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submit to the federal authority. Altogether, others which were in favor of the project. As liberai cantonal reforms were introduced in thus the danger threatening the existence of about two thirds of Switzerland. Encouraged the schools of the Jesuits increased, the canby this success, the progressive party conceived tons which either had called Jesuits to cantonal also the plan of revising the federal constitu- institutions, or which patronized them (viz., tion, which seemed to be inadequate to satisfy Lucerne, Uri, Schwytz, Unterwalden, Zug, the want of a closer political union. The diet, Freyburg, and Valais), strengthened a separate on July 17, 1832, pronounced in favor of the alliance (the “Sonderbund "), which had alrevision; yet, when the amendments adopted ready been formed in 1843, and appointed a by the diet were subjected to a direct popular council of war for the emergency of a civil convote, they were voted down by a coalition of test. A motion of Zürich at the diet of 1845 to the Catholic and the radical parties. The large declare the Sonderbund dissolved received only number of political refugees, who gathered in 10 votes, but a change of government of GeSwitzerland in consequence of the revolution- neva and St. Gall secured for the motion a maary movements of 1830, involved the country jority of 12} votes on July 20, 1846. One Protin serious difficulties with the great powers, estant canton (Neufchâtel), one Protestant half which complained of the liberty granted to canton (Basel City), and one Catholic half them by the federal diet. The latter endeavored canton (Appenzell Inner Rhodes) voted with to conciliate the powers by several resolutions the cantons of the Sonderbund. In September restricting the liberty of the refugees (in 1834 another resolution declared the expulsion of and 1838), and even by the expulsion of some the Jesuits from all Switzerland. The diet of the leading men among them (1836); yet the collected an army of nearly 100,000 men under diplomatic collisions continued. The demand of the command of Gen. Dufour, and on Nov. 4 the French government, in 1838, for the expul- resolved to execute the decree of July 20 by sion of Louis Napoleon, who had been since 1832 force of arms. The Sonderbund had raised a a citizen of the canton of Thurgau, was declined force of 36,000, which was to be supported by by Switzerland, and almost led to a war, which a Landsturm of 47,000 men. The war, conwas only avoided by his voluntary departure. trary to expectation, was of short duration. An occasion for new religious contests was giv- The isolated Freyburg was first attacked, and en by the conference at Baden in 1834, at which surrendered after an insignificant skirmish. delegates of the canton of Bern, Basel Country, On Nov. 23 the army of the Sonderbund was Aargau, Thurgau, Lucerne, Soleure, and St. routed at Gislicon, near the frontier of the Gall (the first 4 of which are predominantly canton of Lucerne; the council of war, the Protestant), undertook to regulate the rela- government of Lucerne, and the Jesuits filed, tions of the Roman Catholic church in a man- and all the 7 cantons submitted. Austria, ner which was rejected by the pope and the France, and Prussia had openly declared during bishop of Basel as contrary to the rights and the war their sympathy with the Sonderbund, the spirit of the church. The articles of the and in 1848 issued a joint note to Switzerland, conference provoked several insurrections, es- demanding that the cantons of the Sonderbund pecially in the canton of Aargau, the govern. be evacuated, and no change be made in the ment of which, in order to punish the revolted constitution of 1815, except by the consent of all Catholic districts, decreed in 1841 the abolition the cantons. But the revolutions of 1848 drew of all the convents. Against this measure most off the attention of the great powers from of the Catholic cantons and the ambassador of Switzerland, and gave the latter an opportuAustria protested, as a direct violation of that nity to hasten a thorough reformation of the article of the constitution of 1815 which guar- federal constitution. The committee of revision anteed the continuance of convents and chap- commenced its labors on Feb. 17, 1848, and on ters. Upon the representations of the federal June 27 the draft of the constitution which is at diet Aargau offered to restore 3 female con- present in force was submitted to a direct vote vents, a concession which did not satisfy Aus- of the people. A majority of the cantons and tria and the Catholic cantons, but the federal a large majority of the total population voting diet by 12 votes dismissed the subject from in favor of it, it was promulgated Sept. 12. In its docket (Aug. 31, 1843). A cause of still great- the same year the canton of Neufchâtel deer trouble was a motion, made by Aargau at the clared itself independent of Prussia, which diet of 1844, for the expulsion of the Jesuits entered against this act an inefficient protest. from Switzerland. It was laid on the table by The success of the counter revolution in 1849 the diet; but when the Catholic Vorort Lucerne again brought thousands of political refugees resolved (Oct. 24, 1844) to call the Jesuits to a to Switzerland, and again, owing to the decantonal institution, a great excitement spread mands of the great powers, they were made the throughout Switzerland. Two volunteer ex- subject of restrictive and unfavorable legislapeditions (Dec. 1844, and March, 1845) were tion, which soon reduced their number to a undertaken for the purpose of overthrowing few hundreds. The expulsion of some Capuchin the government of Lucerne, but both were un- monks, who were natives of Lombardy, from successful. On the other hand, the govern- the canton of Ticino, and the participation of ments of Vaud, Bern, and Zürich, which had some Italian refugees who had been living in voted against the expulsion, had to give way to Switzerland in a revolutionary attempt at Mi

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SWORD

lan in 1853, led to a suspension of diplomatic &c., they appear to be short cut-and-thrust intercourse with Austria ; but the matter was blades, tapering from hilt to point and provided peaceably settled on March 18, 1855. On Sept. with a scabbard, which was attached on the 2 the royalists of the canton of Neufchâtel made left side to a belt suspended from the shoulder an attempt to overthrow the government of or round the waist. The Romans in the time the canton and to reëstablish the sovereignty of Polybius had sword blades of finely temof the king of Prussia. The movement was at pered steel prepared by the Celtiberians. They once suppressed (Sept. 3), but led to serious were short and straight, made for cutting and complications with Prussia, which demanded thrusting, and were worn on the right side. the unconditional pardon of the captured royal- Those of the gladiators were curved. The most ists. The demand was supported more or less famous swords were the Damascus blades of by all the great powers of Europe; and when the middle ages, described in the histories of the federal council refused to accede to it, the crusades, and by Scott in the “Talisman." Prussia broke off diplomatic relations, and made The steel was probably the East Indian wootz, some warlike demonstrations. When, however, and the manufactured articles were fabricated France and England promised their interces- on the shores of the Mediterranean. (See Dasion with Prussia in behalf of a recognition of MASCUS BLADES.) Next to these the swords of the independence of Neufchâtel, in case Switz- Toledo in Spain attained great celebrity in the erland would release the royalist prisoners, time of the Moors. Though attempts were their advice was followed by the federal coun- made to remove the manufacture to Seville, cil. Prussia was now found willing to enter into the same processes that were employed at negotiations, and on April 14, 1857, at a con- Toledo here failed to produce the same sort of ference of the great powers at Paris, resigned steel; and for want of a better explanation of for ever its claims to Neufchâtel. In 1860 the cause of the failure, it was attributed to Switzerland protested against the annexation some peculiar excellence in the waters of the of Savoy to France, as a violation of the trea- Tagus in which those of the Gaudalquivir were ties of 1564 and 1816, by which the neutrality lacking. Milan also was famous for its excelof the districts of Chablais and Faucigny had lent swords during the middle ages. The inbeen guaranteed. It demanded from France troduction of gunpowder rendered swords of the cession of these two districts, but as it was secondary importance. In the 17th century little aided by the great powers, its representa- those made by the Germans were in good repute, tions were of no effect. The principal works and about the year 1689 unsuccessful efforts on the geography and history of Switzerland were made to establish the manufacture with are: Sulz, Topographisches Lexikon der Schweiz the aid of German workmen in Cumberland, (3 vols., Aarau, 1827); Franscini, Neue Statis. England, and the adjacent counties. It was tik der Schweiz (2 vols., Bern, 1849; appendix, not, however, until 1786 that good blades were 1851); Johannes von Müller, Geschichte der made in that country. At that time Mr. Gill, Eidgenossenschaft, with continuations by Glutz- of Birmingham, competing with German and Blotzheim, Hottinger, Vulliemin, and Mon- English makers for supplying the East India nard (13 vols., Leipsic, 1806-'51); Zschokke, company, produced a large number which bore Geschichte des Schweizerlandes (Zürich, 1822); the required test of bending till the length of and Meyer von Knonau, Handbuch der Ge- the blade was reduced from 36 to 29 inches; schichte der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft and it is stated that they were so keen, tough, (2 vols., Zürich, 1826–9).

and elastic, that Mr. Gill would cut a gun barSWORD, a weapon used in hand encounters, rel asunder with them, and then wind the blade commonly made like a large knife, and some- round it like a ribbon, after which the blade times pointed like a dagger. The ancient Egyp- would spring back, and recover its original tians possessed the art of imparting to bronze straightness except at the point. Swords are extraordinary hardness and elasticity, and em- still made at Toledo of as good quality as ever, ployed this material for swords and daggers. but the manufacture employs only 70 or 80 Wilkinson describes the former as straight and hands.—The best of cast steel is required short, from 2 to 3 feet in length, having gen- for good swords. The bars are hammered erally a double edge and tapering to a sharp down by two men striking alternately; and if point. Four ancient bronze swords are pre- the blade is to have concave sides or other peserved in the British museum, one of which, culiarities of shape, these are obtained from supposed to be Etruscan, is about 13 inches the dies in which it is swaged. When shaped, long, and is bound round the handle with gold it is hardened by heating in the fire to dull wire. The blades of the others are from 10 to red and dipping point downward in a tub of 25 inches long, 1 to 2 inches wide, and are cold water. It is tempered by drawing it adapted for cutting and thrusting. The allu- through the fire until it acquires a blue color, sions to swords are very frequent in the poems and is then set or straightened by springing of Homer. The Greeks had several names for it with the tongs in any required direction as it the several varieties, and they are spoken of as is held in a sort of fork standing in the anvil. having silver handles and being studded with After this it is ground upon a stone with a face silver. They too were of bronze, but at a later adapted to that of the sword, flat or otherwise; period of iron; and as seen upon coins, vases, is slightly heated to restore the temper impair

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ed by grinding; and is finally polished with water. On the American coast, and also in the emery and crocus.—The small sword used in Mediterranean, the chase of the sword fish refencing is a slender weapon for the thrust only, sembles whaling in miniature, and is very exand is the court dress sword. The broad sword, citing; a man aloft gives notice of a fish being called sometimes the back sword, has but one near, when the fishermen row toward it, and edge. The heavy two-handed sword, of great strike it with a harpoon made for the purpose; length and breadth, made by the Spaniards, is by attaching a floating cask to each harpoon, called an espadon. A sword cane is a hollow several fish may be struck in a few hours, and walking stick, containing a concealed dagger each individual separately taken in by followattached to its handle. A sword bayonet is a ing the cask; there is sometimes danger of a sword blade fitted like a bayonet to the mus- small boat being upset or pulled under water ket.

by a large fish, which may struggle to escape SWORD FISH, the very appropriate name for hours, and now and then boats are pierced of the riphiidæ, a family of marine spiny-rayed and their occupants severely wounded by the fishes, allied to the mackerels, so called from sword of the infuriated animal; some fishermen the prolongation of the snout into a long, hori- prefer to take them singly, harpooning them zontally flattened, sword-like weapon. The from the bows of a large vessel, and hauling sword consists of the vomer and intermaxillary them in at once. The flesh is esteemed as food, bones, supported at the base by the frontals, both fresh and salted, and in some summers nasal, and upper jaw. In form this fish resem- forms a considerable article of commerce with bles the mackerel; the scales are very small; the Vineyard fishermen.-Several species of the jaws proper, and sometimes the sword, are other genera are found in tropical seas. crowded with small, acute teeth, often hardly SYBARIS, an ancient Greek city of Lucania, perceptible; the laminæ of each branchial arch in S. Italy, situated on the W. shore of the Taare united into a band-like organ, with only rentine gulf, between the rivers Crathis (now soperficial marks of separation, as in no other Crati) and Sybaris (Coscile), a short distance bony fishes; branchiostegal rays in the typical from the sea. It was founded by an Achæan genus riphias (Linn.) 7. The spinous dorsal colony about 720 B. C. Settlers of other nabegins near the head, high and sickle-shaped, tions were freely admitted to all the rights of extending nearly to the tail, and followed by a citizenship, and a vast population was thus acsmall soft fin; the anal is similar but much quired; and through the fertility of the country shorter; ventrals wanting, or represented only in which it was situated, the city rose rapidly by a pair of spinous rays on the throat; caudal to great wealth and power. At the time of deeply forked, on the sides having 1 or 2 large its greatest prosperity, about 200 years after its cutaneous folds; the pyloric appendages are foundation, it is stated by Strabo that the city collected into bundles and connected by areolar itself occupied a space of 50 stadia in circumtissue, the branches forming 2 trunks inserted ference, ruled over 25 subject cities, and could into the intestine close to the pylorus; the send into the field an army of 300,000 men. stomach cæcal and conical, and the air bladder It founded Posidonia, Laus, and Scidrus, and large; the lower jaw in the young is propor- carried on an extensive trade, especially with tionally longer than in the adult; the sclerotic Miletus in Asia Minor. Sybaris was famous forms a bony box, with a circular opening in throughout the ancient world for the effemifront for the cornea, rendering the eyes very nate habits and love of luxury of its citizens. movable in their orbits. They are very swift The arts which contributed to the luxurious swimmers, and feed on mackerel and other enjoyment of life were there most highly fishes collecting in shoals. The common sword prized, and it is stated by Athenæus that no fish (X. gladius, Linn.) attains a length of 12 craft was permitted in the city which made a to 20 feet, and is found in the Mediterranean noise that might disturb the citizens. The and on both sides of the Atlantic; it is strong government was entirely in the hands of the and active, using its sword to destroy its ene- aristocracy until about 500 B. O., when Telys, mies, and sometimes striking at vessels, burying an aristocrat, headed a democratic party, drove its weapon deep in their timbers; in these cases out the wealthier citizens and rulers, and raised Cuvier thinks it is irritated by parasitic crusta- himself to the position of tyrant. Five hundred ceans which bury themselves in its flesh; or of the exiled nobles took refuge at Crotona, perhaps it mistakes the passing object for a and Telys sent thither to demand their surrenwhale, to which it seems to have a special en- der. This was refused, and a war ensued in mity. There are no ventral fins, and the sword which a large army of Sybarites was beaten is about as long as the body. It occurs on by one third the number of the Crotoniatæ, the North American coast from Nova Scotia to who followed up their victory by the sack of New York, being common in the summer in Sybaris, and turned the course of the river OraVineyard sound and between No Man's Land this so that the city was inundated and buried and Block island; it is silvery white below, and in the deposits that the river brought down. tinged above with blackish blue, the sword dark Sybaris was never restored; its site is now a brown above and lighter below. It is fond of malarious marsh, and its exact position cannot pursuing the shoals of mackerel, and may be be determined. Its surviving inhabitants, after detected by the dorsal fin projecting above the remaining for many years at Laüs and Scidrus

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SYDNEY

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founded near it, with Athenian colonists, the num was one of many valuable additions which
city of Thurii.

he made to the materia medica. His largest
SYCAMORE, a name usually applied in the work, Observationes Medicæ circa Morborum
United States to the platanus occidentalis (Mx.) Acutorum Historiam et Curationem (London,
or buttonwood tree (see Plane Tree), and in 1675), was translated 3 times into English and
Europe to a species of maple (acer pseudopla- passed through 25 editions in 100 years. It is
tanus, Linn.), of which there are several dis- still regarded as a valuable work.-In 1843 a
tinct and beautiful varieties known. (See Ma- society, composed mainly of members of the
PLE.) The sycamore of the Sacred Scriptures medical profession, was founded in London un-
is a species of fig (ficus sycamorus, Linn.), & der the name of the Sydenham society, having
native of Egypt, where it becomes a consider- for its object the republication of the works
able timber tree. Its branches spread out of Sydenham and of other eminent physicians
widely, affording a grateful shade, and the of former times, otherwise inaccessible to pro-
trees are therefore planted by the sea shore and fessional readers in general.
by the road sides. As it becomes old much of SYDNEY, a town upon the S. E. coast of
its picturesque beauty vanishes, and its branch- Australia, capital of the colony of New South
es are crooked, broken, and leafless. The figs, Wales, and residence of the governor-general
which are sweet and delicate, are produced in of Australia. It is situated on the S. side of
clustered racemes on the trunks and limbs in- the estuary or extensive harbor of Port Jack-
stead of the new shoots. Its timber has been son, about 7 m. W. S. W. from the sea, in lat.
reputed almost indestructible, but Forskähl 33° 52' S., long. 151° 14' E.; pop., including
says it is only fit for fuel.

the suburbs, about 120,000. Part of the town SYDENHAM, Floyer, an English scholar stands upon a promontory, with Darling harand translator, born in 1710, died April 1, bor on the W.; part of it occupies a narrow 1787, in prison, where he had been confined valley to the E. of this; and the remainder is for a debt due the eating house where he dined. built upon undulating ground extending S. and He was educated at Wadham college, Oxford. still further E., with extensive water frontage He translated the greater part of Plato's works, to the N. and N. E. Since the discovery of which were published between 1759 and 1780 gold in Australia Sydney has advanced very in 3 vols. 4to. The translation in general is rapidly, and the suburbs of Wooloomooloo, excellent, though in a few of the more abstruse Paddington and Surrey Hills, Redfern and passages he failed to express fully the tenets Chippendale, Camperdown, Newtown, and the of his author. It was completed in 1804 by Glebe are now almost connected with Sydney Thomas Taylor. He published also “ A Dis- proper by continuous lines of well built houses; sertation on the Doctrine of Heraclitus” (1775), while Balmain and the North Shore have nuand Onomasticon Theologicum (1784). His suf- merous steam ferries, and Pyrmont has lately ferings from poverty in his old age, and his been joined to the city by a bridge across Darmiserable death in prison, led to the foundation ling harbor. The town, whether viewed from of the literary fund, which bestows small gra- the harbor or the adjoining heights, has a very tuities on poor and deserving authors. imposing appearance; and the surrounding

SYDENHAM, Thomas, an English physi- shores and innumerable bays and rocky promcian, born at Windford Eagle, Dorsetshire, in ontories of Port Jackson present scenery not 1624, died in London, Dec. 29, 1689. He was to be surpassed in any part of the world. Sydeducated at Magdalen hall, Oxford, and in ney stands upon a sandstone formation, and 1648 obtained a fellowship in All Souls' col- this material has been extensively used both lege, and remained there some years pursuing in public and private buildings. The streets his studies, visiting France in the mean while are generally well laid out, intersecting each and attending the lectures of Barbeyrac. other at right angles, and 34 of them have car. About 1660 he went to Westminster, and soon riage ways not less than 36 feet, and foot ways obtained a large practice and great reputation. not less than 12 feet wide. The city is well Abandoning the routine system then in vogue, supplied with water, and the streets lighted he based his practice on principles which have with gas. Sydney contains numerous churches, exerted a great influence on the profession from and is the residence of a bishop of the church that time to this; these principles are, that na- of England and a Roman Catholic archbishop. ture cures diseases ; that there is in the human It has a university, established in 1850, the desystem a recuperative power, which he named grees of which confer the same rank as those the vis medicatrix naturæ, and that this should of similar institutions in England. The mer. be aided, not thwarted; and that the symp- chants' exchange, custom house, court house, toms of disease are the language of a suffering museum, legislative and executive council and endangered organism, for which the physi- chambers, public library, public markets, becian should prescribe. He was the first physi- nevolent asylum, and hospitals are all worthy cian who treated small pox with cooling reme- of notice. The government house is a very dies, or intermittent fever with cinchona. His handsome structure, beautifully situated among letters and tracts on particular diseases are well wooded grounds overlooking the harbor. valuable for the accuracy of their observation. There are societies for the promotion of the The preparation known as Sydenham's lauda- fine arts, floral, horticultural, and agricultural

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societies, a botanical garden, several parks, pointment; but Sylla's conduct soon won the and a domain. A branch of the royal mint confidence of his chief and the regards of the was established here in 1855, the coin of which soldiers, with whom he lived on the most familis a legal tender in all the Australian colonies, iar terms. Sylla, says Sallust, " when he came Mauritius, Ceylon, and Hong Kong:-—The har- into Africa and to the camp of Marius with his bor is completely landlocked, and vessels of cavalry, though he had been before unskilled the largest size can come close to the wharfs, and ignorant in the art of war, became in a which extend along its shores. In 1858 the short time the ablest of all. Beside, he used shipping inward amounted to 348,984 tons, and to accost the men with much urbanity, and outward to 366,825 tons. The value of the im- granted favors to many at their own request, ports for the same year was £6,058,366, and to others of his own accord, but was very unof the exports £4,186,277. This apparent ex- willing himself to receive any, but those he did cess of imports over exports is caused by the he repaid with much more haste than a debt, esportation of gold coin, of which no account while he himself never demanded any return can be taken at the custom house, and also by from others, but rather was desirous that as the large numbers of cattle, horses, and sheep many as possible should be his debtors. He driven across the frontier to Victoria. The would joke or be serious with the humblest, chief exports consist of wool, gold, tallow, and was very often seen in the encampments, hides, gums, &c. The corporation revenues in the march, and amid the watches; nor did for 1858 amounted to £55,451, and the expend- he in the mean time, as is the custom of bad itures to £66,862. Considerable efforts have ambition, lessen the character of the consul or been made of late years to fortify Port Jack- any worthy man. He only would not suffer son; several batteries occupy commanding po- any one to be before him in counsel or action, sitions, and when the projected defences are and excelled most. By which behavior and completed it will be a place of great strength. practice he became very dear to Marius and

SYDNEY, or Sidney, a seaport town of the soldiers." His part in the battle of Cirta, Nova Scotia, capital of the county and island of in which Jugurtha and Bocchus were defeated, Cape Breton, in lat. 46° 7' N., long. 60° 9' W., was a prominent one; and when Bocchus beabout 200 m. N. E. from Halifax; pop. about trayed Jugurtha to the Romans, Sylla was the 1,000. It is well situated at the head of a safe principal actor on the side of the latter in the and commodious harbor, with a good light- negotiations. In the wars that were waged house at the 8. side of its entrance. The im- against the Cimbri and Teutones, Marius being portance of the place is principally derived consul, Sylla had command as one of his legates, from the extensive coal fields that exist in the and then as military tribune, distinguishing neighborhood. The thickness of the bed work- himself in both stations. The good understanded at the Sydney mines is 6 feet, and another ing which had so long existed between them at a few miles distance has a seam of 9 feet. came to an end, however, and Sylla served unThe coal from the Sydney mine is conveyed to der Q. Catulus, the other consul, to the increase the wharf by railroad, and during the year of his reputation and of the enmity of Marius. ending Sept. 1857, 92,270 tons were exported. For some years Sylla remained a private citiSYENE. See Asswan.

zen, but sought the prætorship in 94, without SYENITE. See GRANITE.

The next year he was chosen to that SYLLA, or SULLA, LUCIUS CORNELIUS (Felix), post; and in 92 he was sent as proprætor to a Roman statesman and soldier, born in 138 Cilicia, with directions to restore Ariobarzanes B. O., died in 78. His family, the original to the throne of Cappadocia, from which he name of which was Rufinus, belonged to the had been driven by the king of Pontus. This great Cornelia gens, one of the noblest of the duty he discharged, and with success so brilliant patrician gentes, of the Sabine branch of the ear- that the king of the Parthians sent ambassadors Iy Romans, called Titienses; but his inheritance to him, asking an alliance with the Romans. was small, and in his youth he lived in a house This was the first official intercourse between which was in part occupied by a freedman. Rome and the Parthians. On his return to He however was a diligent student of the litera- Rome, Sylla became the head of the aristocratture of his own country, and of that of Greece; ical party, as his enemy Marius was the chief and he early indulged that taste for profligate man among the leaders of the other faction; pleasures which characterized his whole life. and both aspired to the command against MithOne of his mistresses bequeathed to him all ridates. The breaking out of the social war her property, and to this was added the prop- postponed that appeal to arms which both were erty of his stepmother, who made him her anxious to make. In that contest Sylla was heir ; and thus he became, though not rich much more successful than Marius, winning according to the Roman estimate of wealth in several victories, capturing towns, and reducing those days, possessed of means to enter on the the Samnites, as well as others of the enemies career of ambition. He was elected quæstor of the Roman supremacy. He allowed great for the year 107, and was appointed to take license to the soldiers, and attached them to over to Africa the cavalry sent to Marius. As his person. He was chosen consul for the year the new officer's reputation was for profligacy 88, and the senate assigned to him command of only, the consul was displeased with the ap- the army in the East; but Marius placed him

success.

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