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self at the head of the Italian party, and Sylla field; but the right wing, under Crassus, was was driven from Rome. Hastening to the army victorious, and retrieved the battle. The num. that was besieging Nola, he easily prevailed ber of men who fell on both sides was 100,000. upon it to obey his commands, and marched to The Samnites and Lucanians who were capturRome, of which he took possession, the Marians ed were all put to death, and Præneste surren. being unable to resist him. After restoring the dered, young Marius having committed suicide former state of things, he led his army to on seeing the head of Telesinus. In a short Greece, of which the troops of Mithridates had time the greater part of the Roman world subtaken possession. He besieged Athens, which mitted to the victor, the only man who conwas stormed March 1, 86, and plundered it. Pi- tinued to resist his rule being Sertorius, who ræus then fell into his hands; and he followed carried on the war in Spain until his own the enemy into Bæotia, inflicting a crushing death, and for several years after the death of defeat upon them at Chæronea. A new army Sylla. The aristocratical leader took the sesent by Mithridates was defeated at Orchome- verest vengeance on his enemies, and Italy was nus. Sylla then crossed the Hellespont, and the scene of a reign of terror. He introduced in 84 he granted peace to the Pontine mon- the proscriptions, which were lists of his enearch. He also defeated the Roman general mies that were exhibited in the forum, and all Fimbria, who commanded the army sent by the persons were authorized to kill any one whose Marians to the East. Having extorted large name could there be found. To gratify his sums of money from the Asiatic cities, and adherents, he placed in these lists the names leaving two legions in Asia, he led the rest of of their enemies, or those of persons whose his army back to Greece to prepare for the property they desired to seize. He caused war in Italy, where the Marian party had re- himself to be appointed dictator, thus reviving gained ascendency. He landed at Brundusium an office that had been unknown to the Romans in the spring of 83. The senate sought to rec- for 120 years; but while he was dictator he oncile the chiefs of the two parties, but a treaty was elected consul. No one of the Cæsars was was impossible. Marius was dead, and Cinna, ever more powerful than was Sylla during his the ablest of his lieutenants, was murdered by dictatorship, supported as he was by an enorhis own soldiers; so that, though the Marians mous army, by a large number of slaves whom had an enormous force in the field, and were he had enfranchised (they had belonged to supported by the Italians, or new citizens, they persons who had figured in the proscriptions), had no military chief who could act against by the military colonies he had established the conqueror of Mithridates. Sylla conciliated throughout Italy, and by the influence which the Italians, making treaties with many of their had been created by his successes, his energy, towns, and promising to maintain them in the and his cruelty. During his dictatorship a large possession of their privileges. Partly by vic- number of laws were adopted tending to concentories in the field and partly by intrigues, he trate the power of the state in the aristocracy. dispersed or gained over both the consular ar- He took from the assemblies of the tribes their mies that were opposed to him. He was now legislative and judicial power, and also the joined by several influential Romans, among right to elect priests. No matter was allowed whom were Crassus, Metellus Pius, and the to be brought before the centuries without the youthful Pompey, the latter bringing with him previous sanction of a senatus consultum. He 3 legions. In 82 Sylla defeated the younger filled up the sonate, and placed the government Marius, who was one of the consuls for that of the provinces entirely in its hands; and reyear, and shut him up in Præneste. He then newed the old laws with regard to magistrates, proceeded to Rome, and came very near meeting requiring a regular gradation from office to with total defeat at its gates; for Pontius Tele- office, and that no one should be reëlected to the sinus, the chief man among the Samnites, with same office till after the expiration of 10 years. whom the Lucanians were united, resolved to The number of quæstors was increased from 8 march direct upon the city, in order, as he said, to 20; of prætors from 6 to 8. He reduced the to destroy the wolves of Italy in their den. The power of the plebeian tribunes to a mere shadow Samnite hate of the Romans had survived two of what it had been, and forbade all tribunes centuries of subjugation, and Telesinus sought from aspiring to the highor curule offices. The to accomplish that which his ancestors had right of self-election was restored to the ecclefailed to effect before the Roman arms had siastical corporations, and the number of ponachieved any thing out of Italy. The Samnites tiffs, augurs, and keepers of the sibylline books had not received the new franchise, and they was increased to 15 respectively. The ariswere animated by the most vindictive feeling tocracy regained the privilege of having judges toward the Romans. Failing to effect the re- taken exclusively from the senatorian order, lief of Præneste, which was besieged by Ofella, of which they had been deprived by Caius Telesinus proceeded to Rome, which was de- Gracchus. He reformed the criminal law, fenceless, and reached the city but a short time enacted sumptuary laws, and sought to regubefore Sylla also arrived at its gates. The battle late marriages. Few of his measures long surthat followed was one of the greatest ever vived him. “Sylla’s enactments," says Ýr. G. fought. Sylla commanded the left wing of his Long, “ were not, like the imperial constitutions army, which was routed and driven from the of a later day, the mere act of one who held


the sovereign power; they were laws (leges) became more consolidated, various modificaduly passed by the popular assembly. Yet tions of the alchemistical notation were from they were Sylla's work, and the legislative time to time proposed, and adopted to a greater body merely gave them formal sanction. The or less extent. Among these should be speobject of Sylla's constitutional measures was cially mentioned the system of notation offered to give an aristocratical character to the Roman in 1787 by Hassenfratz and Adet, as an appenconstitution, to restore it to something of its dix to Guyton de Morveau's revised system of pristine state, and to weaken the popular party nomenclature, since its failure enables us the by curtailing the power of the tribunes.” As better to appreciate the peculiar excellence of soon as he had completed his legislation, Sylla the system which now prevails. Here was a resigned his dictatorship (79 B. O.), and gave system of symbols by no means devoid of into the people an account of his conduct as a genuity, and much more complete than any public officer. He had none of that ambition previous method, published in connection which afterward led Cæsar to found the impe- with a new system of nomenclature, which rial power; but it may be doubted if he could was soon universally adopted, and recomhave performed the part that. Cæsar played, had mended by the committee of the French acadhe been inclined to take it. He valued the emy by whom this nomenclature had been prepleasures of sense and of letters as much as he pared; yet it met with little or no favor among did those of power, and, feeling secure in the chemists, and was soon forgotten. This last strength of the system he had set up, he de- remark applies as well to the symbols proposed voted the remainder of his days to personal in- by Dalton in 1808, in connection with his writdulgence, residing at Puteoli. He suffered from ings upon the atomic theory. None of these the horrible disease known as the morbus systems ever came into general use, nor does pediculosus ; but it has been said that this is it appear that they were of much value as inone of the calumnies of his enemies, that his struments of study even in the special cases in illness was only a fever, and that his death was which they were employed. It is to Berzelius immediately occasioned by the bursting of a that chemical science is indebted for the simblood vessel. At the time of his triumph, in ple and rational system of notation now in use, 81, he took the surname of Felix, because he which has done so much, especially of lato attributed his success to the gods; and when years, to advance knowledge and to lighten he had to do with Greeks, he called himself the labors of chemical investigators. This sysEpaphroditus. Venus he claimed as his es- tem, in its first outlines at least, appears not to pecial patroness, who had given him success have been the result of any premeditated plan both in love and in war. He was 5 times mar- or special study, but to have followed incidenried, and his last wife, Valeria, gave birth to a tally as a natural result from the investigation daughter after his death. He wrote memoirs, of the combining proportions of bodies with in 22 books, the last of which was completed which its author was occupied. Thus in 1814 but two days before his death, and with his he first mentions his symbols in a foot note to full knowledge that his end was near. He dic- a memoir upon nitrous acid (Gilbert's Annalen tated his own epitaph, which says, in substance, der Physik, xlvi. 154), as convenient abbrethat “none of his friends ever did him a kind- viations for expressing the composition of ness, and none of his enemies ever did him a bodies, which he has himself frequently emwrong, without being fully repaid.” “Sylla,” ployed in his private memoranda. Subsesays Mr. Long," was an educated man; he was quently a more complete exposition of the plan not a mere soldier like Marius. He was not appeared in his Lehrbuch, and in Poggendorff's only a general; he was a man of letters, a lover Annalen, 1826, viii. 7. As a sign to express of the arts, a keen discriminator of men and the name and combining equivalent of an eletimes, a legislator, and a statesman. He re- ment, Berzelius chose the initial letter of its modelled and reformed the whole criminal law Latin name; and in those cases where the of the Romans. His constitutional measures names of several elements commence with the were not permanent, but it may truly be said same letter, he annexed to the common initial that he prepared the way for the temporary the first of the following letters in the Latin usurpation of Cæsar, and the permanent estab- name of the element which is peculiar to it; lishment of the Roman state under Augustus.” thus, the symbol C indicates an equivalent of SYLLOGISM. See Logio.

carbon, Cl an equivalent of chlorine, and Cr SYLVA, BUENO DA. See BUENO DA SILVA. an equivalent of chromium. (For a complete

SYMBOLS, CHEMICAL, abbreviations for ex- list of these symbols, see EQUIVALENT, CHEMIpressing the chemical composition of bodies. CAL.) The symbols of binary compounds are The idea of representing the names of chemical formed by placing together the symbols of substances by conventional signs or abbrevia- their components, Coo for example representtions appears to be a very old one. The al- ing an equivalent of oxide of cobalt, from Co chemists were in possession of a set of hiero- (cobalt) and O (oxygen); those of ternaries glyphics by which the metals, and the four so (salts) by uniting the symbols of their compocalled elements, fire, air, earth, and water, and nent binaries, a comma being placed between indeed many other substances, were designat- these, as CaO, SOs, sulphate of cadmium; and ed. At a later period, as chemical knowledge those of quaternaries (double salts) on the

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same principle, a semicolon or the sign + being ficiently complete for most purposes of eleplaced between the binaries of which they are mentary instruction, it would be quite imformed, as CO, SO.; MgO, SO, + 6HO, hydrat- practicable to employ it in the study of very ed sulphate of cadmium and magnesia; the sign complex substances, for which other and vari. + is commonly used to indicate a component ous arrangements of the symbols are consewhich is less essential to the existence of the quently brought into use. Even for the most compound than the other ingredients, it being common and simple cases chemists have propossible in the cited case to remove the water posed methods of arrangement different from without destroying the compound CaO, SO:; the one just mentioned. Thus Davy in his so MgO, S03. This supposed subordinate part called binary theory proposed to write K, SO, of the water of crystallization of salts is often instead of KO, SO, for sulphate of potash, &c.; denoted by putting the symbol Aq (aqua) in and others, objecting entirely to the theory place of Ho. When it is desired to represent of dualism, have suggested the idea of giving more than one equivalent of a substance, figures special prominence to the empirical formula of in large type may be placed before, i. e., to the a substance, which in their view expresses all left of it, or in small type to the right or after our positive knowledge of its composition, leavit, just below the line upon which the symbol ing it to every one to theorize upon this as itself is placed. A figure on the left hand mul- he may please. It is precisely in affording fatiplies all the symbols to the right of it as far cilities for speculating upon and comparing the as the first comma, or indeed the whole formula composition of compounds, and for presenting when this is enclosed in brackets, while a small one's hypotheses to others, that the immense figure to the right multiplies only the letter, importance of chemical symbols chiefly lies; or bracketed formula, immediately to the left and this not only from the direct intluence of it; thus NH3 (ammonia) denotes an equiv- which they exert in leading to new discoveries, alent of a compound containing 1N (nitrogen) but also indirectly in tending to prevent abrupt and 3H (hydrogen); Fe, 0, denotes one equiv- changes and infinite confusion in the spoken alent of sesquioxide of iron, and 2Fe, 03 two nomenclature, which would otherwise inevitaequivalents of the same base.—In constructing bly occur. For example, so long as Davy had formulas, it is also convenient to preserve a the means of expressing his view of the condefinite arrangement of the letters and mem- stitution of sulphate of potash by writing the bers. In the spoken names of chemical sub- formula K, SO, he had but slight incentive stances, as oxide of iron, chloride of potassium, to introduce a new name for this substance. &c., we first express the term which denotes The nomenclature is thus kept within limits, the acid or electro-negative component; but in ill defined though they be, which render it far the written symbols the reverse of this is cus- more useful than if it were allowed to vacillate tomary, the symbol of the basic or positive ele- and expand indefinitely. Berzelius's original ment being placed first, i. e., at the left hand, idea was to employ his symbols and formulas as FeO, KCI, &c. So too with the names of merely as convenient substitutes for the names salts, the formula of sulphate of potash being of substances, and this at an epoch when the written KO, SO3, not SO2, KO. The reason name was thought to express even the molecuof this order is that the symbols express not lar constitution of a compound, or the actual English but Latin words, and the construction arrangement of its component atoms—a view of the Latin language requires that the genitive which has since been very materially modified. must precede the nominative that governs it. It is now felt to be in many cases not only unFormulas are called rational when their several necessary and impossible, but often undesiramembers are grouped so that they shall express ble, to force the symbolic and the spoken either what some have supposed to be the ac- nomenclatures into agreement with each other, tual arrangement of the components of the body however convenient such agreement may be which they represent, or in some conventional in other instances, or even as the general rule. manner by which the relation which exists be- In many cases, where it would be impossible tween the composition and properties of the in practice to express an idea of the rational body and its behavior toward other substances constitution of a substance by any combination may be called to mind; and empirical formulas of names, a single glance at its written formula are those in which only the elements present is sufficient to convey this idea; and in others and the number of equivalents of each are several different rational formulas may with noted, without any definite arrangement being equal propriety be assigned to one and the given to the list. Thus, Fe2O3, 3SO3 is one same substance, in which case the body may way of writing a rational formula of tersul- indeed also have several names, of which each phate of iron, while Fe. S: 0,2 is its empirical might be better adapted than any of the others formula. The system of collocation of symbols to express its composition in some one special and formulas thus far described, which is that instance; but as a rule, when a spoken name of the so called dualistic school of chemists, has once come into general use, it is not easy and the one of which the public at large has to substitute another for it, although the formost cognizance, is employed only upon a por- mula of the body may be changed as often as tion of chemical substances. Although ex- may be found convenient. In spite of all this, ceedingly convenient in certain cases, and suf- much confusion has no doubt arisen from the

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Od 1.}. So, too, the formula of



C. H. Ö; }O., and

: , which represent



multiplication of spoken names; but when thus Cuo, so, would be written Ous, and compared with what might have been but for fej, instead of Fe, O., 3SO.; K instead of the use of symbols and formulas this is hardly

Of these deserving of mention. Many chemists, claim. KS;. KMO instead of KS, MOS.. ing that in the existing state of science it is modifications the dashed symbols alone have impossible that formulas can be made to express been at all generally accepted. The dots and any thing more than the relations and analo- accents have been much employed by mineralogies which bodies bear to each other, and that gists, but were little esteemed by the generality consequently those formulas must be the best of chemists. Indeed, it is now customary to which are capable of exhibiting the largest different idea, viz., to characterize polyatomic

use the accent marks to express an entirely number of these relations and analogies, now make no effort to represent the actual arrange- radicals; that is, compounds which, in uniting ment of the atoms of chemical compounds, but with or reacting upon other bodies, play the seek only to designate the elements or groups part not of one but of two or more atoms of a which, in the double decompositions by which simple element, or, in the language of the

chemcompounds are formed or destroyed, replace or

ists who refer all formulas to types, those radare replaced by other elements or groups of jcals which replace more than one atom of elements. In order to do this

, it has been hydrogen in the type water. Thus the normal found convenient to throw all substances into chloride of ethylene, C, H, Cla, contains not 8 few great classes of analogues, the leading only one but two atoms of chlorine, and canmember or type of each of these divisions be- not therefore be referred directly to the simple ing some familiar and well characterized com- type HCI, but to the double of this, H, Cl,; and pound, and to derive the formula of each and to denote that the compound C,H, replaces erery member of a given class from the for- 2H, i. e., that it is a diatomic radical, it is cusmula of its own peculiar type or pattern. tomary to write it with a double accent, thus, H

, Thus water, I os, might be taken as a type c. ii., and the formula of the compound in


question to which all other compounds may be referred,

Cl, but the use of several types has been found tartaric acid is written more convenient. Gerhardt in his Traité re

H, н fers to 4 types, viz., water, H 0.; ammonia, that of glycerine


them as being derived from 2 and 3 atoms of NU; hydrogen, H }; and chlorhydric acid, water respectively by the substitution of the


diatomic radical C. H, O, for 2 atoms of hyH In many cases, however, a multiple of radical C.H. for 3 atoms of hydrogen in the

drogen in the one case, and of the triatomic CIS one or the other of these types is the true typ- other. In like manner, hydrated sesquioxide ical formula, as

H. 04 H., &c. Other of iron would be written


H, chemists, and perhaps these are still the major- Fe, 03, 3H0; Fe, being considered as a triaity, believing that the doctrine of duality con- tomic radical; so too quinoleine, N{C, , tains an element of truth which should not be in which the 3 atoms of H of the type ammodiscarded, seek to preserve this by adhering nia are replaced by the triatomic radical Cl, H.; to the prevailing method of writing formulas, strychnine, Na{C., H2, 0%, i. e., the double out his original idea of abbreviations at a time type N. {H;


in which the 6 atoms of H have when he was chiefly occupied with the study all been replaced by the hexatomic radical of compounds in mineral chemistry, and nota- 0,,H,O,.-Another abbreviation which has bly with those of oxygen and sulphur, Berzelius been proposed for the purpose of designating suggested that it might be convenient in special some organic compounds consists in employing cases to make use of certain modifications of the initial letter of the ordinary name of any the symbols already described, where the ob- of these, with one or more additional smaller ject is merely to indicate the composition of a letters when the first is not of itself charactercomplex body without discussing its reactions istic, with a dash above if the compound is an and decompositions; for instance, the number acid' or a + sign when it is an alkaloid ; thus of equivalents of oxygen in a compound was denoted by dots placed above the radical with Ō stands for oxalic acid, Ā for acetic acid, Qu which this element was supposed to be com- for quinine, Oy for cyanogen, &c. These are bined, and the equivalents of sulphur in like still sometimes used in special cases, although manner by commas or accents; and in cases they have but little to recommend and much where two atoms of the radical combine with to condemn them.–Very many methods of ar1, 3, or 5 atoms of oxygen or the like, this ranging formulas, beside those which have here double atom of the radical was characterized been alluded to, are employed by different by a dash drawn through the lower part of the chemists to express their own peculiar theoretletter which stands for the radical (as !=H.); ical notions of the composition of bodies, but a

VOL. XV.-17


Fe} O. instead of




discussion of these special instances would here tions in which instruments only are employed. be misplaced. Many of these are sufficiently The germ of the modern symphony may be complex and difficult of comprehension; but in found in the Concerti grossi of Corelli, and in its essential features the system of notation the works of Geminiani and Vivaldi, produced employed by chemists is still the universal lan- in the early part of the 18th century; but preguage which Berzelius provided in choosing his vious to the time of Haydn the composition in symbols from the Latin nomenclature.

its present form was unknown. The last named SYMMACHUS, QUINTUS AURELIUS, a Roman composer divided it into 4 or 5 parts, performed statesman and author, who flourished about successively, and developing distinct ideas, but the close of the 4th century. He was educated having a general relation. In the structure of in Gaul, and, after being quæstor and prætor, the symphony the parts are generally made to was appointed in A. D. 365 corrector of Lucania contrast with each other, a slow or andante and the Bruttii. In 373 he was proconsul of movement being succeeded by an allegro or Africa, in 384 prefect of the city, and in 391 quick one, and this by an andante again or an consul. He was a sincere pagan, and labored adagio, after which comes a minuet and trio, strenuously to maintain that declining faith. or a scherzo, the whole concluding with a rapHe was possessed of immense wealth, and his id finale. The chief

composers of this form of leisure hours were devoted to liberal studies. music are Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Spohr, His extant works are 10 books of epistles con- and Mendelssohn, the greatest being Beetaining 965 letters, and fragments of orations thoven. The 9th or Choral Symphony of which Angelo Mai discovered in one of the pa- this master differs from works of its class in limpsests of the Ambrosian library, and others introducing vocal music into the concluding from a Turin and Vatican MS. The first edition movement. of the epistles was published without date or SYMPLEGADES. See ARGONAUTS. name of place in the pontificate of Julius II. SYNAGOGUE (Gr. ovvaywyn, assembly, place One of the best is that of Scioppius (4to., Mentz, of assembly; Heb. beth hakkeneseth, house of 1608).

assembly), a building appropriated to worship SYMMACHUS THE SAMARITAN, a native and the performance of public religious rites in of Samaria, who flourished about A. D. 200. Jewish congregations. Corresponding to the He was at first of the Samaritan religion, then word church in Christian terminology, the term became a Jew, and then a Christian of the sect is also applied to the Jewish community in of the Ebionites. He made the 4th Greek general. The earliest synagogues, established translation of the Old Testament, which occu- in the times of Persian and Greek rule in pied the 4th column of Origen's Hexapla, but Judæa, were destined also for deliberative of which only a few fragments now exist, col- purposes. (For the "great synagogue" see lected by Montfaucon.

HEBREWS, vol. ix. p. 37.) In subsequent cenSYMMES, John Cleves, an American soldier turies they were also used as seats of popular and projector, born in New Jersey about 1780, as well as higher instruction. In modern Jewdied at Hamilton, Butler co., Ohio, May 28, ish communities this is imparted in a separate 1829. He entered the army as ensign in 1802, building, called beth hammidrash, house of and in the war of 1812 fought with great gal study. The synagogue is generally a high and lantry at Lundy's Lane and the sortie from Fort plain building, facing the 4 cardinal points, and Erie. Subsequently he settled at Newport, Ky., provided with seats and desks on the floor for and devoted himself to researches connected the male members of the congregation, and with a favorite theory invented by him, ac- with galleries for the females. The east wall, cording to which the earth is hollow, open at which all must face during the recital of cer. the poles, and capable of being inhabited with- tain prayers, encloses the “holy ark” (aron in. He wrote and lectured much on this sub- hakkodesh), in which Hebrew copies of the ject, and in 1822 and 1823 petitioned congress Pentateuch, written on vellum, are depositfor means to fit out an expedition to test the ed; and opposite it, near the centre, is the truth of his theories. He made a few converts, platform (bimah) on which the reading from but his suggestions were generally treated with the same is performed by the reciter or cantor open ridicule or silent contempt, the author (hazan), or by a special reader (ba'al kore). being considered little better than a lunatic. Sermons or lectures are delivered from a small. He died in considerable pecuniary embarrass- er platform adjoining the “holy ark,” by the ment, much respected for his integrity. rabbi or a special preacher or lecturer. Fre

SYMPATHETIC INK. See INK, vol. ix. p. quently, however, the offices of reciter, reader, 530.

and lecturer are united in the same person. SYMPHONY (Gr.ovv, with, and porn, voice), Among tho most celebrated synagogues in a term originally signifying merely a concor- various periods are mentioned those of Ales. dance of tones, but applied successively to cer- andria, Bagdad, Toledo, and Prague. tain vocal compositions, to compositions partly SYNCOPE, a fainting fit or swoon. Syncope vocal and partly instrumental, to short intro- may occur from a large, and particularly from a ductory or intermediate instrumental passages sudden loss of blood; from a sudden impression in compositions which are predominantly vocal, made on the nervous system, as fright, horror, and finally to elaborate and extended composi- &c.; from the effect of a variety of poisons

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