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of electric telegraph, Jan. 1, 1861, was 601 reduced during the present century, yet it still leagues, the number of stations 145, and the amounts to over 100. The Protestants belong total number of telegrams, not including those mostly to the Reformed church, which is conpassing through Swiss territory from foreign sidered the state church in all the cantons excountries, was 259,849 in 1859 and 276,963 in cept Lucerne, Uri, Schwytz, Unterwalden, Zug, 1860. The revenue was $117,723 in the former Freyburg, Soleure, Valais, and Ticino, which year, and $97,657 in the latter; the expendi- have but an insignificant Protestant populature $100,993 in 1859, and $87,971 in 1860.- tion. Since 1857 deputies of the Reformed Switzerland has 3 universities, at Basel, Bern, cantonal churches meet annually in a Helvetic and Zürich, the 2 latter of which were founded conference. Faculties of Protestant theology in the present century after German models. are connected with the universities of Bern, There are also 2 academies, at Geneva and Zürich, and Basel, and there are also several Lausanne, at which theology, law, and philoso- theological schools in French Switzerland. phy are taught; and 8 lyceums, at Sion, Ein- Basel is the seat of the greatest missionary and siedeln, Schaffhausen, Lugano, Chur, Lucerne, Bible society of continental Europe, while the Freyburg, and Soleure, each having faculties religious societies of French Switzerland have of theology and philosophy, and some also of their centre in Geneva. Free churches (Preslaw. All the universities and academies are byterian or Independent) have been formed Protestant, and all the lyceums except that at during the present century by secession from Schaffhausen are Roman Catholic institutions. the state churches, and are especially numerThere are gymnasia and cantonal schools in ous in the cantons of Geneva and Vaud, in each nearly every canton. The new federal consti- of which they have also a theological school. tution of 1848 provided for the establishment The Methodists and Baptists have congregations of a federal university (the 3 above mentioned in several cantons, and the former also a book being cantonal institutions), and a committee concern at Zürich. In 1860 the number of appointed for drafting a plan submitted its re- Jews, who live mostly in a few communities of port in 1851 to the federal diet; but the con- the canton of Aargau, was about 300. The numflicting claims of several cantons as to the loca- ber of periodicals published in Switzerland at tion of the university, and of the Reformed the close of 1860 was precisely 300, of which and Roman Catholic churches as to its organi- 9 were published daily, 28 6 times a week, 20 zation, have hitherto prevented the execution 3 times a week, 56 semi-weekly, 117 weekly, of the plan. A federal polytechnic shool was, 21 twice a month, and the remainder monthly. however, founded in 1854 at Zürich, and soon The total number was increased in 1861 to 318, attained a high degree of prosperity and celeb- of which 210 were in German, 78 in French, 9 rity. The number of public schools amounts to in Italian, and 3 in Romansh. The proportion about 5,500, educating upward of 350,000 pu- of periodicals to the population is 1 to 7,976, pils. The expenses of public instruction are while in France it is only 1 to 26,400. In 1 partly paid by the communities (about 4,500,000 years, from 1853 to 1860, the aggregate number francs), partly by special school funds, and partly of copies of periodicals issued in Switzerland by appropriations of the cantonal governments increased from 9,484,000 to 16,600,000.—The (about 900,000 francs). Many private educa- present federal constitution of Switzerland, tional institutions have gained a world-wide which superseded the federal contract of Aug. celebrity since the days of Pestalozzi and Fel- 7, 1815, and changed the federal union of states lenberg, who conducted establishments of this into a federal republic, was promulgated Sept. kind at Yverdun (Vaud) and Hofwyl (Bern). 12, 1848. It provides that all the rights of A majority of the inhabitants are Protestants, sovereignty which are not expressly transferred but the Roman Catholics are most numerous to the confederacy are exercised by the 25 canin 11 cantons and one half canton, viz.: Lu- tons and half cantons. Among the prerogacerne, Uri, Schwytz, Unterwalden, Zug, Frey- tives of the federal government are the rights of burg, Valais, Soleure, Ticino, St. Gall, and declaring war, of concluding peace or treaties, Geneva, and Appenzell Inner Rhodes. They and of sending diplomatic representatives. The have 5 bishops, viz. : of Basel (residing at formation of separate alliances between the canSoleure), Chur, St. Gall, Lausanne (residing in tons, without special permission, is prohibited. Freyburg), and Sion. The whole of the can. The constitution of every canton is guaranteed, ton of Ticino and a few congregations in Gri- if it is republican in form, if it has been adopted sons were formerly under the jurisdiction of by the people, and if it can be revised on the dethe archbishop of Milan and the bishop of Como mand of a majority of the citizens. All Swiss in Lombardy; but the government of Ticino as are equal before the law, and the former relation well as the federal government have protested of subjects as well as all privileges of place or against the continuance of this relation, and birth are abolished. All Swiss who are Chrisdemanded of the pope the establishment of a tians have the right of settling in any canton, new Swiss bishopric in that canton. The Je- and of acquiring full civil rights. All recognized suits and Redemptorists are by an express pro- Christian denominations enjoy liberty of relivision of the federal constitution excluded from gious worship. Liberty of the press, of petiSwitzerland, and the number of the convents tion, and of association is guaranteed; but the of other religious orders has been somewhat Jesuits and all religious orders and associations

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RECEIPTS.

Fr.

Cts,

Fr.

Cts.

........

458,286 20

which are affiliated to them are prohibited. tons the people have the right of vetoing every The confederacy has the

right of sending away bill passed by the grand council. In most of dangerous foreigners. The legislative power the cantons the members of the grand council is vested in the federal assembly, which consists receive no pay. Instead of printed law books, of a national council (Nationalrath) and a coun- some of the smaller cantons used until recently cil of states (Stānderath). The national council written traditions; the practice is however consists of deputies of the people, in the ratio now disappearing, and nearly every canton has of about 1 for every 20,000 persons, so that its printed code of laws. Many old Germanic every canton and every independent half can- elements are to be found in Swiss law; the ton possesses the right of electing at least 1 Roman law has had a predominating influence councillor. The electoral law of Dec. 1850, only in a few border cantons. The institution divided Switzerland into 48 electoral districts, of the jury, which was first tried in Geneva, which elect 120 delegates. The national coun- has since been introduced into Vaud, Bern, cil is elected for the term of 3 years, and every Zürich, and several other cantons.—The financitizen who is 20 years of age has the right of ces of Switzerland are in a very favorable convoting and is eligible. Naturalized citizens dition. Only a few cantons have a public may be elected after having been citizens for 5 debt, and some, as Zürich and Bern, possess a years. The national council elects for every large public property. The taxes are nowhere regular and every extraordinary session a presi- heavy, and in some cantons there are no direct dent and vice-president, the former of whom taxes. The federal debt incurred by the war is not eligible during the next following regu- of the Sonderbund has already been liquidated. lar session. The council of states has 44 mem- The budget for 1860 was as follows: bers, 2 for every canton and 1 for every half canton. The members of the national council

1.-Receipts from real estate and capital.... 818,169 89 are paid out of the federal treasury, those of II.-Interest on advanced capital and subthe council of states by the cantons. The ex

sidies....

105,432 62 ecutive power is exercised by a federal council,

III.-Monopolies and administration: consisting of 7 members, who are chosen for a 1. Duties

7,765,925 55

2. Posts..... term of 3 years by the federal assembly (the

6,916,911 56

8. Telegraphs. national council and the council of states in 4. Powder

1,175,412 69

5. Percussion caps.. joint session). They divide among themselves

50,033 60 6. Coinage.

4,584,607 98 the 7 departments of foreign affairs, of the post

7. Polytechnic school

25,198 81-21,188,168 23 and edifices, of justice and police, of finance, of IV.-Receipts of the chancery and reimbursewar, of the interior, and of commerce and du

1. Chancery:

8,484 50 ties, each member taking one department and 2. Military department.... 115,441 58 being at the same time the substitute in a second

8. Justice..

4,875 00 128,801 03 department. The president and vice-president Total...

21,685,566 27 of the council are chosen for one year only.

EXPENDITURES. The federal court, which is also chosen by the

I.-Interest.

854,567 29 federal assembly for a term of 3 years, consists II.-General expenses of administration: of 11 members. Bern is the federal capital.

National council.. The 3 national languages are German, French,

6,890 00 and Italian. The constitution may at any time

61,000 00

Federal chancery. undergo a revision in the regular way of legis- Federal court......

10,159 84 lation ; if the two councils disagree, or if 50,

28,722 614 883,185 62 000 citizens demand it, the question of a revi

III.- Departments:

Political department..... 156,146 40 sion has to be submitted to a direct vote of the people. The revised constitution, in order to Military ..

22,832 55

Financial become effective, must be adopted by a majori- Justice and police.

29,186 94 489,516 62 ty of all citizens of Switzerland as well as by a IV. Special administrations:

Military..

3,693,419 33 majority of the cantons. The cantonal consti

8,482,755 97 tutions may be divided into two classes: 1. Telegraphs. Pure democracies, in which the rights of sover

1,174,012 54

Percussion caps. eignty are exercised by a general assembly of Coinage..

4,584,607 98 all citizens, which meets once a year, mostly Telegraphs..

122.712 89 Polytechnic school

217,198 81—20,686,186 79 in April or May, votes upon laws, fixes the

V.-Unforeseen. taxes, and elects the cantonal officers. The executive is called Landrath, and consists of

21,918,766 32 Receipts.

21,685,566 37 the cantonal officers and the councillors (Rathsherren) elected by the several political commu

Deficit (1860).....

228,200 05 nities. This is the constitution of Uri, Appena —The military establishment of Switzerland is zell, Unterwalden, and Glarus. 2. Represen- based upon purely democratic principles. Every tative democracies, in which the people electable-bodied citizen is a defender of the repuba legislative Assembly, called the grand coun- lic, not on paper merely or by a legal and concil, which chooses from its own number the stitutional fiction, but actually. The federal executive, called little council. In many can- army consists of citizens from 20 to 44 years

ment:

a

Fr.

Cts.

Fr. Cts. 126,276 00

Council of states.....
Federal council.

151,187 17

Pensions

а

Interior

289,925 87

41,924 86

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of age, and is divided into 3 classes according country was often harassed by the invasion to age. The first class, comprising men from of German tribes, especially the Alemanni; 20 to 34 years of age, constitutes the active the Celtic and the Roman elements of the popfield army (Auszug); the second class, 34 to 40 ulation mostly perished, the towns were sac years, the reserve army; and the third class, and the country laid waste. In the 5th century 40 to 44 years, the sedentary militia (Land- the Burgundians, Alemanni, and Goths divided wehr). The federal government provides for the country among themselves; but the dominthe instruction of the engineers, artillery, and ion exercised by them was of short duration, cavalry, furnishes part of the material of war and they were all in the 6th century brought to the cantons, and superintends the quality into subjection by the Franks. Christianity, of the material furnished by the cantons. The which had already begun to take root in Burinstruction of infantry soldiers requires 28 days, gundian Switzerland, became under the rule of riflemen 35 days. All the different classes of the Franks the religion of the entire country. are required to devote a certain number of days Many bishoprics and convents were founded, in each year to battalion and brigade drills and the bishops and many abbots, as those of and field maneuvres. The Swiss are known St. Gall, Einsiedeln, &c., obtained great poto be accurate marksmen with the rifle, and litical influence. Though wholly incorporated meet constantly to practise and engage in trials with the empire of the Franks, the country of skill. There are clubs and societies in al- was in point of administration divided into most every valley and parish, and constant two parts; the one, extending from the lake matches between them ; beside which a feder- of Constance and the Rhine to the Aar and al rifle match is held every year, at which ali St. Gothard, was called Rhætia and Thurithe best shots from the whole of Switzerland gau; and the other, comprising Geneva, Vameet to contend for a prize. Annual contests in Tais, Neufchâtel, Bern, Freyburg, Soleure, &c., wrestling (Schwingfeste) also are held in differ- was called Little Burgundia. Under the weak ent parts of Switzerland, especially in Bern, Ap- reign of Charles the Fat, Switzerland, like penzell, and Unterwalden. In Dec. 1860, the many other parts of the empire, was lost to field army numbered 81,257 men, the reserve the Franks. The N. part came into the posarmy 43,284, and the militia 61,878; total, session of the duke of Alemannia (Swabia), and 186,419.—The first inhabitants of Switzerland thus became part of the German empire, while are supposed to have been of Celtic origin, and the S. part belonged to Burgundy. During the to have immigrated into the country from the invasion of Germany by the Hungarians, many N. E. Their collective name was Helvetians. towns, as St. Gall, Basel, Zürich, and Lucerne, The high valleys near the sources of the Rhine, were fortified, and thus rose in importance. in the present canton of Grisons, were occupied During the reign of the emperors of the house by a tribe akin to the Tyrrhenians or Etrus- of Saxony the country was mostly held as fiefs cans, called the Rhætians. In 113 B. O. two by the vassals of the empire, in particular by tribes of Helvetians, the Tigurini and Tugeni the bishops and abbots, the counts of Kyburg (from which are derived the names of Zürich (Zürich), Hapsburg (Aargau), Lenzburg (Aarand Zug), joined the Cimbri and Teutons in gau), Rapperswyl (St. Gall), and Toggenburg their inroads into Italy. In this war the Hel- (St. Gall); later also by the count of Savoy and vetian Divico, in 107, completely routed the Ro- the duke of Zähringen. Many of these noble mans under their consul L. Cassius Longinus. families became extinct during the crusades; After the defeat of the Cimbri in 101, the Helve- and the power and prosperity of the towns rose tians returned unmolested to their mountains, still higher, Bern and Freyburg even becoming followed, it is believed, by the scattered rem- free cities of the German empire. Zürich, nants of the Cimbri, to whom the foundation of Bern, and Basel formed an alliance, and tried the town of Schwytz is ascribed. In the time to make themselves independent. Yet the inof Cæsar an entire tribe of the Helvetians, in- dependence of Switzerland did not proceed stigated by their leader Orgetorix, determined from them, but from the three ancient cantons to conquer seats in Gaul, stroyed their towns of Schwytz, Uri, and Unterwalden, the inhab. and villages, and under the command of Divico itants of which are believed to have descended crossed the Saône ; but they were conquered from immigrants from Sweden, and which had by Cæsar at Bibracte (Autun), and driven back never been conquered. They were only under to their country. Soon afterward the Helve- the protection of the German emperor, near tian tribes were gradually subdued by the whom their rights were guarded by a cogt, first Romans, and even the Rhætians, who were the a count of Lenzburg, and afterward a count last to maintain their freedom, were compelled of Hapsburg. The elevation of Rudolph of at length to yield. For several centuries Switz- Hapsburg to the imperial throne of Germany erland remained a province of the Romans, in 1273, and his conquest of Austria and other who introduced their manners, laws, and civ- possessions of Ottocar of Bohemia, greatly inilization, and founded several towns, as Au- creased the influence of the house of Hapsburg gusta Rauracorum (Augst, near Basel), Vin- in Switzerland. The son of Rudolph, Albert, donissa (Windisch, in Aargau), Aventicum sought to incorporate the Swiss with Austria. (Avenches, in Vaud), and Eburodunum (Yver- Bern and Zürich at once resisted successfully; dun). In the 2d, 3d, and 4th centuries the but in the 3 old cantons of Schwytz, Uri, and Unterwalden he succeeded for a time. The con- peror (1498), in which the Swiss showed vention entered into by 33 distinguished men their usual bravery. The emperor was obliged of the 3 cantons on the Rätli, a meadow on to conclude in 1499 the peace of Basel, and their common frontier, Nov. 1, 1307, led, on Basel and Schaffhausen, in recompense for faithJan. 1, 1308, to the expulsion of the Austrian ful assistance, were admitted as members of officers and the destruction of their castles. the confederacy, to which in 1513 Appenzell The legend of Tell belongs to this period. was also added. The number of cantons thus The relation of the 3 cantons to the German rose to 13, and remained so until 1798. The empire remained at first unchanged; but the Swiss conquered Lombardy for Duke_Maximilwar of Austria for reëstablishing its rule in the ian Sforza in 1512, and routed the French at emancipated cantons, which lasted with many Novara in 1513, but in 1515 lost the great interruptions for about 200 years, ended with battle at Marignano; nevertheless they found severing also the ties which bound Switzerland France willing to conclude with them an adto Germany, The Hapsburgs also lost their vantageous peace in 1516, which was kept possessions lying between the Alps and the until 1798. The reformation of the 16th cenRhine, and their old family castles of Hapsburg tury rent thọ country into two hostile camps. and Kyburg. The league of the 3 old cantons, Among its leaders were Zwingli in Zürich, which had first been formed in 1291 and ro- Ecolampadius in Basel, Haller and Manuel in newed in 1308, was again sworn to and estab- Bern, Farel and Calvin in Geneva. In most lished as a perpetual confederacy in 1315, after of the cantons the reformation was introduced, the great victory over the Austrians at Mor- but Lucerne, Uri, Schwytz, Unterwalden, and garten on the confines of Schwytz and Zug. Zug formed a league for the defence of the old In 1332 Lucerne joined the confederacy, which faith. Several wars ensued, in one of which received the name of the Four Forest Cantons. Zwingli lost his life (1531) in the battle at Cappel Zürich came in in 1351, Glarus and Zug in (Zürich), in which the Roman Catholics were 1352, and Bern in 1353, when the 8 united victorious. Soon afterward peace was concludcantons erected the "perpetual league of ed, and every canton left at liberty to introduce the 8 old places of the confederacy,” so called or to oppose the reformation. Geneva freed because no new members were added to the itself, with the aid of Bern, from Saroy, and confederacy until 1481, and these 8 old ones became in 1536 a Protestant republic, without enjoyed many privileges until 1798. Other however being admitted into the confederacy. brilliant victories over Austria were gained at Vaud was also conquered by Bern from Savoy Sempach (Lucerne), July 9, 1386, and at Nä- in 1553 and reformed; but on the other hand, fels (Glarus), April 9, 1389; after which the the Catholic cantons of Lucerne, Uri, Schwytz, Swiss became aggressive in their policy, and Unterwalden, Soleure, and Freyburg formed in at length, notwithstanding their defeats at 1586, by the advice of Archbishop Charles BorArbedo (Ticino) in 1422 and at St. Jacob (Ba- romeo of Milan, the “golden league" for the sel) in 1444, annexed a considerable portion common defence of the Catholic religion. The of Austrian territory. These protracted wars religious split long continued a prolific source awakened such a fondness for warfare that of dissension between the cantons. In 1597 many Swiss soldiers, not finding sufficient mil- the canton of Appenzell, in order to prevent & itary occupation at home, entered foreign ar religious war, was separated into two indepenmies, where, until a very recent period, they dent half cantons, the Catholic part being earned the questionable reputation of being the called Inner Rhodes, and the Reformed Outer most loyal defenders of the cause they had Rhodes. In 1602 the Reformed were expelled once espoused, even if it were that of des- from Valais, and in 1620 Protestantism was potism." There were sometimes also internal forcibly suppressed in Valtellina. In Grisons dissensions, and Zürich from 1440 to 1450 se- a bloody civil war was kindled, in which other ceded from the confederacy. As at this time cantons also took part, and which made the the canton of Schwytz had a predominant in- country one of the chief seats of the war befluence in the councils of the confederacy, its tween France, Spain, and Austria. As the cantonal colors (white and red) were adopted federal courts of Germany still continued to es the confederate ensign, and the party name make claims on Switzerland as belonging to Swiss (Schwytz) became the designation of the the German empire, the Swiss sent the burgoentire people. A great war against Charles master Weltstein of Basel as their representaof Burgundy, the most powerful prince of his tive to the peace congress of Münster, which at times in W. Europe, was gloriously terminated, the peace of Westphalia (1648) pronounced after brilliant victories had been gained by the Switzerland entirely independent of Germany. Swiss at Granson (Vaud) and Morat (Freyburg) From this time until the outbreak of the French in 1476, and at Nancy in 1477. The admis- revolution in 1789, the history of Switzerland sion of Soleure and Freyburg into the confed- presents few events of general importance. eracy in 1481 almost became the occasion of It had no foreign war, and the religious cona civil war, which was however averted by tests at home, which still occurred from time the exhortations of a pious hermit, Nicholas to time, were mostly of short duration. The von der Flue. Other internal dissensions were most important of them was the second war of terminated by a war against the German em- Toggenburg in 1712, when 150,000 Swiss were in arms against each other. Other internal battle of Leipsic the troops of the allied powcommotions arose out of the oligarchic form of ers marched through Switzerland. Bern and government which was gradually established in others of the aristocratic cantons severed their the cantons of Bern, Freyburg, Soleure, and connection with the Helvetic government inLucerne, and out of the oppressed condition stituted by the act of mediation, and civil broils of the subjected territories whose inhabitants ensued in a number of cantons. Yet the atwere excluded from all political rights. In 1798 tempt to restore the former order of things had two French armies marched, without any re- soon to be given up, and a new constitution, spectable pretext, into Swiss territory, captured adopted by the federal diet on May 27, 1815, on March 5 the city of Bern, plundered its ar- sworn to at Zürich on Aug. 7, and ratified by mory and treasury, and on April 12, 1798, pro- the great powers of Europe on Dec. 20, acclaimed at Aarau the one and indivisible Hel- knowledged all the 19 cantons constituted by vetic republic, divided into 18 cantons, with the act of mediation, and added 3 new ones, Aarau as the federal capital. By the new con- Geneva, Valais, and the Prussian principality stitution Bern was divided into 4 cantons, the of Neufchâtel. The territory of Switzerland subjected districts of Baden, Thurgau, Lugano, was enlarged by portions of land ceded by and Bellinzona (Ticino) erected into cantons, France (the Dappes valley), Savoy (Carouge and Zug, Uri, Schwytz, and Unterwalden united several villages on the lake of Geneva and on into the one canton of the Forest Towns, the Rhône), and Austria (Razuns, the Frickthal, and Appenzell, St. Gall, and the valley of the Laufenburg, and Rheinfelden). The cantons Rhine formed into the canton of Sentis. Ge- of Soleure, Grisons, Schwytz, and Appenzell neva, Bienne (Bern), and several other por- Inner Rhodes adopted the constitution only tions of Swiss territory were incorporated with reluctance, and Nidwalden (one half of with the French republic. The resistance of Unterwalden) had to be coerced into submisthe old forest cantons proved useless, and the sion by force of arms. According to the new new constitution was gradually introduced, confederation the cantons guaranteed to each though but little liked. Overthrown on the other their constitution, and united for the entrance and advance of the allied armies under common defence of their independence. The the command of Suwaroff, it was reëstablished diet was to assemble annually on June 1, alterafter the victories of the French under Mas- nately at Bern, Lucerne, and Zürich, and to it séna. The withdrawal of the French troops was reserved the right of declaring war, conin 1802 led at once to revolutions in almost cluding peace, and forming alliances with forevery canton, and a general diet, consisting eign powers. The cantons retained, however, of an equal number of deputies from the for- the right of forming with foreign states special merly governing and the governed districts, military agreements. The existence of the conwas convoked at Schwytz; but again France vents and cathedral chapters was guaranteed interfered, 12,000 French troops subdued the by a special article. The administration of old cantons, and deputies from all the can- federal affairs, during the time that the diet tons were ordered by Bonaparte to assemble was not in session, was left to the Vorort. In at Paris for the purpose of reorganizing Switz- 1817 Switzerland, upon the invitation of the erland. On Feb. 19, 1803, Bonaparte trans- emperor Alexander of Russia, joined the holy mitted to them the act of mediation, by which alliance, and from 1823 to 1828 it conceded to the former cantonal system was restored, al- the urgent requests of the great powers of Euthough the relation of subjected territories rope a restriction of the liberty of the press remained abolished. To the 13 old cantons 6 and of the right of asylum. The aristocracy new ones were added, viz.: St. Gall and Gri- recovered in most cantons part of their former sons, which had formerly been allied with the prerogatives, and several capital towns greatly confederacy without being members, and Aar- enlarged their influence at the expense of the gau, Thurgau, Ticino, and Vaud, which had been country people. The French revolution of subjected territories. At the head of the con- July, 1830, led therefore to violent political federacy was again placed a diet (Tagsatzung), agitations 'in Switzerland. In several cantons consisting of commissioners, voting according the country people rose against the capital to instructions. It was to assemble in turn in towns, and forced them to reorganize the canthe cities of Bern, Zürich, Lucerne, Basel, Frey- tonal constitutions on a more liberal and demoburg, and Soleure, and the burgomaster of the cratic basis. In the canton of Basel a permaVorort or temporary capital, under the name of nent division into two independent half canLandammann of Switzerland, was to preside at tons, Basel City and Basel Country, was effected the diet and to attend to all the current affairs in 1832. In Nov. 1832, some of the most conof the year. In the democratic cantons the servative cantons, Uri, Schwytz, Unterwalden, sovereign popular assemblies were reëstablish- Neufchâtel, and Basel City, formed the “league ed; in the others grand and little councils, the of Sarnen," and threatened to send no more former being elected by a direct vote of the commissioners to the federal diet if the compeople, and the latter by the grand council. missioner from Basel Country were admitted. This new constitution was on the whole well The federal diet interfered with promptness received, and under it Switzerland for 10 years and energy; the separate league was declared enjoyed peace at home and abroad. After the dissolved, and the 'refractory cantons had to

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