Furca, receives teristic feature of the country, are seen to the the Visp, Borgne, and Dranse, and after quit- greatest advantage. Switzerland has numerting the canton of Geneva becomes a French ous waterfalls. The fall of the Rhine deserves river. The Ticino flows through the canton to the first rank from the volume of water; bat which it has given its name, and passes through it is rather a cataract than a cascade, as it Lago Maggiore into Italy; and the Inn waters wants height. Other celebrated falls are: the a part of the canton of Grisons. Switzerland fall of the Aar, at Handeck, Bern; the Staubcontains a considerable number of lakes, the bach or Dust fall, in the Bernese Oberland ; most important of which are the lake of Gene- the Giesbach, on the lake of Brienz; the fall va, the ancient Lemanus, and those of Con- of the Sallenche, near Martigny, Valais, somestance, Neufchâtel, Bienne, Lucerne, Zürich, times called Pissevache; Reichenbach falls Zug, and Sarnen; and S. of the Alps the lake of near Meyringen ; the fall of Pianazzo on the Lugano and the Lago Maggiore. Most of these Splügen, Grisons; and the Tourtemagne fall, lakes are traversed by steamboats. The more near the Simplon road, in Valais. The princimarked geological features of Switzerland have pal and most interesting of the Swiss Alpine been noticed in the articles Alps and Jura; passes are the Simplon, the St. Gothard, the and the glacial phenomena of the former moun- Splügen, and the Bernardin, both as regards tains, which have been most carefully studied, their scenery and the magnificent and skilfully and which throw so much light upon the dy- constructed carriage roads which have been namics of geology, have been specially treated made over them. Of passes not traversed by in the article Glacier. No country possesses carriage roads, the most striking in point of greater interest for geologists than Switzerland, scenery are those of the Monte Moro and Cerwhose formations are exhibited upon the grand- vin under Monte Rosa, between the Valais and est scale, and reveal in the most striking man- Piedmont; the Tête Noire and Col de Balme, ner the metamorphism to which rocks are leading to Chamouni; the Grimsel, Furca, and subject, converting strata of comparatively re- Gries, branching off at the head of the valley cent formation into schistose and crystalline of the Rhône; the Gemmi, between Bern and rocks; but its mineral resources are of no great Valais, one of the most singular of the passes; importance. Its iron mines produce from and the Great St. Bernard, chiefly visited on 10,000 to 15,000 tons annually; its lead mines account of its celebrated hospice. Of the Al500 tons; and its copper mines about 250 tons. pine defiles no other approaches the ravine of Anthracite of inferior quality is found in sev: the Via Mala, on the Upper Rhine in Grisons, eral places, as Outre-Rhône, Salvaut, and Isé- one of the most sublime and terrific scenes rable, in Valais, &c. The salt mines near Basel anywhere among the Alps. The gorge of the yield about 11,000 tons annually, and those at Schöllenen on the St. Gothard, that of Gondo Bex (Vaud) 2,000 tons. Gypsum is found with on the Simplon, and that extraordinary glen the salt. The other mineral products are of in whose depths the baths of Pfeffers are sunk, little importance, with the exception of the also deserve mention. The Ranz des Vaches mineral springs, of which there are a large (Ger. Kuhreihen) are a class of melodies pre




Coal and coke..
Raw cotton.



Failing among and peculiar to the Alpine val- was set down at $90,000,000, and of the doleys. Almost every valley has an air of its mestic trade at $135,000,000. It increased own, but the original air is said to be that of rapidly until 1858, since which it has decreased Appenzell.—The climate is more severe than somewhat, though not probably below the might be expected from the geographical posi- value in 1855. Most of the duties being spetion of Switzerland. On the highest summits cific, it is easier to state the quantity of the snow and ice are perpetual. In the lower articles imported or exported than their values. mountains and on the table land snow falls The rapid increase of the quantity of breadin greater abundance than in other countries stuffs and coal imported into Switzerland gives of the same latitude in Europe. In Valais the ample proof of the development of its industry fig and grape ripen at the foot of ice-clad moun- and the prosperity of its population. In 1856 tains, while near their summits the rhododen- there were imported only 480,605 cwt. of coal, dron and the lichen grow at the limit of the but in 1860 no less than 2,270,975 cwt. Of snow line. The canton of Ticino has the climate breadstuffs (grain, flour, rice) the importation of Italy, yet the weather is more changeable. increased from 2,342,191 cwt. in 1850 to 3,717,Switzerland is on the whole a very healthy 770 cwt. in 1860; of potatoes, from 81,870 cwt. country, with the exception of a few places in in 1858 to 377,825 cwt. in 1860. The followswampy or very narrow and deep valleys. In ing statement shows the quantities of the printhe middle ages the country of the Jura suf- cipal articles of import and export during the fered much from earthquakes, which have en years 1859 and 1860: tirely ceased for several centuries; but floods,

IMPORTS. avalanches, and snow storms still threaten thé inhabitants with frequent dangers. About two

Breadstuffs....... thirds of the surface consists of lakes and other

2,706,070 3,717, 770 Potatoes..

104,940 877,825 waters, glaciers, naked rocks, and other unin

1,561,305 2,270,975 habitable heights. Some districts are very

254,404 882,041 Cotton yarn and twist..

6,056 7,474 fruitful, yet the grain raised is not sufficient for

Cotton goods..

44,636 88,933 the supply of the population. The vine is cul- Distilled liquors..

78,089 88,840 Butter and lard

27,848 84,785 tivated on the slopes of the Jura and in the


52,294 65,215 valleys of the Rhine, Rhône, Reuss, Limmat, Pig and sheet iron, wire, &c.. 298,438 849,878 and Thur (an affluent of the Rhine), and in

Cast iron, steel, and hardware. 110,678 127,889


34,768 some places ripens at 2,100 feet above the sea.

141,859 180,060 Flax and hemp are extensively grown. Irri- Salt..

258,852 Silk, raw and floss...

83,884 85,929 gation is judiciously managed, and in general Tobacco ...

100,141 106,187 agriculture is making progress. The forests Worsted and woollen goods..

88,806 42,813

786,204 cover about 17 per cent. of the soil, and al

575,407 Sugar and molasses..

219,255 205,851 though their cultivation is yet imperfect, the

EXPORTS. production of timber exceeds the home consumption. Fishing still yields considerable produce, but hunting is no longer practised to

Cotton yarn and twist...

21,618 25,962 the same extent as formerly; the chamois has Cotton goods...

147,638 165,991 become rare, and the ibex is no more found.

15,710 16,114 Switzerland is celebrated for its rich and ex

Iron, steel, and hardware..

81,931 Breadstuffs and peas.

27,582 28,213 cellent pastures; the finest breeds of cattle are Wooden ware and furniture.

9,857 11,481 those of the Simmenthal (Bern), Gessenay, Machines and parts of machinery

140,592 146,789

68,967 Gruyère (Freyburg), Zug, and Schwytz. There silk and mixed silk goods.. 82,188 28,784 are about 900,000 horned cattle, about one

Raw and floss silk..


10,768 Watches....

2,188 fourth of which are milch cows, 105,000 hor


8,989 9,047 SES, 469,000 sheep, 347,000 goats, and 318,000 Straw goods....

8,566 4,228 Worsted and woollen goods..

2,214 8,175 swine. The sheep and swine do not supply the home demand. The best cheese is made in The total revenue from customs in 1859 was the Emmenthal, Saanenthal, and Simmenthal, $1,480,821, and in 1860 $1,553,185, of which in Gruyère and Urseren (Uri), and in the val- sum the current expenses of the customs departleys of the Emmen, Saane, and Simmen.--East- ment take 11 per cent., and $500,000 is distribern Switzerland has been for more than 150 uted among the different cantons to indemnify years the seat of flourishing manufactories. To them for their former customs revenues, leaving a smaller degree manufacturing industry pros- about $800,000 to the federal treasury. The pers in the W. and N. cantons. The chief seats aggregate length of all chartered railroad lines, of the cotton manufacture are Appenzell and Jan. 1, 1860, was 358 leagues. Of these there St. Gall; silks are woven in Zürich and Basel, were in operation 197 leagues, in course of and linens at Bern. Of great importance is construction 62, not yet commenced 99. The the manufacture of watches in the W. cantons, most important lines are: united Swiss railand they constitute an important article of road, 66 leagues; central railroad, 54; northexport. The commerce of Switzerland stands éast, 37; western, 37; eastern and western, in fair proportion to its well developed indus- 36; Italian, 33; Lukmanier, 26; Freyburg and try. The value of the foreign trade in 1855 Lausanne, 17 leagues. The aggregate length





Raw cotton..





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